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.11 .

Sixty-Sixth Year
EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
STUDENT PUBLICATIONS BLDG. * ANN ARBOR, MICH. * Phone NO 2-3241

wForward, Crusaders!"

A

hen Opinions Are Free,
Truth Will Prevail"

Editorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers or
the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.

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BOOK REVIEW:
'Revolt of Moderates'
Offers Political Insight
SAM LUBELL'S analysis of the American political scene, Revolt of
The Moderates, is a book well-named. The "moderates" are those
who in bleaker days generally casted their ballots for the New Deal
and include the following: new residents of suburbia in all parts of
the country, entrenched commercial elements in the South, better-off
farmers who want to consolidate their hold on the land, and prosperous
factory workers for whom the memory of the depression has been

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NESDAY, APRIL 25, 1956

NIGHT EDITOR: DICK SNYDEt

New Discovery In
The 14th Amendment

0

(The following article is a reprint from Arthur
Krock's columnm in the New York Times.)
ON ANOTHER expedition among the clauses
of the Fourteenth Amendment the Supreme
Court today, by a vote of 5 to 4, discovered a
wholly new effect of the mandates for "due
process" and "equal protection." The latter is
the same clause in which the court, in 1954,
also, but unanimously, found a new meaning:
that racial segregation in the state public
schools was unconstitutional.
The ruling today was that, on a plea of in-
digence, defendants in non-capital criminal
cases who for purposes of appealdemand fron
a state a stenographic transcript of the trial
wherein they were convicted must be furnished
with a free copy by the state.
In Illinois, whence this case arose, such
copies are furnished gratis to defendants under
death sentence, but in non-capital cases (these
defendants were convicted of armed robbery)
the transcript must be paid for. The issue, said
the majority, was simply that of the poor vs.
the rich. And Magna Charta (1215 A. D.) was
only one of the authorities cited.
The opinion by Justice Black (in which he.
was joined by the Chief Justice, Justices Doug-
las and Clark, and by Justice Frankfurter sepa-
rately) pulled out all the stops on the organ of
equal rights and human compassion.
The dissenters (Justices Burton, Reed and
Minton, and Harlan separately), in their analy-
sis of the constitutional basis of the finding,
agreed this was noble music but did not change
the fact that the majority had subordinated
the Federal system and ancient state authority
to an ethical and socioligical concept...
"As I view this case," wrote Justice Harlan,
"it contains none of the elements hitherto re-
garded as essential to justify action by this
Court under the Fourteenth Amendment. In
truth what we have here is but the failure of
Illinois to adopt as promptly as other states a
desirable reform in its criminal procedure.
Whatever might be said were this a procedure
in the Federal courts, regard for our system of
federalism requires such as this be left to the
states. * ** I think it is beyond the province of
this Court to tell Illinois that it must provide -
such procedures."
THE MAJORITY noted that it was not in-
structing Illinois "to purchase a stenogra-
pher's transcript in every case where a defend-
ant cannot buy it: the (State) Supreme Court
may find other means of affording . adequate

