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September 30, 1956 - Image 3

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Michigan Daily, 1956-09-30

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THEICHIGAN DAILY

PAGE THREE

L3 h1*x£ W? w a ;r n'uIsa et I A3UPAG THRE

IN TURBULENT STAGE:
Prof. McLaughlin Propounds New Theory;
Seeks To Explain Strange Martian Patterns

Suez Only One of 7 Canals Not Open to All Ships!

i

By DALE McGHEE
For centuries scientists and
pseudo-scientists have envisioned
and theorized about the nature of
the small planet Mars.
Authors and pseudo - authors
have dotted its surface with little
green people, big feathered people,
and amorphous people.
To the mixture of fact and fic-
tion about Mars, Prof. Dean B.
McLaughlin, of the astronomy

department, has propounded his
own concepts concerning the
planet's surface after 17 years of
intermittent investigation.
A man who seems opposed to
gross statements, Prof. McLaugh-
lin rather reticently hints that
Mars may now be in a turbulent
stage of development, one through
which the earth passed three bil-
lion years ago.
More confidently, he asserts that

the planet is characterized by a
number of active volcanoes and
monsoon-type winds. These winds
he adds, follow a pattern similar
to our own trade winds.
"On Mars," Prof. McLaughlin
said, "there are no great oceans
which can inhibit violent changes
in the direction and force of these
winds."
He points out that there are
dark areas on the surface of the
planet which originate in a point
and spread out in the general pat-
tern of the winds. He proposes
that the points are the sites of
volcanic eruptions and that winds
have blown ash across the planet.
Funnel Shapes
McLaughlin admits that there
are few of his fellow scientists
who accept his theory at present
and that some "think very little
of it indeed." "However," he in-
sisted, "certain funnel-shaped dark
bays seem to require such an ex-
planation."
Earlier this month, Mars became
the special object of study by a
number of astronomers as it near-
ed its closest position to the earth,
a distance of 35 million miles.
According to Prof. McLaugh-
lin, however, neither he nor other
University scientists have made
any extensive observations of the
planet due to disinterest and the
limitations of the available instru-
ments.
"There is a general tendency
among astronomers to shy away
from Mars because of all the hulla-
baloo that has been raised by
pseudo-science," Prof. McLaugh-
lin asserted.
Martian Canals
He also feels that public fasci-
nation in Mars is traceable to the
excitement raised about the so-
called canals.
Earlier in this century certain
observers, notably Percival Lowell,
claimed. to see narrow, uniform
lines which were proposed to be
artifical channels designed to
carry water from the melting polar
caps to irrigate the Martian trop-
ics.

By THOMAS P. WHITNEY
Associated Press Foreign News Analyst
One of the chief issues in the
dispute caused by Egypt's nation-
alization of the Suez Canal is the
question of an adequate guarantee
that passage through the strategic
waterway will never be denied the
ships of any nation desiring to use
it.
This issue is not by any means
new, either to the Suez itself or to
the half-dozen other major bottle-
necks-both manmade and natural
-which lie astride the routes of
maritime commerce across the
oceans of the world. If closed off,
some could cripple trade as much
or more than the canal across the
sandy Egyptian desert.
However, the major fact re-
vealed by an examination of the
ownership and operation of these
important arteries is that-with
the exception of the Suez Canal
whose facilities have been denied
to Israel for some time past-all of
the world's major canals and
straits are open without discrim-
ination to the shipping of all na-
tions.
Here is a capsule summary of
the political orientation, physical
structure and commercial import-
ancenof the most vital avenues of
ocean transportation:
SUEZ CANAL
The Suez. Canal is 103 miles
long and connects the Mediter-
ranean with the Gulf of Suez and
hence with the Red Sea and the
Indian Ocean. It is 197 feet wide
at its narrowest point and will
take vessels of 34 feet draught.
In 1955 almost 116 million net
tons of shipping used the Suez
Canal, paying gross tolls of around
93 million dollars. The most im-
portant use of the canal was for
transporting oil from the rich
fields of the Persian Gulf areato
Western Europe and Britain.
Freedom of navigation of the
canal to vessels of all nations in
both war and peace is "guaranteed"
by the Suez Canal Convention of
1888, signed in Constantinople by
10 big powers of the time. This
convention has not always been
observed. It is now being violated
by Egypt which has refused for
some years past to permit Israeli
ships to pass through the canal

