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October 16, 1955 - Image 12

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Publication:
Michigan Daily, 1955-10-16
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Page Fourteen

THE MICHIGAN

DAILY

Sunday.October 16,.1955

Sunday. October 16. 1955

THE MICHIGAN DAILY

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Individuality
Is Their
Beauty
[T ALL DEPENDS where you
place the emphasis-on what
you wear or on who you are.
The most interesting and at-
tractive girls on campus dress with
a flair that enhances their person-
alities. Their clothes are appeal-
ing, but what they wear never
dominates the girl.
Fashion magazines have their
place, but the really well-dressed
girl never swears by them. Fash-
ion magazines are never able to
say what looks right on you, as an
individual - and that distinction
means the difference between a
nice appearance and a striking ap-
pearance.
THE GIRLS we have assembled
on this and the following
page are all distinct personalities,
and they never let their attire ob-
scure the fact. They wear clothes
that are suitable to them, as a
consequence making the most of
their individuality.
If isn't easy to say just what will
enhance a girl and bring her into
focus. Often it is more than trial
and error, but a deeper matter of
knowing yourself. To dress to your
personality, you have to find your.
personality.
But theygirls bordering these
pages have it-and the result is
six well-turned out coeds.

arit .

Charity

& Clarit

--Daily-John Hirtzel
SERENE-Donna Greenspoon, a senior in art education, has a
classic, well-ordered look-and her clothes match it. Here she
wears a favorite of hers: grey flannel box jacket suit bound in
striped grosgrain.

-Daily-Chuck Kelsey
SPORTY-Sandy Hoffman leans back in a bulky-knit sweater of
her own making. The political science major, now a senior, dresses
casually with a distinctiveness all her own. White and red plaid
skirt topped with white sweater.

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By KENNETH E. BOULDING
Professor of Economics
1. FARMERS HAVE been grum-
bling for at least 6000 years, not
wholly without justification. It is
the food-and-fiber surplus from
agriculture-what the farmer pro-
cluces over and above what he eats
and wears-that .feeds the non-
agricultural population. In an
oppressive society the forces of
law and the state cmbine to take
this surplus away from the farmer
without giving him much in re-
turn.
Even In a progressive society
like ours however the farmer gets
short-changed for a more subtle
reason. In a progressive society,
especially one in which agricul-
tural techniques are improving,
the proportion of people in agri-
culture steadily declines. (In the
United States, for instance, it has
declined from over 90 per cent at
the time of the Revolution to
about 16 per cent today.
There must therefore be some
force operating to chase peple
out of agriculture into industry.
If this is not done with the stick
it must be done with the carrot-
that- is, industry must be more
attractive than agriculture. The
relatively depressed incomes in
agriculture therefore are paradoxi-
cally enough the necessary con-
sequences of agricultural progress.
2. THE MAGNITUDE of the
differential between agricultural
and industrial incomes depends on
the mobility between the two
groups-that is, one the ease with
which the relative transfer of re-
sources from agriculture to indus-
try can take place. If farmers are
wedded to the land it takes a big
differential to divorce them. If
they can move easily, a slight dif-
ferential will suffice to effect the
necessary adjustments.
3. IN AMERICAN commercial
agriculture of the North and West
the mobility problem is not serious
except in so far as government
price supports have made it so. In
America we are witnessing a phe-
nomenon unique in history-the
disappearance of the rustic. All
previous civilizations have rested
on a sharp differential between
urban (and urbane) culture and
rural, or rustic culture. The dif-
ferentiation has usually proved to
be their undoing.
Only in the present century is
a society emerging in which the
basic culture of town and country
is the same. Never has there been
less justification for agricultural
discontent than in present-day
Cover
Carl Milles' Orpheus Foun-
tain dominates the front page
of the magazine section as it
dominates the Cranbrook land-
scape. This is a re-casting,
without the Orpheus, of the
original fountain in Stockholm,
Sweden.-. executed in Milles'
huge studio at the Cranbrook
Academy of Art. Milles headed
the sculpture department there
for 21 years.
The series of smaller pictures
along the top of the page show,
in order from left to right,
Milles' Europa and the Bull;
the Meeting House on Cran-
brook Road, out of which the
institutions grew; a pot by
Maija Grotell, head of cera-
mics; an art student 'throwing'
a pot on a treadle-wheel in the
ceramics studio.
The Academy of Art is shown
in two views at the bottom of
the page. At the left are stu-
dents at work in one of the
painting studios, and at right
is the Academy Galleries as

seen from the south.
The Orpheus Fountain ,Was
taken with Exacta 66, f8 at
S1/100 by John HrtzelDaily
chief photographer.

