FRIDAY, OCTOBER 7, 1955
T'HE MICHIGAN DAILY
FRIDAY, OCTOBER 7,1955 THE MICHIGAN DAILY
SEVEN MEN AND A WOMAN:
Planners of New Japan Proud of Expe
By ROBERT EUNSON
TOKYO (JP)-Ten years ago sev-
en men and a woman drafted a
dramatic experiment in democra-
cy-a sweeping program to re-
shape the government of Japan.
Today, those eight Americans
are still proud of their work.
Searched out by Associated
Press correspondents throughout
the world, all talked freely of the
historic roles they played while in
key posts of the American occu-
And all in effect agreed:
"We laid a foundation for free-
dom-but a flexible one. Those
things found unworkable after a
decade of trial should be replaced."
Such is the view of Charles
Kades, Milo E. Rowell, Maj. Gen.
Charles A. Willoughby, Lt. Col.
Jack Napier, Theodore S. Cohen,
Wolf Ladejinsky, Miss Helen Haf-
fernan, and Dr. William K.
In the fields of government, la-
bor, land reform, education and
religion, they are credited with
giving the shattered military fas-
cist state of Japan the shape and
formof a democracy.
The experiment began in the
fateful months after Aug. 14, 1945
when the Japanese laid down their
Kades, now a Wall Street at-
torney, and Rowell, a Fresno,
Calif., lawyer, were in the gov-
Suernment section of the oc-
cupation's Supreme Command and
helped develop the new Japanese
"I envisaged Japan as a nation,
,. with a peaceful government,"
Kades said, "as being friendly to
the United States and taking its
place among the nations as a bas-
tion of democracy in Asia."
He said he encountered only
one big obstacle in seeking this
goal-"the inertia of the Japan-
ese Constitutional Investigative
"It was very slow in accepting
any move to shift sovereignty to
the Japanese people," he said.
Rowell said the committee sub-
Read and Use
mitted several drafts of a pro-
posed constitution, but all were
There have been charges from
some quarters that the Americans
wound up writing the constitution
themselves. Rowell denies the
charges but says:
"To speed the process . . . we
wrote a lengthy memorandum de-
tailing all the provisions we
thought essential . . . many per-
sons believe this ... was the con-
"Ultimately the Japanese sub-
mitted a constitution based on the
memorandum which, with sub-
stantial changes by the Allied
powers, met with our approval."
Other sources, including many
Japanese, contend that such a pro-
cess amounted to dictation of the
constitution. Mark Gayn, in his
book "Japan Diary," says Gen.
Douglas MacArthur, the occupa-
tion commander, ordered retention
of the Emperor, ousting of the
peerage, and inclusion in the con-
stitution of the controversial
clauses renouncing war and arma-
Gen. Willoughby was then Mac-
Arthur's chief of staff. In retro-
spect some have said he left the
impression of trying to foster a
conservative government, while
the government section was seek-
ing "a middle of the road" lead-
But Willoughby, when inter-
viewed, maintained he "tried to
follow policy laid down by Mac-
Arthur's headquarters, although
he personally favored a "conser-
vative, capitalistic government."
"I have never had occasion to
question my beliefs in this de-
partment," he stated.
Now at Pentagon
Pentagon, Washington, headed the
occupation's purge program that
swept many Japanese from public
life, including the present Prime
Minister, Ichiro Hatoyama.
"I believe it was done in the
best way possible," he says now.
". . . none of the more punitive
things, such as seizure of lands
and personal belongings, were put
Napier said it was never intend-
ed the removals should be perm-
Cohen, now associated with a
Canadian purchasing firm in Ja-
pan, is the former civilian chief
of the Supreme Command's Labor
It was under his direction that
the labor relations adjustment
law, giving Japanese unions many
of their present rights, was draft-
"My major effort was .. . to set
up a . . . system under which
workers could obtain and protect
a reasonable stake in their na-
tion's economy, so they would not
in desperation fall for totalitar-
ian adventures-rightist or Com-
munist," Cohen said.
Ladejinsky, currently with the
Federal Operations Administra-
tion in Indochina, is credited with
fathering the most successful of
the American-sponsored reforms-
the redistribution of farm land.
Ripe For Change
He feels Japan was ripe for the
change and that it couldn't have
been carried out in the 11,000 af-
fected villages if the thousands of
Japanese volunteers who partici-
pated hadn't wanted it.
"A tenant farmer paid roughly
50 per cent of his crop in rent,"
Ladejinsky said. "He had to pay
for fertilizer and other things .. .
It is fairly obvious he was not get-
ting more than 25 to 30 per cent
of his crop.
"Consequently the Japanese vil-
lage was full of unrest. Under in-
fluence of Communist propaganda
there could have been a very ser-
ious political situation."
He said he feels rural Japan is
now "fairly prosperous and fairly
contented," with the influence of
Communists nil. Ninety per cent
of the land is now owned by the
farmers who work it.
In the school reform program,
Miss Heffernan, present chief of
the Elementary Education Divi-
sion, California State Department
of Education, served 14 months
with the occupation in Tokyo.
She said her first objective was
to eliminate propaganda from
centralize "the rigid and total na-
tional control of schools, central-
ized in the Ministry of Education."
She tried to increase responsibili-
ty in the prefectures, which cor-
respond roughly to American
Miss Heffernan emphasized that
most of the work was carried on
through groups of Japanese edu-
cators without force.
Dr. Bunce, now with the U.S.
Information Service, w a s in
charge of the culture and religion
section of the occupation's Su-
preme Command. He was direct-
ed to sever the nationalistic Shin-
toist religion from the state.
"The principal reason was . .