an elevation of 85 feet above sea
level by a system of locks.
It provides a short and cheap
route for shipping from Pacific
to Atlantic and has immense
strategic significance in war, per-
mitting the United States to trans-
fer warships readily between the'
Pacific and Atlantic.
The canal was opened in 1914.
It is run by the Panama Canal Co.,
owned and operated by the U.S.
government which built the canal.
The waterway is within the Pana-
ma Canal Zone, a district five
miles wide on each side of the
canal granted in perpetuity to the
United States which pays Panama
an annual rental of $1,930,000.
In 1955 nearly 8,000 ships passed
through the canal with cargoes of
nearly 41 million tons and paid
tolls of some 35 million dollars.
Freedom of use of the Panama
Canal to vessels of all nations was
guaranteed by the Hay-Paunce-
forte Treaty of 1901 concluded be-
tween the United States and Great
Britain.
TURKISH STRAITS
The Turkish Straits divide the
Sea. They consist of two narrows
-the Bosporus and the Dardanel-
les-and the Sea of Marmara be-
tween them. The Bosporus is 18
miles long and has a minimum
width of some 800 yards. The Dar-
danelles are 47 miles long with an
average width of from three to
four miles, narrowing down to less
than a mile at one point.
The straits control maritime ac-
cess to all of South Russia and the
Caucasus and for this reason Rus-
sia has always sought to control
them. Other powers which feared
Russia's emergence into the Med-
iterranean and Turkey, which has
been in possession of the straits
for more than five centuries, have
endeavored successfully to prevent
this.
At present, navigation in the
Turkish Straits is governed by
the Montreux Treaty of 1936,
which provides for free passage of
merchant ships of all nations dur-
ing both peace and war. Move-
ments of warships under the treaty
are conditioned upon whether pas-
sage is requested during a time of
war or peace and whether the
ship belongs to a Black Sea power,
After World War II the Soviet
Union unsuccessfully sought tc
get changes in this agreement
which would have given it "joint'
custody of the straits with Tur-
key.
Actual freight traffic through the
straits is not large and most of it
1is Turkish. About two million net
tons of cargo passed through the
straits in 1952.
KIEL CANAL
The Kiel Canal was built b3
Germany largely for strategic
reasons in 1895 but immediately
acquired great economic signifi-
cance because it shortened the
route for ships entering or leaving
the Baltic Sea. It is 61 miles long
and 37 feet deep. It has no locks
1 except one at either end to pro-
tect against violent tides.

Before World War I there was
discrimination by Germany against
other users of the canal. By terms
of the Treaty of Versailles Ger-
many undertook to abolish such
discrimination and make access
t othe canal open to all on a basis
ofequality. Since the end of World
War II this policy again has been
in effect. In 1954 nearly 57,000
vessels of nearly 26 million net
tons used the canal.
STRAIT OF GIBRALTER
The Strait of Gibralter is the
western entrance of the Mediter-
ranean. It is 36 miles long and its
wides ranges from 27 miles down
to eight miles. The straight is
freely navigated in peacetime
without any specific agreement by
the ships of all nations.
There are four different political
entities with territory along the
strait - Spain, Morocco, Britain
and Tangier. The British, with
their sea power and the Gibralter
fortress, control movement through
the strait in wartime.
STRAIT OF BAB EL MANDEB
The Strait of Bob el Mandeb is
the gate to the Red Sea. It is 17
miles wide and separates Africa

