- EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICH 9N
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Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily are written by members of The Daily staff
*nd represent the views of the writers only. This must be noted in all reprints.
THURSDAY, JANUARY 19, 1956 NIGHT EDITOR: LEW HAMBURGER
Dulles' Article Shows Folly,
But Whose wo Views-
In Game of Chance, Partisans Should Stick
U.S. Bound to Lose To 'Real' Issues
CONSIDERATION of Secretary of State rTHE POLITICAL fire now burning under
Dulles' contention that this country went to Secretary of State John Foster Dulles is a
"the brink of war" three times in 18 months disgrace to the Democratic leaders who started
to Insure peace, shows only an unusual display and are fanning it and to the Republicans who
of diplomacy in the administration. have tried to douse it.
The Secretary may enjoy running the It is politicking at its worst. The prestige
of the country is suffering at the hands of a
foreign affairs of the country on such a basis, few men from both parties who seek headline
but when millions of lives are involved it publicity by exploiting the Secretary's com-
would seem other approaches would be more ments.
expedient. Truly, it is an art, as Mr. Dulles The controversy rages over Dulles' Claim
says, to be able to go to the verge of war that the country, with President Eisenhower's
mithout becoming involved, but should the approval, marched to the "brink of war" three
nfecessary touch be lacking one time to perform times and averted it by "strong action." Dulles
this "art," the consequences would be rather termed the policy "a calculated risk of peace "
unpleasant. Democratic leaders, notably Adlai Steven-
This is not to sanction appeasement of son and Sam Rayburn, hotly took issue with
s in the world opposed to democracy but the statement, Stevenson referring to it as
to question, in consideration of modern atomic "suicidal folly."
:w ea ion, he valuo suchr rionk"oes.tLegitimate criticism of administration poli-
'Wreapon5, the value of such "brink" policies. cies is not only the right but the duty of the
Undoubtedly, Mr. Dulles does not propose opposition party. An alert opposition party
this as a permanent policy of this country. offering constructive criticism is an asset to
However, a situation is now forming in the any administration. But such criticism should
Par East to which such diplomacy could easily be based on more than a few off-hand remarks
be fitted. Communist China is completing her quoted in a magazine article.
et air bases on the coast of the mainland The present furor is reminiscent of that
within easy reach of Formosa. When the caused by Secretary Wilson's now-famous "ken-
monsoons end this spring some military action nel-dog" remarks of last year. It is just as
against the Nationalist-held islands of Quemoy inane and senseless.
and Matsu or even Formosa seems quite pos- In the absence of a full and reasoned
sible. explanation of what the policies are and what
The United States could again be pushed to rationale underlies them, the intense derision
'the brink of war" by the Communist Chinese is meaningless and dangerous. Perhaps Dulles'
this point, It would be necessary to defend policies are "suicidal" - if so they deserve
ormsaishewere ataed yet tprecp criticism. But the statements he made hardly
waoeroiffshowreatackedettprecipe form a sufficient base on which to understand
a war over off-shore islands would not be very the policies or attack them. The attack smacks
practical. much more of politicking than of sincere alarm
Instead of carrying the world to the verge at administration policies.
bf war in the future it would be wiser for thea
State Departmient to review and possibly revise AMERICAN POLITICAL leaders are fond of
some of its stagnant foreign policy. For in- relying on one-phrase explanatio of for-
stance the return of Quemoy and Matsu, geo- eign policy. The phrases are frequen ly mis-
graphically a part of the mainland, to Red leading and dangerous. It is unlikely Dulles
China would reduce chance of war in that area meant his "brink of war" statement to have
by widening the gap between free and totali- the connotations read into it by his attackers.
tarin forces. It would also help to realize that Foreign policy is a complex of intricate maneu-
military pacts look rather silly and unconvinc- vers-certainly it is nothing to be passed off in
ing in the face of Soviet economic aid. a few sentences.
Mr. Dulles' statement is hard to explain to Democratic party leaders should have real-
peoples of foreign countries who have been ized this and devoted their efforts to a valid
led to believe that Americans are champions and worthwhile critique of what policies the
of freedom and peace. The Secretary'spwords administration actually has pursued instead
were ready-made for the Soviet propaganda of snatching at catchy phrases to provide per-
mill, sonal publicity.
Whatever Dulles has or has not done, it is
We hope that the diplomacy of this country certainly obvious he has not marched the
will change so as to make unnecessary "going country to the "brink of war" and then saved
to the brink" in the future. Chances are that if us just to boost his ego and practice diplomatic
Mr. Dulles continues to shoot dice with Ameri- "art." For the Democratic leaders to imply he
can and international security, eventually he's has is a disappointment to Democratic parti-
bound to lose.
