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May 27, 1956 - Image 4

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1956-05-27

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twh £icl4gau &ztty
Sixty-Sixth Year

Strauss In The Wind

When Oplinans Are Free,
Truth Will PrevailR

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers or
the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

SUNDAY, MAY 27.1956
Of The Repubi
THE UNIVERSITY is host today to a most
distinguished visitor, President Sukarno
of the Republic of Indonesia. The leader of
the island nation that is the sprawling young
giant of Southeast Asia comes here after an
enthusiastic reception in Washington.
In his speech before the Congress last week,
President Sukarno observed that "the shot
that was fired at Lexington on the 19th of
April, 1775, was heard around' the world,"
and went on to declare that it echoes still in
the hearts of free men and those who long to
be free.
The Indonesian leader summed up his his-
torical analysis with the statement: "Over half
the world the burning words which fired the
American War of Independence have been
closely studied as a source of inspiration and a
plan of action. Yes, this is the period of Asian
and African resurgence."
The importance of President Sukarno's words
to the elected representativesof the American
people cannot be underestimated. Now and in
the future, it'is hoped that our lawmakers
Coordination W
"ISPUTES between the military services of
the United States, which have gone on so
long in our history that they are becoming
dangerously traditional, have broken out again
in the Pentagon.
The problem is a serious one. It consists of
the Air Force announcing that Navy airplane
carriers can delivet only "small" strategic aid.
It consists of Army officials passing out docu-
ments to newsmen telling that emphasis on
air power can lead only toi "national disaster"
or worse.
REACTIONS to the latest inter-Pentagon
squabbles have been many and varied. De-
fense Secretary Wilson, who heads the military
branches, was finally pressured into comment-
ing, "most unfortunate."
Something a little more effetive came from
Democratic Senator Dennis Chavez, who threat-
ened a funds cut if the "petty jealousies"
were not done away with.'
Most effective of all, however, were the
President's remarks last week. He commanded
that the armed forces defend their ideas on
national defense, whether they conflict or
not. He also insisted that all branches "loyally
support" all top level decisions that are made
in that field.
One of the very reasons for all the fighting
in he ranks is that the services often are at a
loss of a decision to support. With a firm,
} 0
. ~By W
SECRETARY WILSON, with the President's
support, is insisting that the dispute among
the services must not be argued out in public.
He said that the Administration will not toler-
ate the kind of propaganda which was launched
last week-end by the Air Force and by the
Whether the policy of surpressing the dispute
is sound depends, it seems to me, on what the
dispute is about. It is reasonably plain from
what Secretary Wilson said at the big Pentagon
press exhibition that he believes the issue to
be "the roles and mission business,"-that is
to say, which of the services is to have which
of the new expensive weapons.
He must have been hearing more than he
likes to hear about these rivalries, and he is
very much annoyed at finding that the services
have gone over his head, hoping to work up
public opinion and Congressional support.

THERE IS NOT much real doubt, it seems to
me, that if only "the roles and mission busi-
ness" are at issue, then these issues should be
settled within the Pentagon and the National
Security Councl.
The relative value of one guided missile over
another, the military capabilities of the aircraft
carriers, the role of the Army in aerial defense
-these are questions which neither the gener-
al public nor the Congress are competent to de-
cide. They are by their very nature questions
which have to be answered by the services
themselves under the guidance of the President
and the Secretary of Defense.
But is there not more to this dispute than the
roles and mission business of the three serv-
ices? We know that there is at bottom a much
bigger question, which was raised some time
ago by Gen. Ridgeway, of high strategy in the
age of nuclear weapons. There is no use pre-
tending that this question has as yet been set-
tied, that a clear policy has been arrived at by
which the services can be guided. .
IT WOULD clear the air a good deal if the
administration was to admit that policy is in
the making hut is not made and that the m - il

S ukarno
lic of Indonesia

heed them well when considering legislation
concerning American foreign policy.
PRESIDENT SUKARNO, again in his address
to the Congress, gave his reasons for visiting
the United States. He said that e had come
"to learn something from AmerIca - from
America not merely as a place, not merely as
a nation, but America as a state of mind,
America as the center of an idea."
This statement clearly indicates that element
of American culture which ,is our most valu-
able export. In the majority of our defense
and foreign policy considerations, this signifi-
cant factor is often overlooked.
President Sukarno may have performed a
vital service to the American people and their
leaders by driving this point home.
THE UNIVERSITY is honored by the pres-
ence of President Sukarno. We hope that
Michigan can contribute in some small way to
the concept of America President Sukarno will
take home with him.
thin the Military
definite foreign policy, there would be top
level decisions for the military to keep in mind.
THE PROBLEM is even bigger-a problem of
military discipline and military-civilian re-
lations. For the most part, military experts are
sincere in their jobs. They're trying to make
the best defense plans they can in their indi-
vidual branches.
However, wha tis needed is more coordina-
tion between these branches. Defense experts,
however sincere they may be, are achieving no
purpose by allowing these inter-Pentagon
squabbles to go on as they do.
This brings in the civilian-military relation-
ship. The armed forces have always come
under civilian control through the Congress.
Perhaps what is really lacking here is the
failure on the part of civilian authorities to
pay enough attention to the military experts
who are subordinate to them.
EVEN THOUGH the civilians are on top, they
should be listening to the ideas of the spe-
cialists under them, as well as clamping down
on military men. who persist in deriding the
other branches.
Military defense, after all, is a cooperative
effort, with higher-ups laying down policy
statements after consultation with experts on
all levels, and all participants accepting and
upholding these decisions.