from the Arabian Peninsula. In the
middle of the strait is Perim Is-
land which is held by Britain.
Britain also controls the east side
of the strait from the colony of
Aden. The west side of the strait
is held by the French in French
Somaliland.
Navigation through Bab el Man-
deb is free and unhindred without
specific international agreement.
However, the holder of these
straits could, if he desired, block
movement into and out of the
southeren end of the Red Sea.
ST. LAWRENCE SEAWAY
The United States and Canada
now are at work on projects which
will permit large ocean-going ships
to navigate the St. Lawrence to
the Great Lakes.
Present shallow canals and locks
permit the movement of 10 million'
tons of cargo on this route each
year, a small portion of it trans-
atlantic. The total is expected to
leap to 36,500,000 by 1959 when
deep-draft vessels will be able to
reach Lake Erie.
In times of peace, ships fo all
nations are permitted use of the
seaway.

Researchers Do Experiments
With Temperature Variations

Alumni See
New Trends
In Medicine
The Sixth Triennial Medical
Alumni Conference officially drew
to a close yesterday with the last
event scheduled at 1:30 p.m.-the
Michigan-UCLA game.
During the four days of the
Conference, alumnidwere re-
acquainted with their Medical
School, particularly with recent re-
search and new facilities of the
Medical Center.
Each of the departments held a
series of clinical conferences deal-.
ing in detail with new trends in
medicine and medical research in
their field *
Vaccine Problem
The department of Obstetrics
and Gynecology initiated the ex-
change of medical information
Wednesday morning. Thursday saw
a joint session of the Conference,
with subjects on "The PolioVac-
cine Problem Brought Uu to Date,"
a talk delivered by Dr. Thomas
Francis Jr., and a discussion of
"The Management of Facial Nerve
Injuries," by Dr. James H. Max-
well, Professor of Otolaryngology.
The program returned to de-
partmental clinical conferences
Friday, with 10 departments spon-
soring the meetings.
The new Department of Human
Genetics was described in the last
minutes of the Internal Medicine
clinical conference.
Although a genetics clinic has
been operating for 15 years, the
Department wasn't created until
last July.
The Genetics Department can
answer questions ranging from the
possibility of. transmitting diseases
or defects from parents to child-
ren to the choice between placing
a child up for adoption in a Cau-
casian or Negro home, or genetic
risks involved after radiation.
Health Service Plague
In the same conference, Dr.
Charles J. Tupper described the
development and present range of
operation of the University Health
Service for the alumni.
Recalling that "many of you
avoided the place like the plague,"
he included as one of four goals
of the Health Service the, need
for an improvement of student-
Health Service relations.
Dr. Tupper described several
fields of research presently being
conducted by the Service, among
them a study of infectious mon-
onucleosis, a disease whose major
symptom is extreme fatigue.
Another project undertaken by:
the Health Service is that of giving
"GM-type physicals" to faculty
members. These are presently be.
ing given to those 60 year-old or
over, but' this age will soon be ex-
tended downward.

MYSTERIOUS MARS-New theory suggests volcano dust and
monsoon winds as souree of patterns on planet's surface.
SDuplicate Tournaments Reveal
Versatility of Bridge Players