-DAVE TARR -LEE MARKS
"1w=Comld You Do This ToAomleiiu&an Like Me.
: M1 : r J
... - . -
~~1Qrtp w~ at ~1'~apS i~o$~-' ~.
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR:
Another View on Evaluations
AT CINEMA GUILD:
DURING the First World War,
a farmer from the mountains
of Tennessee is drafted into the
army despite his sincere religious
convictions against killing. How
he became a national war-hero-and
still returned to his former life
with the same beliefs intact and
secure, is the story of "Sergeant
Alvin York is a farmer toiling
at th-e same rocky and unfertile
land which his grandfather and
father had plowed before him. He
has had no religion in his life and
has a reputation for wildness,
drinking, and shooting up church
So that his girl will marry him,
he decides to buy some bottom-
land which will farm better than
his own. With unceasing day-and-
night farm labor, and with money,
won at a turkey-shoot, he man-
ages to save up enough cash to
buy the land. York is told, after
all his efforts, which were based
on the word of the owner that he
would not sell till after the shoot,
that the land has already been
*s * *
ON A STORMY NIGHT after a
drinking session, York sets out
to kill the buyer. On his way to
do murder, he and his mule are
knocked unconscious by a light-
ning bolt; his rifle Is split open.
With this demonstration of
God's will, York turns to religion
wholeheartedly. His pastor teaches
him the Bible; he comes to believe
in it completely: "There ain't
nothin' in this Book that ain't
true," he says.
War Is declared and inevitably
York is drafted. He can't com-
bine the two thoughts in his mind
-God and ,killing. His pastor
can only tell him that he must
go or the government men will
come and get him,
He goes to camp. Then, in one
day's action in France, he single-
handedly kills 25 Germans and
captures 132 more. When asked
how his convictions allowed him
to do this, he says that he did it
to knock out a series of machine-
guns. He refuses to comment on
the men he killed. He did it, he
insists, to knock out the guns
which were killing hundreds: he
did it to save lives.
« * *
WHETHER OR NOT the moral
and religious paradox of God and
country are answered to the in-
dividual viewer's own satisfaction,
the sincerity and general excel-
lence of "Sergeant York" leave
no doubt that it was solved clearly
in York's own mind. And also
leaves no doubt that it was not
solved by rationalization of a situa-
More than the first half of the
film depicts the frugal life of the
Tennessee mountain people of the
early 1900's. They live the life
of their forbearers; it is a life of
unceasing labor, intense religion,
profound humor, and lasting iso-
This life is shown with great
respect and dignity, with all the
beauty, monotony, and violence
.which marks the life of all people
in a world apart. The great
strength of these mountain people
is in their very simpleness, the
simpleness so often misunderstood
and crucified by those with more
sophisticated mannerisms and ac-
cents. It is that simpleness, as
crystalized in York, that gives the
film its breathing reality.
* * *
DIRECTED BY Howard Hawks,
the actors are uniformly good:
Gary Cooper as York, Walter"
Brennan as the pastor, Joan Leslie
as the girl, and Margaret Wych-
erly as the Mother.
THE Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of the University
of Michigan for which the Michigan
Daily assumes no editorial responsi-
bility. Notices should be sent in
TYPEWRIITEN form to Roomn3553
Administration Building before 2 p.m.
the day preceding publication. Notices
for the Sunday edition must be in
by 2 p.m. Friday.
THURSDAY, JANUARY 19, 195
VOL. LXVII, NO. 80
Annual Meeting of the University of
Michigan Employees' Credit Union will
be held Tues., Jan. 24, 8:00 pm., in
Aud. B, Angell Hall. Non-members a
well as members are invited.
Examination Period: Please note that
final examinations at the end of the
first semester of the University year
1955-56 beginon Mon., Jan. 23, and end
on Thurs., Feb. 2. The final day of
regularly scheduled classes is Sat.,
Jan. 21. There will, for this semester,
be no, "dead period" between the end
of classes and the examination period.
To all students having Library books:
1. Students having in their possession
books borrowed from the General Li-
brary or its branches are notified that
such books are due Wed., Jan. 25.
2. Students having special need for
certain books between Jan. 25 and Feb.
3 may retain such books for that period
by renewing them at the Charging
3. The names of all students who have
not cleared their records at the Library
by Fri~, Feb. 3, will be sent to the
Cashier's Office and their credits will
be withheld until such time as said
records are cleared in compliance with
the regulations bf the Regents.