and effective appellate review of indigent de-
fendants."
But, retorted the dissenters, "the constitu-
tional question should not be decided without
knowing the circumstances underlying the ***
allegation of need. Indigence, the only under-
lying 'fact' alleged, did not in itself necessarily
preclude (the convicted robbers) from prepar-
ing a narrative bill of exceptions. * * * Who
can say that if we knew the facts we might not
have before us a much narrower constitutional
question than the one decided today? * * *
"A decision having such wide impact should
not be made on a record as obcure as this,.
especially when there are ready means at hand
to have clarified the issue sought to be pre-,
sented.""
The majority, however, in a familiar line-up
where abstractions about the "underprivileged"
are concerned, found it enough to know that
the convicted robbers said they were too poor
to buy the transcript, and that the state, under
its statute, declined to make them a gift of it.
Since counsel for Illinois conceded that a tran-
script was necessary for the defendants "to get
adequate appellate review" of alleged trial er-
rors, and since their request was made prompt-
ly and the Illinois courts did not deny review
on the group of insufficient allegations of trial
errors---
"We must, therefore, assume for the
purposes of this decision (said the ma-
jority) that errors were committed in
the trial which would merit reversal,
but that the petitioners could not get
appellate review of those errors solely
because they were too poor to buy a
stenographic transcript."
"To sanction such a ruthless consequence,"
wrote Justice Frankfurter, "inevitably resulting
from a money hurdle erected by the state,
would justify a latter-day Anatole France" to
expand his ironic comment that the law "for-
bids the rich as well as the poor to sleep under
bridges," etc.
But, observed Justice Burton, while supply of
free transcript to the poor by Illinois would
be as desirable as it is in the states where this
is done, "it is one thing for Congres and this
Court to prescribe such procedure for the Fed-
eral courts, and quite another * * * to hold
that the Constitution of the United States has
prescribed it for all state courts * * * Why then
fix bail at any reasonable sum if a poor man
can't make it?"
The present Supreme Court, in further Four-
teenth Amendment discoveries, may hold that
unconstitutional also.,

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WASHINGTON MERRY-GO-ROUND:
Investigating larkley Taxes
By DREW PEARSON

fading-together new affiliates of
middle-class America.
The "revolt" indicates not a
settled change of sides to the Re-
publican coalition, but only a fall-
ing out, a turning away from the
Democratic. The revolting mod-
erates stretch across the whole
country, arching over sectional
and occupational differences, and
suffer from political insomnia.
Which political bed to sleep in they
have not decided.
Projecting trends in voting, es-
pecially since 1952, Lubell con-
cludes the Democratic Party can
no longer be considered the na-
tion's normal majority party. Some
of the reasons for this Lubell
spells out in his provocative ear-
lier book, The Future of American
Politics.
What the moderates seek is to
give effective voice and force to
their basic conservativism. Their
"revolt" must be put down as a
transitional movement rather than
as a solution of our political cri-
sis. The battle against extremism
and the past-American thought
must liberate itself from the divid-
ing symbols of the Roosevelt era
-cannot be won so long as the
moderates remain , "above both
parties" and neglect their role in
party realignment. -
* * *
FOR LUBELL. President Eisen-
hower is not an embodinent of the
theory that "great men make his-
tory." The role assigned Ike was
that of a substitute for the re-
alignment the parties have not
been able to manage; his has been
a performance in which the play
has been more significant than
the star.
Each party's chances are care-
fully, statistically explored in
terms of thethree main issues that
divide the country-foreign poli-
cy, racial and religious tolerance,
and economic status. The GOP's
internal split is over foreign poli-
cy. Disillusionment over foreign
aidwas used as a weapon against
the New Deal's economic appeal
and unless the Republicans remain
victorious, Lubell submits, a re-
vival of,"isolationism," particular-
ly in the midwest, can be expected.
Meanwhile, each party is utiliz-
ing often different claims to win
the moderate, pivotal "new middle
class" elements.
Revolt of the Moderates is a
most exciting book. That it can
be challenged is apparent; Lub-
ell seldom equivocates. One might
note that his thesis is tenuous, his
methodology suspect, his defini-
tions obscure, and his use of vot-
ing statistics, while frequently in-
genious, appears sometimes con-
trived.
But in net merit the book com-
raends itself highly. Lubell's pro-
files of prominent political figures
-Eisenhower, Nixon, Humphrey,
McCarthy, Thurmond-are spark-
ling and persuasive. His scholarly
analysis of the incompatibilities
between business-as-usual and the
national interest is charged with
good sense. His educated asser-
tion that flexible price supports
have divided farmers against one
another is most convincing. -
In short, one emight draft a
strong case against the vagaries
of his central thesis, but it would
be difficult to attack the book on
grounds that it lacks insight, ori-
ginality, daring, and a most re-
freshing and provocative blend of
interpretations.,
-William McIntyre