"r

By IEDGAR SIMONS
Daily Bridge Columnist
NORTH
4 A852
V 32
* Q105
4 AQJ7

EAST'
4 963
# 986432,
4 1086

WEST
A. Q104
V QJ1o
fAJ7
4. K943

SOUTH
4 KJ7
M AK98654
K 82
. 82

THE BIDDING
South Dealer
S W N
1HI P 2NT
3H P 3S
4H P P

E
p
P
P

Perhaps the most marked differ-
ence between duplicate and rubber
bridge is the concern to capture
seemingly, unimportant overtricks.
The reason for this is that one's
score is not based on total points,
but on how one scores on each
hand relative to the ten or twelve
others playing the same hand.
Today's hand is an example of
play concerned with winning over-
tricks. Making the contract pre-
sents no difficulty, and in a rubber
bridge game the hand would be
played out in a flash.
West knew he held most of his
side's strength, and chose the
queen of trump lead for safety.
Declarer won this and observed
that eventually either a club or
spade finesse would have to be
taken. The club was tried, dummy's
queen winning.
A second heart was led to south's
king, disclosing the natural trump
loser. The club finesse was re-
peated, and the ace of clubs was
played, declarer discarding the
king of diamonds from his hand.
Dummy's last club was led and
trumped by south. At long last
declarer led the third round as
trump, putting west on lead.
At this point west had only
spades and diamonds to lead and
could not fail to give away a trick.
He chose the diamond ace, but it
was too late.
This established the queen in
dummy, and declarer had secured
two valuable overtricks for his cold
game.

tants were having a hard struggleE
to conserve their scanty moisture.c
"The public has been sold a bill
of goods that the canals are the7
most important problem concern-.
ing Mars," McLaughlin said. 1
"The lines are not necessarily at
hallucination; they could be ex-t
plained by my theory of volcanic
ash. But the entire universe hasc
to obey the same laws of chemistryt
and physics that exist on earth.
Under the present known con-
ditions on Mars, intelligent life1
as we know it is pretty much im-
possible. And life as we know it isk
the only life that can exist."
Regents Accept
3Senator's Papers
The papers of the late Sen.
Blair Moody, (R-Mich), were ac-
cepted as a gift by the University
fRegents Friday.
Mrs. Ruth Moody, wife of the
former United States Senator from
Michigan and Detroit newspaper-
man, donated the papers to the
Michigan Historical Collections.
In other actions the Regents ac-
cepted 54 volumes of the Michigan
i Law Review from Ernest Ringo, '04,
i and microfilm from Regent Eugene
Power of Ann Arbor.

Temperatures ranging between
those found in the Artic and des-
ert regions of the world are being
approximated on the University's
North Campus in research aimed
at helping the United States Air
Force refuel its jet bombers as
fast as possible.
Focal point of the study is a
trailer, built for the Air Force by
the Pryor Manufacturing Com-
pany of Mansfield, Ohio, which is
designed to regulate the high rate
of flow of jet fuel from an airbase
pipeline into the empty tanks of
a bomber.
To discover how the trailer will'
perform under extreme tempera-
tures, a group of mechanical en-
gineers under the direction of
Prof. Glenn V. Edmonson have
erected a series of small, specially
insulated buildings around the
unit.
Use Dry Ice
Using a large supply of dry
ice, they have lowered the temper-
ature t 098 degrees below zero, al-
the lowest temperature required
for the tests was 65 degrees below
Electric heating elements have
raised the temperature to 160 de-
grees above zero, and a battery
of special lamps are used to simu-
late the radiation of the desert
sun.
The researchers are interested
in the performance of precision
parts on the trailer over a wide
range of temperature differences

between the flowing fuel and the
trailer's environment, Prof. Ed-
monson explains.
He points out that the trailer
is needed to control the flow of
fuel to the airplane and to pre-
vent component parts of the
plane's system from being sub-
jected to destructive pressures.
These pressures are similar to the
"water hammer" caused by the
sudden closing of a household
faucet, he adds.
Other Project Facilities
Other facilities for the sprawl-
ing project include a 1000-foot
pipeline, a 000-gallon storage tank
for jet fuel, an electric power line
and panel and a house trailer.
The house tralier contains about
$30,000 worth of research instru-
ments, Prof. Edmonson says.
Faculty members and eight un-
dergraduate students from the
University College of Engineering
are conducting the research, which
is administered by the Engineer-
ing Research Institute for the Pry-
or Manufacturing Company.
In addition to the required re-
search, the engineers "on their
own" have investigated the hydro-
dynamic properties of the fast=
flowing fuel, Prof. Edmonson says.
They have studied sonic veloci-
ties in the fuel, transient wave
forms, and the damping charac-
teristics of hydrant systems - all
topics which will be reported in
the scientific literature.