Art Print Loan Collection: All prints
must be returned to 510 Administration
Building (basement) by Fri., Jan. 20.
Hours: 8-12 and 1-5.
There will be a fine of 25c per day
after Friday and credit will be with-
held until picture is returned,
Disciplinary action in cases of student
misconduct: At meetings held on Nov.
22, 1955, Dec. 13, 1955, Jan, 5, 1956 and
Jan. 10, 1956, cases involving eight
students and one fraternity were heard
by the Joint Judiciary Council. In all
cases the action was approved by the
University Sub-Committee on Discipline.
violation of state laws and city
ordinances relating to the purchase, sale
and use of intoxicants:
a. conduct unbecoming a student in
that intoxicants had been consumed in
violation of state law. Four students
fined $5.00 each.
b. intoxicants served in a fraternity
house-second offense-house fined $450
with $150 suspended until June 1959.
Violation of University automobile
a. conduct unbecoming a student in
that he consistently violated the Uni-
versity driving regulations. One student
fined $50 and warned that further viola-
tion would mean immediate suspension.
b, conduct unbecoming a student in
that he violated University driving
regulations. One student fined $20.00
which was suspended.
Conduct unbecoming a student
a. gained illegal entry into the home
of a citizen of Ann Arbor. One student
b. attempted to gain entry Into an
apartment. One student fined $15.00.
Mary L. Hinsdale Scholarship amount-
ing to $112.07 (interest on the endow.
ment fund) is available to undergradu-
ate women who are wholly or partially'
self-supporting and who do not live
in University residence halls or sorority
houses. Girls with better than average
scholarship and need will be considered.
Application blanks, obtainable at the
Alumnae Council Office, Michigan
League, should be filed by Jan. 31.
Don't Need Evaluations
To the Editor:
W HAT would have been my "re-
action" to this procedure when
I was a student in Harvard Col-
lege forty years ago? Well, at first
a mild shock and disbelief that
the proposal could be meant ser-
iously. My classmates and I as-
sumed that the faculty was made
up of highly selectedprofessional
men who knew their business both
as teachers and scholars. It was
their concern to determine and to
develop the "objectives" (we called
them "purposes") of their courses
and so far as our immature judg-
ment went, the great majority of
them did so satisfactorily. In
other words we still had faith (ob-
solete word!) in those whom we
considered our intellectual super-
In the second place, we should
have been greatly puzzled by some
of the questions which we were
supposed to answer. "To what ex-
tent did you learn to think criti-
cally in the subject-matter area?"
"Think critically" in Mathemat-
ics? Why, to us that was all that
Mathematics was, a specialized
form of critical thinking.
"Think critically" in Greek, Lat-
in and Modern Languages? Of
course! But here again "criti-
cally" meant "logically" and not
"skeptically" or "rebelliouslly."
You see, most of us in that gen-
eration had brought with us to
college the idea that critical think-
ing, in the current sense of the
word, presupposed an adequate
body of factual knowledge on
which to base our criticism. In
short, we had on the whole a half-
conscious and totally unadmitted
These two old-fashioned quali-
ties, faith and intellectual humili-
ty, were probably a relic of stuffy
Victorianism and certainly are not
popular today. Yet strangely
enough, I still seem to find in them
an excellent foundation for the
disciplined skepticism which is ma-
--Warren E. Blake,
Department of Classical Studies
To the Editor:
IT HAS been a few months since
the calendar for 1956 and 1957
has been released but I am stirred
up about the total approach or
lack of approach in gaining stu-
dent opinion. It was my under-.
standing that the classes of sev-
eral years ago were consulted in
a survey concerning this revision
of the school calendar but how
about our present student popula-
tion? Now, what has happened
is completely out of our hands and
into the printed matter classed as
The major change for student
benefit, it seems, is the addition
to the school year of a dead day
before exam period. Numerous
disadvantages, in my estimation,
follow on its heels. Our vacation
period is noticably reduced to bring
us back to school as late as Janu-
ary 7 of next year with the exam
period almost immediately follow-
ing-unfortunately, the semester
ends on a Saturday, February 9,
giving us barely breathing time
before classes resume on the next
Monday, February 11. -
The justifications on the part of
the administration for such an ad-
justment seem to run as follows:
professors need a longer time to
instill their students with the ba-
sics of the course than is provided
in the previous calendar; the total
number of days in the year was 2
days under the minimum for an
average school year and with the
new revision it is at the maximum
in school days.