INTERPRETING THE NEWS:
Khrushchev Fist a Reminder

SENATOR Alben Barkley, the
venerable Veep, is now 79 years
old. He was born just 12 years
after the end of the Civil War,
and he has served his country in
the House of Representatives be-
ginning just before the First
World War, and as Senator and
Vice President.
Because of his age and because
he underwent a cataract opera-
tion, Barkley cannot see well. No
one, however, would have known
it as they watched him speak al-
most impromptu at the Woodrow
Wilson dinner last week. Though
he had a written text before him
and though he generally followed
that text, Barkley's memory is
such that he did not have to read
it.
However, while he was refer-
ring to "government of money for
money and by money," suggesting
that "massive retaliation" had be-
come "massive confusion" and ask-
ing Secretary Dulles whether
"agonizing reappraisal" had not
become "all agony," an intensive
investigation was being conduct-
ed by the Eisenhower Administra-
tion of Senator Barkley's income
taxes.
* * *
INTERNAL REVENUE agents
have been visiting Barkley's lec-
ture agents, looking over their
books and checking on every lec-
ture fee ever received by the elder
statesman of Kentucky.
Barkley has no private income
or law firm. He has been depen-
dent solely upon his Senate salary
and his lecture fees. And for
many years his first wife, an in-

valid, required a day and night
nurse. So Barkley made both ends
meet by speaking.
It is obvious from the attitude
of the Internal Revenue agents
probing Barkley's taxes that they
don't relish their job. They are
carrying but an assignment given
them from up above. Senator
Barkley has told his lecture agents
to open up their books and show
the agents everything they want
to see.
* * *
PRESIDENT EISENHOWER sat
at the'right of the presiding offi-
cer at the American Society of
Newspaper Editors dinner while
the Raymond Clapper Memorial
Awards were given to deserving
newsmen. The awards were hand-
ed out by Robert K. Walsh, who
first announced that honorable
mention went to William H. Law-
rence of the New York Times for
his series of articles exposing the
conflict of interest of Harold Tal-
bott, that led to his resignation
as Eisenhower's Secretary of the
Air Force.
There was heavy applause,
President Eisenhower, however,
did not applaud.
* * *
THE MOST politically promis-
ing member of the Roosevelt fam-
ily sold his birthright the other
day for a mess of pottage.
Specifically, Franklin D. Roose-
velt Jr., sold his political future
for a $60,000 fee as a partner with
a registered agent for Dictator
Franco of Spain and Dictator Tru-
jillo of the Dominican Republic.
But he has now become a part-

ner of Charles Patrick Clark, long
the $75,000-a-year agent for Dic-
tator Franco; latterly also the
lobbyist for Trujillo.
Inside fact is that' Clark was
having a hard time holding this
juicy lobbying plum. So in order
to win liberal support, Clark
reached out and embraced FDR,
Jr.-for $60,000 a year.
* * *
SHORTLY AFTERWARD, op-
ponents of the Dominican dicta-
torship in New York City an-
nounced they would picket the
big Democratic dinner in the Com-
modore Hotel presided over by
young Roosevelt. The picketing
was to be in protest against the
disappearance of Columbia Uni-
versity Professor Dr. Jesus de Ga-
lindez, Dominican exile and ene-
my of Trujillo, in New York on
March 12-a disapipearance still
unsolved but generally attributed
to Dominican government agents.'
The picket threat looked as if it
might seriously embarrass the
Democratic dinner, when Carmine
di Sapio, shrewd head of Tam-
many, stepped in. He held a meet-
ing with Dominican exiles, pointed
out that if they went ahead with
their plans they would be hurting
some of their best friends, Gover-
nor Averell Harriman of New York
and Mayor Robert Wagner, who
had fought dictatorships all their
lives and who were to be at the
dinner.
So the Dominicans, who by this
.time had been joined by Spanish
exiles, called off the protest
against FDR, Jr.
(Copyright 1956, by Bell Syndicate, Inc.)