Mars was pictured as a dessicat- despite a United Nations Security
ing and dying planet whose inhabi- Council decision demanding that

Egypt should drop this restriction
on canal freedom.
The canal was completed in
1869 and has been operated by
the Universal Suez Canal. The
Egyptian government, of President
Gamal Abdel Nasser nationalized
the company on July 26, 1956, as
an Egyptian reply for the refusal
of the United States and Britain
to finance the Aswan High Dam.
PANAMA CANAL
The Panama Canal is 51 miles
long and connects the Pacific
Ocean with the Caribbean and
hence the Atlantic. Its minimum
width is 110 feet and its depth is
not less than 41 feet. Unlike the
Suez Canal, which is a sea level
canal, the Panama Canal reaches

I.

As does the exam measure the
proficiency of the student with
material learned in the classroom,
so does the: duplicate tournament
measure the quality of the bridge
4 the player has learned in the vari-
ous dorm and fraternity card
rooms.
Only when he presents himself
for competition against those of
greater experience and different
background can the player feel he
Is measuring his ability.
Locally, there are two duplicate
games open to all; held Thursday
evenings at the League, Friday
evening at the Union.

< lt=>L ((> ":>fJ>t- =>C=> <-> <=>G <->
f1 Large assortment of Pringle Shetlandy
o Skirt and Sweater Paks imported direct
from Scotland. $19.75 per pak.
6YARNCRAFT SHOJP
10 Nickels Arcade Phone NO 2-0303
5G O4=0 O 4=>O G300=> t)G'04=O QO ) }

v..;.; ::.... . ix". r"sc. ,.." .. .r ": tiw-ovo.:' i^ <y "" r. .' ::a"' "{ ' <{ "+
~ov. {..r. f r ' F r^Py._.c" a .fAri, '" "" is .,;. ,{s ar,{.y f ^.o .rr ff. " r " . .{ . .. sec r
'": ^. fSiee::" 58 ,"3fnT^araL s b {?. yt4.r."u.'" .ti t+.. ,:..s' .r . a.;d' . ;"fdLr.'Lt :'Ax.3.r.'SikR.c .. s'.r ". S. ACew{$}'.f v.,a. ra Y. iti::::3t.£i: .arsaai'r'farr7'S..dS..laL:i?

0 era, please,
SOFT .ones!
.. ~;'.~2s52 >rk:;3 ' ' 11 ::: +'".':i<t-2,
y;'4

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Majoring in Menswear Flannel and Cotton Plaid
separates have a full program...
}I... ' <TABLE OF CONTENTS for a busy fall semes-
ter to mate and mix with smart fashion phil-
osophy. Start with the slim wool flannel jacket,
with a show-off of plaid inside. Add one flan-
nel skirt, seat-lined, slim as a professor's ruler,
with a pretty pretense of a pocket and a turn-
about tab. Ditto for the reversible belts. Re-
:<::quired course: cotton tartan shirt with a Cam-
bridge collar. For co-ed occasions, a whirling
cotton tartan plaid skirt, quilted with Spen-
cerian scrolls. Include tapered Bermuda shorts,
tapered slacks, and you're ready for a full
S .curriculum of fun and fashion. The flannel in
Brown or Grey-the plaid cotton, Brown/Grey
or Red/Grey. 8 to 18.
(NOT ILLUSTRATED,
.;rMkr~...QUILTED SKIRT -
BERMUDAS and SLACKS)

..x"Yt:4dhA .".::

4
'C.
I.s,
S..
5

"My wife ran off
with the
chauffeur."
You can
find a new
chauffeur with a
Daily Want Ad.

U

&*hotas smart as they took#
wit1, glove-soft toe, easy corkc cuAlioning. Both hoot~s is
Stack, Hovy, grown suede;StBacBrown calf. Wgh ties!
..tt^ D&A A-nff_ As aa. in, SAame~uallI

14 ii

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