I am told that a. committee was
formed to investigate the change,
a total 3 years was devoted to the
process to obtain a satisfactory and
"acceptable" plan, but how repre-
sentative of the views of students
is this calendar? Many of the
opinions of the student committee
members I am told were vetoed or
"subdued" by the Faculty Adminis-
tration Committee. Perhaps it is
partly student apathy even on this
committee but the facts stand. This
is a sad disappointement to my
high goals set for each person on
this campus to say what they feel,
and they may do so alone, in an
attempt to gain merely self-preser-
vation in such a vitally personal
issue to each of us,
-Catherine Campbell, '57
Advice to Voters,...
To the Editor:
SOMEPROSPECTIVE voters im-
agine that President Eisen-
hower has worked harder for peace
than any other man.
The President certainly did. As
President-elect in November 1952,
he went to Korea, returned, and
took his time. In Korea, the
slaughter was allowed to continue
-until July 27, 1953. That was a
nine-month period. Many women
became pregnant ,and gave birth
in that period. So did the ex-gen-.
eral and his delays-to more than
16,000 reported GI battle casual-
Pres. Truman also had dilly-
dallied--from the beginning of
cease-fire negotiations in June
1951 until he left office.
That may have been hard work
for peace-in some . calculating
political parties. Many mothers
will remember, "Get the facts".
That should be a permanent prac-
tice-for every voter.
-Mrs. W. M. Penn
THERE is not at yet avail
explanation of"why Mr.
liberately to have the Life
written about him. For th
thing about this article is t
tends to reveal the inner tru
policy in .the Far East, it p
mentally false account.
The falsity lies in this:
describes what has happene
China and the -Formosa St
unilateral deterrents by th
What has really happened i
and all concerned have be
condition of mut al deterre
Thus, while it is no doul
Communistshave been det
our retaliation, it is alsoI
that Dr. Syngman Rhee, Gen
shek, Admiral Radford andt
to intervene in Indo-China
terred by our fear of Soviet
existence of the military st
as Mr. Dulles's one-sideda
explain, the political situatio
area on the approaches to C
Y AND TOM
By WALTER LIPPMANN
able any plausible Life magazine has painted a picture of a bold
Dulles chose de- and threatening man who has over-awed the
magazine article adversary.
he extraordinarilyIN KOREA, we have guaranteed South Korea
that while it pre- against agression from North Korea and
iths of our recent from China. In return j we have taken the
provides a funda- h
necessary military means to prevent Dr. Rhee
That Mr Dulles from drawing us into an attempt to liberate
d in Korea, Indo- North Korea.
trait nIn Indo-China we were deterred from inter-
vening with an air strike to save Dien Bien
e United States. Phu by the fear that China would then inter-
s that both sides vene openly by invading Northern Vietnam.
en held within a Such an invasion would have required an air
nt bombardment of China to repel it. ,That was
b ud tfeartof a course from which we were deterred by the
errbedy fearo fear that this wvould cause the Soviet Union
undoubtedly true to intervene.
ieral Chiang. Kai- In the Formosa Strait we gave Chiang a
those who wanted treaty of guarantee which was, as Mr. Dulles
a have. been de- says, a warning not to attack Formosa. But
retaliation. The Mr. Dulles has, in his role of melodramatic
talemate explains, hero, omitted the other half of the' story. The
account does not other half is that we then releashed Chiang
n in the contested firmly, and sent word to Peiping through vari-
ihina. ous diplomatic channels that we would not
N of mutual de- ermit,much less wouldwe assist, Chiang to
N o muualde-attempt to return to the mainland. In the
late, was first dis- Formosa affair Chiang got a guarantee of his
e learned the re- island refuge and Chou En-lai got the assur-
test. Shortly af- ance that Chiang was no longer to be regarded
as drawn by the as a serious contender on the mainland.
aration that there
e." IN SUM, the Eisenhower policy in the Far
tive to peace, then East has operated-as it had to-within the
f war in the sense over-all condition of a military stalemate. This
var. If war is not has led to a series of compromises-probably
who threatens war temporary-based on the military status quo.
If war is not an The article has done damage to the country
ve to be compro- and to Mr. Dulles's own usefulness as Secre-
article implies - tary of State. He has provided the Soviet
w better-we were propaganda with a text which is sheer bonan-
the Far East. we a The ne rnting thing about it is that
FROM THE OTHER SIDE:
Convicts Face 'Bumpy' Rehabilitation
Lecture, auspices of Sigma Xi. "Use
and Abuse of Earth Waves." Dr. L. Don
Leet, professor of geology and seis-
mologist in charge of the Seismograph
Station, Harvard University. 8:00 p.m.,
Thurs., Jan. 19, Rackham.