DAILY
OFFICIAL
BULLETIN
THE Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of the University
of Michigan for which the Michigan
Daily assumes no editorial responsi-
bility. Notices should be sentin
TYPEWRITTEN form to Room 3553
Administration Building before 2 p.m.
the day preceding publication. Notices
for the Sunday edition must be in by
2 p.m. Friday.
WEDNESDAY, APRIL 25, 1956
VOL. LXVIII, NO. 54
General Notices
Regents' Meeting: May 24, 25 and 26.
Communications for consideration at
thismeeting must be in the President's
hands by May 16.
Phi Beta Kappa: Annual Initiation
Banquet, Mon., April 30, at 6:30 p.m.,
Michigan Union Ball Room. Dean Mar-
ten ten Hoor, University of Alabama,
"Il be the speaker. Members of other
snapters are cordially invited. Resera-
tinos should be made with the Secre-
tary, Hazel M. Losh, by Sat. arfternoon.
Agenda, Student Government Council,
April 25, 1956.
Minutes of the previous meeting.
Officers' reports: President; Vice-
President, Ex-officio appointments;
Treasurer.
Education and Social welfare: Aca-
demic Freedom Week, May 21-25, 1956.
Student Representation: Recoi.
mendations-Honors Convocation Com-
nmittee-Good.
National and International - Mock
United Nations Convention, report -
Woodard.
Coordinating and Counselling: Fine
Arts Club, requests recognition; Stu-
dents, for Stevenson, requests recogni-
tion; Scroll, revised constitution;
Themia- requests permission to affil-
ate with Zeta Tau Alpha, reactivating
Alpha Gamma chapter.
Administrative Wing report - Don
Good.
Old business.
New business: Motion re Lecture
Committee.
Members and constituents time.
Adjourn.
The following persons will please pick
up their May Festival Usher tickets at
Hill Auditorium Box Office on Wed.,
April 25 from 5 to 6 p.m.
Charles van Atta, Joseph Berman,
Priscilla Bickford, Louis J. Brown,
Charles H. Croninger, Ronald DeBouver,
Sonya Douglas, Mary Elmore, none
Engle, Irving N. Ennis, June Feenstra.
Dr. L. Feenstra, Shirley Forrest, Ste-
phen Fox, Roger Halley, Teresa Holtrop,
Carl D. Johnson, Nina Katz, Kathy
Lindsay, Kathryn C. Lucas, Mary E.
Moreland, Arthur C. Markendorf.
. Barbara Marriott, Jeanne Nagle, Patri-
cia J. Ray, Donald Ridley, Ann Rust,
Arthur Schwartz, Elaine Schwartz.
Donald Seltz, Donald West, Marlies
West, Arthur C. Wolfe, Shirley P.
Wolfe, Ronald Zollar.
Lectures
Chemistry Department Lecture. Dr.
Joseph L. Warnell, "A Study of the
Oxidation of Indene with Ozone" at
4:00 p.m., April 25 in Room 1300.
Research Seminar of the Mental
Health Research Institute. Dr. Gerald
S. Blum, associate!. professor of psy-
chology, will speak on "Conceptual
Scheme for a Psychoanalytic Behavior
Theory," April 26, 1:30-3:30 p.m., Con-
ference Room, Children's Psychiatric
Hospital.
Concerts
Wolverine Band, Raymond Young,
Conductor, at 8:15 tonight, April 25, In
the Michigan Union Ballroom. Open
to the general public.
Student Recital: Kathleen Rush,
soprano, 8:30 this evening, in Aud. A,
Angell Hall, in partial fulfillment of the
requirements for the Bachelor of Music
degree. A pupil of Chase Baromeo;
compositions by Purcell, Haydn, Mozart,
Schubert, Schumann, Bizet, Milhaud.
Poulenc; open to the public.
Academic Notices
Doctoral Preliminary Examinations for
students in education. All applicants