Uri" ' :;
. se ~zyM 2,. wy1' s 1. t '~r . ° \" i - a .?--! "
Qty t A~s i 6 r+T 'AS I'o1


Backstage reason for the Army-
Air Force feud that has sud-
denly hit the 'headlines is a pub-
licity campaign that both services
decided to launch to win public
and Congressional support.
Without consulting their alleged
boss, Secretary Wilson, the Army
brass gave their campaign a cen-
tral theme: "A Decade of Inse-
curity." The Air Force then came
back with a reverse theme en-
titled: "A Decade of Security
through Global Airpower."
While Charlie Wilson was look-
ing the other way, the Army
loaded its publicity guns with ideas
for speeches, magazine articles,
and press leaks. These were care-
fully calculated to sell the Army's
views to the public.
* * -'
THE AIR FORCE promptly or-
ganized a more ambitious, long-
range publicity program. In a pri-
vate memo to its publicity boys,
the Air Force urged:
"We must take the public past
the point of uncertainty. We must
convince them that investment in
the Air Force will net a superla-
tive payoff in continued freedom
and safety. Convincing the public
will take a long-range public rela-
tions blueprint. . . .Coipmanders
at all levels will review their indi-
vidual programs and initiate ag-
gressive action to support the pro-

Noting that public opinion is
"the most powerful tool of all,
more powerful even than war it-
self," the Air Force memo called
on its publicity boys to "mold
opinion and channel the vibrant
tensions of public thinking."
* * *
DESPITE this highfalutin' lan-
guage, the Air Force recognizes
the practical problem of com-
peting for public attention with
the election campaign.
Accordingly, the confindental
memo noted that "1956 is an elec-
tion year." It then offered this
"Politics is a tough and un-
reasonable competitor for all
media and audiences. For this rea-
son, in the fall of 1956, USAF will
be forced to relinquish most of the
national stage to political exposi-
During this period, USAF em-
phasis and concetration will shift
to community relations and inter-
nal activities. Opportunities in na-
tional media will continue to be
exploited, but probably at a con-
siderably slower pace."
It's relatively easy for the mili-
tary to operate without their
civilian chiefs in the Pentagon
knowing what is happening. So
the Army and Air Force got their
press campaign well under way
before Secretary Wilson finally

woke up and began to crack heads
GRAND OLD battler for peace
between industry and labor, Cyrus
Ching, was honored on his 80th
birthday by leaders of both labor
and industry, ranging from Sec-
retary of the Treasury Humphrey,
the biggest coal operator in the
world, to M. M. Anderson of Alcoa,
and Dave McDonald of the United
Steel Workers.
Chief tribute to Ching was paid
by the man who caused him the
most trouble shortly after the war.
-John L. Lewis.
* * *
THE DEEP-VOICED head of the
mine workers told how Ching sum-
moned him to a strike conference.
"In keeping with my traditional
policy of obeying- the call of myI
government," intoned John L., "I
wen to see Cy Ching.
"'This is not a strike,' I told
him. 'This is a temporary state of
stabilizing inactivity.'
"Geoorge Humphrey sent one of
his coal barons," contiued John L.I
"A man with a high hat and a
golo chain. When people saw him
and Cy Ching beside him, theyI
felt sorry for me.
"Mr. Ching haid there must be
a policy of give and take.
"'I'm going to take all I can
get,' I told him.
"'I'm not giving a thing,' re-{
plied the coal baron."
(Copyright 1956, by Bell Syndicate, Inc.)