American commercial agriculture.
a4. THE ONLY serious economic
problem in American agriculture
is that of non-commercial agricul-
ture-the two million small sub-
sistence farms, mostly in the South
and in the mountains. Here is
really rural poverty: here is our
great , domestic underdeveloped
area.
5. NEVERTHELESS, it is the
rich farmers who squawk the loud-
est, and the fundamental principle
of Democracy is Government by
Squawk. On the whole, American
agricultural policy is designed to
make rich farmers a bit richer,
not to solve the problem of the
poor farmer.
It has been put over on the
people partly because the agricul-
tural population is outrageously
over-represented in Congress, es-
pecially in the Senate, but also
because of an essentially mistaken
concept of Justice. You cannot do
justice to a commodity: you can-
not do justice to an industry: you
can only do justice to people.
Failure to realize this humble truth
is at the bottom of most of the
muddled thinking on agricultural
policy.
6. AMERICAN Agricultural Pol-
icy revolves around the notion of
parity price. This is the price,
whether of a single commodity or

of agricultural products in gen-
eral, at which a given quantity of
the agricultural commodity would
purchase approximately the same
amount of the goods that farmers
buy that it commanded in some;
"base period"-historically, 1909-
1914. The idea arose in a mere
statistical calculation by the econ-
omists of the Department of Agri-
culture. During the depression
however it became the rallying
symbol for agriculture discontent,
and it retains a powerful emotional
appeal to farmers.
7. THE ATTACHMENT to the
parity symbol is not wholly un-
reasonable, because a depression
hits farmers mainly through a fall
in the relative price--that is in
the purchasing power--of their
products, not through loss of jobs.
Hence the labor movement is "job
conscious" and the farm move-
ment is "price conscious."
In 1932 farmers were working
as hard and producing as much as
in 1929: a bushel of their produce
however purchased less than half
as much as in the former year. It
is because agricultural production
stays up in a depression that agri-
cultural prices fall so low. Because
of this also, however, we eat just
about as well, on the average, in
a depression as in prosperity. The
price of parity in a depression
would be hunger.

Ten Theses on Agricultural Policy

I
I
I

S. ALTHOUGH the attachment
to the parity symbol is under-
standable, it is nevertheless a
grave obstacle to the framing of
a more rational agricultural policy.
Because agricultural policy is
price-centered and backward-look-
ing, it fails to come to grips with
the income problem and with the
real problems of agricultural pov-
erty.
High prices are only good for
those who sell something, and are
best for those who sell a lot. Hence
price supports benefit rich farmers
more than poor, commercial farm-
ers more than subsistence farmers.
Even worse, high price supports
tend to "freeze" an obsolete com-
modity structure and prevent nec-
essary adjustments of output. They
therefore tend to create "sur-
pluses" which are an embarrass-
ment to all. These surpluses cre-
ate pressures which are seriously
inconsistent with our trade and
foreign policies.
9. IF WE must "help farmers"
then a policy based on income sup-
ports rather than price supports is
intrinsically much more sensible.
The defunct and not much lam-
ented Brannan Plan had this to
its credit. Income supports, how-
ever, smack of "charity," and have
the reputation, at least, of being
politically unacceptable. They also

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-Daily-Chuck Kelsey
BOUNCY-Maryanne Domenic is a sprightly young lady whose
clothes complement her personality. Here she wears the famil-
far bermudas and knee socks with a dash that make them lock
exactly right for her.

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for the Love of Luxury L I? L
Dalton's classic cashmere pullover goes to town,
travels to the country, flies to Capril.
Anywhere in the whole wide world, Dalton's

precios sweaters of 100% imported cashmere are the

11

finest. We're proud of our collection in magnificent
new colors. sizes 34 to 40. $21 .95

And, of court*, all Dalton Caumlr. are durably mothproof.dL
302 South State Street

-Daily- juc& Kelsey
EFLECTIVE-Cynthia Vary i one of the taw' School's more en-
g' ofringse -r clothes, here a black sweater with black.-
checgeed.. skirt, always.set ;off ,neyer. deiact from.he striking.
appearance.

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