for the doctorate who are planning to
take the May Preliminary Examinations
in Education, May 24, 25 and 26, 1956,
must file their names with the Chair-
man of Advisers to Graduate Students,
4019 University High, School Building,
not later than May 1, 1956.
Application for English Honors Cur-
riculum: Meeting for students interested
In entering the English Honors Curricu-
lum that begins next Fall on Thurs.,
April 26 at 4 p.m. in 1412 Mason Hall.
Sophomore students are particularly in-
vited, but freshmen interested in the
program are also welcome.
Juniors in Physical Therapy Curricu-
lum: Important meeting of all Juniors
accepted for the senior year of the
Physical Therapy Curriculum at 7:15
p.m,. Thurs., April 26 in the Physical
Therapy Classroom, Room 1142, Uni-
versity Hospital.
Physical- Analytical- Inorganic Chem-
istry Seminar, Thurs., April 26, 7:30
p.m., Romo 3005 Chemistry Building.
Prof. R. K. McAlpine will speak on
"The Auto-oxidation of Iodine in
Alkaline Solution."

,
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By J. M. ROBERTS
Associated Press News Aualyst
THE REACTION of Nikita Khrushchev to his
cool reception in Britain is a reminder of
the dangers of trying to do business with a
dictatorship.
Though Khrushchev may not be a dictator,
the red-faced, shouting, angry man who made
his threats in Birmingham, England, Monday
is top man of the Soviet "collective" dictator-
ship, and of international communism.
As such, he is powerful after a fashion not
attained by heads of democratic governments,
and therefore more dangerous.
"We have seen fists shaken at us," said
Khrushchev of the British reception. "Never
shake your fist at a Russian."
Then he shook a figurative fist with n
atomic guided missile in it, capable, he said,
of hitting every point in the world."
IT WAS A DRAMATIC reminder of one of the
fundamentally disheartening things about
all the talk of peace. There exists in the Soviet
Union a small group of men-perhaps even
one man-who, deliberately or in a rage, with-
out consulting the wishes of the Russian people,
can give a signal at any moment which would
plunge the world into inconceivable horror.
All the talk of world settlements, all he talk
of disarmament, all thought of co-existence
with security, fades like a mirage as long as
this fact exists.
Editorial Stafff

Coupled with repeated emphasis on the Sovi-
.et determination to establish their Communist
hierarchy over all other nations, this fact pre-
sents the West with an insoluble situation.
Such situations in the past have never failed
to produce wars. Despite current estimates that
the danger of war is not immediately pressing,
it seems inevitable that if this situation con-
tinues it will produce war eventually.
The depth of Khrushchev's irritation cannot
be traced entirely to the repulses he and Bul-
ganin have received from British crowds. These
men are tough and practical. So are British
workers, who are familiar with the workings
of the Russian-sponsored World Federation of
Trade Unions. The workers have seen first
hand the efforts of the WFTU to disrupt Brit-
ish production and British business, which
means disruption of the prosperity they have
enjoyed -so briefly in the past 25 years. The
motivation of the workers is clear.
The Russian leaders, on the other hand, are
more perturbed about the failure of their of-
ficial mission, which was to buy strategic goods
and create friction between Britain and the
United States in that and as many other ways
as possible.
Having found a good many suckers in their
Asiatic tours, they have now run up against a
different sort of customer, one they don't know
how to handle.
New Books at the Library
Carr, Archie-The Windward Road; N.Y.,
Knopf, 1956.
Coates, Robert-The Farther Shore; N.Y.,
Harcourt-Brace, 1955.
Cronquist, Mabel-Bianca; N.Y., Putnam's
Sons, 1956.
Fink, David-N.Y., Simon & Schuster, 1956.
Franklin, Frieda-Road Inland; N.Y., Crow-
ell, 1956.
Gallant, Marvis-The Other Paris; Boston,
Houghton Mifflin, 1956.
Gilbert, Edwin-Native Stone; N.Y., Double-
day, 1956.
Johnson, Wendell-Your Most Enchanted
Listener; N.Y., Harper & Bros., 1956.
Labin, Suzanne-The Secret of Democracy;
N.Y., Vanguard, 1956.
O'Neal, Cothburn--The Very Young Mrs. Poe;
N.Y., Crown Publishers, 1956.
.,,r TnhmA.4-1,ehn a TI'1, R.og _