Academic Freedom:
A Potential Force
(Ed Note: The following essay received first prize in the Academic Freedom
Week essay contest.)
THIS IS A plea for more intellectual freedom at the University of
Michigan as the present state of excessive interference in academic
life by the University administration serves only to undermine the
foundations of American democratic society.
To support this allegation of unnec'essary restriction and its danger
is the purpose of the first part of this paper: the second section is
concerned with reasons for the conflict as it has developed at Michigan,
and the last part will put forth a solution aimed at realizing this poten-
tial force.
The Danger of a Restrictive Policy .. .
W HY DOES regulation of academic life constitute an undesirable
policy? Because taken altogether, regulation has the cumulative
effect of forcing the academic community, students and faculty alike,
unalytically to accept the status quo.
The foundation of our society and eonomy is the thinking mind
of the intellectually free man. Access to information is needed to form
intelligent decisions. A paternalistic program not only does not encour-
age the thinking mind but definitely discourages it by punishing those
who depart from conformity.
A free-choice society must foster in the individual the development
of that critical judgment essential to carry the responsibility that the
individual has to such a society, whereas an authoritarian, society
develops only compliance unquestioning obedience of every command.
The danger of any restrictive program to a free society is this
extension of regulation, unnoticed until too late, to every area of life,
which ends in totalitarianism. America is more an experiment in
anarchy than in totalitarianism, and proper functioning depends on a
mature, informed electorate.
A POLICY restricting academic freedom undermines American demo-
cratic government by limiting the development of the individual
who is the basis of our society. There is little opportunity to exercise
and train the selective and choice-making faculties; if a choice is
ocered, it is usually between presented alternatives.
Complete freedom of choice, even to setting up the alternatives
between which he must choose, is the goal of the thinking man. His
constructiveness, his originality, his individuality, all are reduced to
the extent his mind is fenced by the limitations of another kind.
An intelligent decision is founded on a perception of all factors;
the whole truth must be known before a possibility exists of knowing
what is right. The administration, by its protective censorship, impedes
knowledge of the whole truth.
The Place of the University in Society ...
THE UNIVERSITY of Michigan, then, has a duty to the student and
to society to prepare the student to take his place as an educated
individual in, and to have a greater influence upon, the affairs of the
community in which he may reside.
The development of critical judgment is part of the educational
function, and free enquiry is part of the educational process. Restriction
substitutes dogmatic axioms for free enquiry, and a resulting intellect-
ual status quo would replace progress.
The University is a leader and experimenter in the development of
our society-its products play an important role in society, and attitudes
generated at college persist throughout life. Therefore, it must develop
in the individual the mature, self-reliant outlook necessary to well-
adjusted life in modern America. There is no way around It; the Univer-
sity must encourage free thought.
Conflict of Administration with
.Academic Community ,.
IN EDUCATION as in government the myth of the omni-competence
of the administrative group has supplanted the ancient theory of indi-
vidual sovereignty and responsibility. Treating the academic community
in the manner of a father dealing with his children is becoming policy
to an increasing degree.
For what sort of state does a paternalistic policy prepare us?.A
planned economy. At the University of Michigan as in government,
there is no reason why the regulators should be any wiser than the
The administration is guilty of pushing free thought and intellect-
ual goals into the background in favor of entrenching the more material
and mechanical aspects of college life. Is it possible that although
agreeing on the goals of education, the administration substitutes itself
as a goal?
The jobsof an administrator is to minimize trouble. He has little
power of his own; he merely interprets and keeps the trouble that
results from his interpretations from getting to his superiors.
THE WHOLE administrative process is one of finding excuses for not
doing things-plausible, palatable excuses. A restrictive, paternalistic
policy is easiest to administer because it offers a simple test of what
to regulate and it generates its own excuses.
The factor causing a conflict of administrative with academic goals
is the outside pressure, from taxpayers, voters, and state legislature, to

conduct itself in a fashion above reproach, that is, without controversy.
The administration is led to bend over backwards to maintain good
relations with its "superiors."
Developing Academic Freedom .
THE DEVELOPMENT of critical judgement and responsibility does
not imply a downpour of responsibility on the younger members of
our academic community, blighting as it were the budding maturity. A
gradual easing of restrictive regulations seems to be the answer, taking
place throughout the individual's college life.
Are students mature enough for Academic Freedom?
The administration holds that the heady wine of responsibility and
freedom requires a mature individual. The difficulty with this argument
is the circular reasoning involved; the student must be mature to be
trusted with responsibility, yet shouldering responsibility develops ma-
turity. One does not exist without the other; the students must have
academic responsibility in order to develop maturity.
A second answer to this argument is that if students 'are not
mature enough to cope with freedom and responsibility in academic
matters at college; when and where will they? Allowing students to
make fools of themselves teaches them what it is that makes fools.
The administration ought not to be afraid to let the students make
fools of themselves-that's what they are here for.
From a Potential to a Kinetic Force . ..
BASICALLY the solution is to reserve to the academic community
control over academic matters, and limit the administration to
administration. The Faculty Senate is the body now in being most
appropriate for this purpose. A compromise is feasible, retaining some