Japanese militarists utilized Shin-
to as a tool for rallying the people
. . . for aggression," he said.
An occupation directive placed
Shinto in the same position as any
other religion and destroyed the
concept of the Emperor's divinity.
All eight of the reformers spoke
highly of the Japanese people.
Napier was perhaps the most spe-
"I confidently expect ... Japan
will attain a place of great im-
portance in the world economy,"
he said. "The Japanese people
have the capacity and ability to
B i ~~ i 1. :
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETI
Deg 4t iNCW (Continued from Page 4)
vised operating procedures ror the In-
Crlterviewing and Nominating Committee,
including the establishment of inter-
Appointments: Ronald Shorr, Pub-
Cooperation in the field of na- licity Chairman of Cinema Guild Board;
tural resources marks a new pro- Todd Lief to the Finance Committee;
gram between the University and Tom Sawyer, Bob Leacock to the
Marietta College in Marietta, Ohio. Reg Nutive Committee of thAssociation
The cooperative arrangement, SGC Election: Tom Cleveland, Elections
approved at its last meeting by Director, Hank Berliner and Donna1
the Board of Regents, allows Mar- Netzer, Count Directors; Jean Scruggs,
the Personal Chairman. Phil Berry, Todd
ietta students to work toward a Lief, Joe Collins will serve as resource
professional degree in the School people.
of Natural Resources after hav- Petitioning opened for S.. Oct. 12,
closed Oct. 26.
ng complete te yars o p- Election rules governing eligibility of
natural resources training on the candidates:
Ohio campus. (1) incumbents running for reelection
At the end of the first year in 350 signatures to petitons, o secure
Ann Arbor the student receives (2) each candidate will be asked for
a Bachelor of Arts degree from evidence that he will be able to fulfill'
Marietta, and after the second the entire one year term.
year a Bachelors or Masters de- (3) active campaigning is prohibited
before November 1.
gree in a specific curriculum. (4) each candidate is required to
Professional degrees are offer- circulate his petition himself.
ed in Conservation, Fisheries, For- Joint sponsorship with International
estery, Wildlife Management and Student Association of United Nations
Wood Technology. Week, Oct. 16-24.
Wood echnoogy'Recommendation for reconsideration
Similar programs are now in of the approval for the November18
effect with Albion College, Val- Pep Rally under sponsorship of the
paraiso College, Principia College, Wolverine Club -- a report to be sub-
Northland College, Central Michi- mitted at the meeting of Oct. 12.
gan College of Education, Grand Incorporated World University Serv-
gan ollee o Eduatin, Gandice as a subcommittee of the Human
Rapids Junior College and the and International Welfare Committee.
University of Wisconsin. Assumption of responsibility for as-
During the last school year, 26 signment of early registration passes.
students from cooperating insti- Gothic Film Society, 1955-56 program
uwith exception of Feb. 13 showing which
tutions were enrolled in the Uni- Is also included inthe Cinema Guild
Assembly Association, I-Hop, Oct. 15
Law School Admission Test: Applica-
tion blanks for the November 12 ad-
ministration of the Law School Ad.
mission Test are now available at 110
Rackham Building. Application blanks
are due in2Princeton, N. J. not later
than Nov. 2, 1955.
Doctoral Examination for Hunein
Fadlo Maassab, Epidemiologic Science;
thesis: "Approaches to the Biochemical
Analysis of States of Viral Develop-
ment," Fri., Oct. 7, 1006 School of Pub-
lic Health, at 2:00 p.m. Chairman, W.
Psychology Colloquium. Friday, Oct. 7,
4:15 p.m., Aud. B, Angell. Dr. Donald
Marquis will speak on "The Psychology
of Graduate Psychology." Open to
M.A. Language Examination In His-
tory Fri., Oct. 21, 4:00-5:00 p.m. 407
Mason Hall. Sign list in History Office.
Dictionaries may be used.
New York State examinations will be
held Nov. 19 and Dec. 10, 1955 for
positions in the following categories:
Engineering - Inspecting, Accounting,
Education - Social Work, Medicine -
Science. There are some positions in
the Education - Social Work and the
Medicine -- Science fields who are open
to all citizens of the U.S. There are
positions as Pathologist, Health' Offi-
cers, Sr. Public Health Physician, Super-
vising T.B. Physiacian, Sr. Psychiatrist,
and Supervising Phychiatrist open to
all qualified non-citizens.
For information contact the Bureau
of Appointments, 3528 Admin. Bldg.,
A second objective was
stationed at the
A CHEF KNOWS BEST
Anyone who knows good food will tell you
that a dinner in any of these fine
restaurants will be a pleasurable
:, .,/ r
Don't let football week-end
U. of M.
Our business is to
give you BETTER
U of M BARBERS
715 N. University
DEPARTMENT is the "heart"
of every Rexall Drug Store. There
special care goes into compound.
ing each and every prescription
presented. Only pure, effective in-
gredients are used. Always look for
the sign that says
fare be your problem. Consult The Daily
for Good Eating.
for reliable prescription service.
Open Wednesday and Saturday
Farm-Fresh Fruits, Vegetables,
Poultry and Eggs
Swift's Drug Store
340 S. State St.
LEO ?ING S
The most popular
Oriental eating place in town
Try Our Special
and Fine American Food
Orders to take out
118 West Liberty
Wonderful things happen when you wear it I
This is no problem! Just
remember the n a m e ,
Golden Apples Room. It
is renowned for the most
delicious food in the dn-
tire town. If you've not
tried it, you should do so
FAMILY STYLE DINNERS
Open 11 A.M. to 12 P.M.
will complete your football
5400 PLYMOUTH RD. - DIXBORO, MICH.
IE 1111t1111 I'