Symphony Orchestra Concert, 8:30 p.m.
tonight, Hill Auditoriun. Student solo-
ists: Eileen Schumacher, soprano, Alice
Dutcher, mezzo-soprano, Alonzo Sherer.
violin, George Papich, viola, Robert Rey-
nolds, French horn, Malcolm Brown.
piano, Jon Petersen, piano; student
conductors: Enerson Head, Robert
Mause, Benjami Patterson. Works by
Prokofieff, Glu k, Mozart, Franck,
Rachmaninoff, Hindemith, Massenet,
Wagner; open to the public without
Concerts. Dame Myra Hess will give
the fourth concert in the Extra Concert
Series, Wed., Feb.' 15, at 8:3 p.m, in
The Budapest String Quartet will
be heard in the three concerts of the
16th annual Chamber Music :Festival
in Rackham Auditorium, Feb. 17, 18,
and 19. A limited number of tickets
are available at the offices of the
University MusicaltSociety in Burton,
Freshmen and Sophomores, Collegeof
Literature, Science, and the Arts. Ap-
proval of elections for Spring Semester:
Secure Counselor's approval during the
half daypreceding your scheduled regis-
tration time. I.e., if you are scheduled
for morning registration, see your Coun-
selor the previous afternoon between
1:30 and 3:30 p.m. in Aud. D. If you
are scheduled for afternoon registration,
see your Counselor during that morning
in Aud. D any time between 9:00 and
Students who have secured permission
to register earlier than their scheduled
time, report for-counseling the half day
preceding special registration time.
Graduate Record Examination: Can-
didates taking the Graduate Record Ex-
amination on Jan. 21 are requested to
report to 100 Hutchins Hall at 8:45 a.m.
History 49 Final Examination:
Mr. Laurie's sections (2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 10,
13. 15) ao toNa?1,tural Science Audi-.
r HE ACTKUAL CONIIOV
terrent, or military stalem
cerned by Churchill when h
sults of the hydrogen bomb
ter that the conclusion w
President in his famous decla
is "no alternative to peace
Now if there is no alternal
no one can go to the brink o
that he threatens to go to v
an alternative, then anyonev
is either iad or is bluffing.
alternative, then issues hav
mised. If, as Mr. Dulles's;
though he himself must kno
the unilateral, deterrers inf
(EDITOR'S NOTE: The bumpy road; to rehabilitation is dis-
cussed in this fifth in a series of six articles on the prison problem.
Present Jackson inmate Earl Gibson is the author.)
By EARL GIBSON
THE "ROAD" MOST TALKED ABOUT by those interested in the
social problem involving crime and its correction is the "road to
It has more hidden bumps, blind curves and steep grades than
Route 66 in all its 3000 miles. I know this because I've run into a few
detours on that mythical road myself, and had to come back to the
"garage" for repairs.
Most people think the road to rehabilitation has its- origin after
a man leaves prison. On the contrary, the road starts the minute an
offender is apprehended by a law officer. The events and the people
the offender meets from that minute on determine the degree of suc-
cess he will have on that road. If he meets sadistic and inefficient
police officers he has met his first obstacle.d
Every official-police officer, prosecutor, judge, penal official and
custodial guard-encountered by the offender, has an effect on him.
For it is these people that represent free society to the inmate. If he
is to form hostile and aggressive attitudes towards society, much of
the stimulus will come from these people.
If he meets understanding and firm but fair discipline through
Few offenders are mentally mature. Their 'philosophy of living
is not only socially unacceptable but also personally unrewarding and
unsatisfying. They have reached adulthood chronologically but not
The home and community have had the offender for approximately
20 years. During that time they have passively witnessed, or contributed
to, the development of the offender. At the end of this development
period they say to prison administration, "Correct this offender's atti-
tude; discover and remove his inadequacies; rehabilitate the man."
Where the penal administration views its task as purely custodial,
it says to society, "We have confined the man, now you rehabilitate
In either case the shortsightedness presents a serious obstacle to
rehabilitation. I think that all agencies and persons should correlate
their efforts and cooperate in preventive and corrective efforts.
THE TRAUMA OF ARREST, conviction and incarceration is in
itself an obstacle to rehabilitation. The separation from the primary
and other free society groups has a detrimental and negative effect.
As discussed in a preceding article, the penal group plays a forceful
role in the moulding of the individual. It will accept where the, free
society group is inclined to forget or reject.
The inmate who completely identifies himself with the penal group