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THE CHURCH IN THE SOUTH:
Seminaries Can Eliminate Segregated Church

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This is the second in a series of twoI
articles explaining what the church is
doing to combat segregation in the
South.
By REV. DUANE L. DAY
THE SOUTHERN Baptist Con-
vention is the dominant reli-
gious group throughout the South-
ern states. In fourteen Southern
states the SBC claims close to eight
million members.
To fully understand the attitude
of the SBC toward the problem of
racial segregation it is necessary
to understand something of the
history of Baptist work in the
United States.
During the first half of the
nineteenth century, Baptist
Churches in the U.S. were loosely
tied together in associations.
Though every individual Baptist
Church technically was a power
unto itself, the need for inter-
church fellowship was recognized.
Accordingly, such agencies as the
American Baptist Publication So-'
ciety, the American Baptist For-
eign Mission Society, the Ameri-
can Baptist Home Mission Society
were organized. But approximate-

is now known as the American
Baptist Convention.
Partially as a result of the
North-South split, and partially
out of the desire to develop Ne-
gro Church leaders, an organiza-
tion which has come to be known
as the National Baptist Conven-
tion, was established to minister
to Negro Baptists. Some years
later a split over leadership in the
NBC occurred, and a Second Na-
tional Baptist Convention, popu-
larly known as the unincorporated
convention, was formed.
These two Negro Baptist bodies
are very strong indeed. The for-
mer numbering something over
four million; the latter over two
and a half million adherents.
I AM A MINISTER of the Ameri-
can Baptist Convention, a deno-
mination which has its ministry
in the 34 Northern states, so the
comments that I make about the'
attitude of Baptist Churches in the
South toward segregation are com-
ments about a denomination oth-
er than my own.
By and large, Baptist church
life in the South is segregated.
That is, Negro Baptists are minis-
+mpra+ toby. n of ta TTinr-a

some years ago admitted Negro
students to its student body.
* . * *
WITH OUR BAPTIST form of
organization, namely with the ul-
timate authority vested in the lo-
cal congregation, there is'no hier-
archical body which can force Bap-
tist Churches to racially integrate.
So long as individual Baptist
Churches insist upon remaining
segregated, they will remain segre-
gated. It is in the seminaries
where the most important strides
forwards can be taken in elimi-
nating the segregated church.
If seminaries fearlessly teach
the principles of the Christian
faith-the brotherhood of man,
the equality of man before God,
love for fellow man, etc.-and if
they make clear the implications
of these doctrines to the seminary
students, then there is hope that
in a future generation segregation
in the churches will have com-
pletely died out.
Because of our Baptist form of
church government, the influence
exerted by a local minister is very
great indeed. Today many South-
ern Baptist ministers are standing
squarely on the principle of racial

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DAVE BAAD, Managing Editor
MURRY FRYMER JIM DYGERT
Editorial Director City Editor
DEBRA DURCHSLAG ................ Magazine
DAVID KAPLAN ....,.................. Feature:
JANE HOWARD ...................... Associate
LOUISE TYOR .................. Associate.
PHIL DOUGLIS .... ........ Sports
ALAN EISENBERG ............ Associate Sports
JACK HORWITZ.............. Associate Sports
MARY HELLTHALER .,.......Women's
ELAINE EDMONDS ......... Associate Women's

Editor
Editor
Editor
Editor
Editor
Editor
Editor
Editor
Editor

REV. DUANE L. DAY
. implications of the Christian
gospel"
racial prejudice is unworthy of a
Christian.
It is a peculiar fact of South-
ern religious life, however, that
one can uphold racial segregation
and still helieehimself ton17)pim-

01

JOHN HIRTZEL............. ..... Chief Photographer
Business Staff
DICK ALSTROM ..................Business Manager
BOB ILGENFRITZ ...... Associate Businesq Manager

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