1, .1


and Turmoil
the Pentagon in the dispute over the strategic
roles of the Army and Navy but in such mat-
ters as the differences between Mr. Dulles and
Mr. Stassen. There being as yet no firm deci-
sion about the role of the Army in future wars,
Mr. Dulles and Mr. Stassen do not have an
agreed view of what to say about the reduction
of the Red Army.
Anyone who thinks he knows the answer to
the undecided questions of high strategy is
merely exhibiting his own inability to realize
the complexity of the problem.
HAVE THE impression, which may well be
mistaken, that American strategic thinking
is deeply affected not only by the new weapons
but by the undigested consequences of the
Korean war. That war was a searing exper-
ience, and the brunt of it fell upon the Army.
Putting aside the question of whether it was
wise to commit a ground army to a land war
in Korea, the fact is that this involved a sudden
reversal of what had been settled American
strategic policy. The policy was not to commit
ground forces to a war on the Asian continent.
The unresolved question, which haunts and
perturbs American military thinking, is whether
the Korean war was a precedent which estab-
lished a new policy, or whether it was a unique
affair marking the exception to a settled policy,
IF KOREA was a precedent, as many seem to
think it was, if we need to be ready to
fight a series of wars of the Korean type, then
General Ridgeway and the Army are obviously
right. But if Korea was an exception to -the
general rule that in regard to Asia we are not
a land power but a sea and air power, then
the responsibility of the ground army has been
greatly reduced.
It would do much to clarify the deeper issues
in the Pentagon if it were known whether
Korea was the precedent of a new strategy of
intervention on the ground, or whether it was
the exception to the older policy of not inter-
vening on the ground.
riF~rmm . 4+-ee ..npm---- uhnx h ~rtrnth-

It I

A Preview of S ummer Shows

Daily Television Writer
And so ends another television
season - a season in which Sgt.
Bilco, Perry Como, Hal March,
Mickey Mouse, big-money quiz
programs, Alfred Hitchcock and
"Wide Wide World" successfully
entered the field.
And a season in which Milton
Berle, Jackie Gleason, the "Com-
edy Hour," Jimmy Durante, and
Arthur Godfrey saw saw their rat-
ings dwindle.
Enough said about last season.
We leave the newsreel and come to
the coming attractions, (The car-
toon appears - elsewhere on this
IN THE IMMEDIATE future, the
summer season, the national con-
ventions steal the spotlight. Once
again all three major television
networks will completely cover
both conventions. Betty Furness
will return to the political picture.
New technological developments
will give the home viewers a better
view of the proceedings.
During the summer omst of the
panel programs and quiz shows
will continue live. Many of the
filmed situation comedies and dra-
mas will show re-runs.

his "Talent Scouts" rem'ain with a
summer replacement filling in for
Artha'. The "Ed Sullivan Show"
carrys on sans Sullivan with vari-
ous luminaries taking over as hosts
and hostesses.
AS USUAL the All-Star football
and baseball games, a few golf
tournaments and the regular base-
ball games will make up the bulk
of sporting events to be televised
during the summer.
Two new quiz shows will debut
this summer, trying to repeat the
performance of another quiz show
which also started in the summer.
High Finance and "Twenty Steps
to $1,000,000" will bothe be seen on
At least one psectacular is being
planned for the hot months.
"Bachleor Girl", an original musi-
cal comedy with words and music
by Steve Allen, will be seen on
July 15.
And as a public service television
may have to step into the law en-
forcement business. If the situa-
tion gets any worse this summer
Broderick Crawford a n d his
"Highway Patrol" may have to
come to the aid of Richard Tracy
and help him find the automobile
which houses Flatop's boy.
THE MAJOR re-shuffling of

Buddy Hackett, who has had so
much success on the "Perry Como{
Show", will star in a "Stanley",
a situation comedy which will be
seen for one of the half-hours va-
cated on Monday night because of
the Caesar switch.
Dianah Shore and Bob Hope will
handle most of the shows in the
old Milton Berle time-slot. Martin
&- Lewis will probably do their
shows at this time. This leaves
Milton Berle and Martha Raye out
in the cold where they belong.
* * *
Room For Darry" format will be
slightly changed for Jean Hagen,
who plays the part of Danny's wife
is leaving the show. Since Miss
Hagen has become such an integ-
ral part of the show the writers
will make Danny widower in the
series instead of writing in a new
wife. Heib Shringr's new hour-
long variety program will be seen
on Tuesday nights.
Even though CBS recently an-
nounced that it was cancelling
Godfrey's Wednesday night pro-
gram Arthur still insists that he
will be back with a new, show
which will not include his
The present spectaculars will re-
main and new ones are now being
planned. NBC will present a spec-


sort of emergency powers in the
administration, on the theory that
the threat of regulation is as good
a regulator as regulation itself.
Certainly a change in student
Sattitude is required, from its pres-
ent well-kndwn apathy to one of
initiative and intellectual re-
sourcefulness; the senior members
of the faculty have the responsi-



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