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VOL. LXVI. No.137
ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, TUESDAY, APRIL 24, 1956
This is the first in a series of articles on segregation in the United
States as viewed from the standpoints of education, law, social-psychology,
anthropology, history and political science.
By MARY ANN THOMAS
Two years ago this May the United States Supreme Court issued
its now historic decision declaring racial segregation in public schools
contrary to the Constitution.
The decision has had profound effects on the educational systems
of the States, particularly those in the South. By now the initial
period of surprise, indignation and violent protest has largely passed.
But a stubborn core is still trying to resist the change ordered by
the high court.
Prof. Fred G. Walcott of the School of Education is particularly
qualified to speak on the topic of segregation in public schools. Direc-
tor of the Workshop in Human
C y - Relations in School and Communi-
''r RnS . ty, he has developed a working in-
terest in the question.
Claim Cultural Difference
"The Southern people claim
L1an1i1pF~uJLthere is a vast cultural difference
between Negro children and white
children," he said in explanation
of the problem facing desegrega-
tionists in the South.
WASHINGTON WP)-The Su- "It is admittedly a difference in
preme Court yesterday extended cultural opportunity," he con-
its ban on racial segregation to tinued. "They admit white people
public transportation within the have had better educational "op-
borders of a state. portunities, but they object to this
It did so by ;dismissing as friv- immediate shock of absorbing the
It di obpea' from a United underdeveloped Negro children."
ous an appeal ofr ad Uision Segregationists believe it will
States Court of Appeals decision "water down" the quality of edu-
in Richmond, Va., that segregation cation. Listing other claims of
on intrastate buses violates the Southern segregationists, P r o f.
fedral constitution. Walcott said they claim there is
Segregation more disease among Negro chil-
The court's action means that dren and therefore object to shar-
segregation in any form in public ing toilets and drinking fountains
transportation, whether entirely with them.
within a state or between states, 'Objections Only Rationalizations'
is now unlawful. "Such objections are only ra-
Only 10 words were used in the tionalizations," he e x p r e s s e d
court's order, including citation of strongly. "If they are believed,"
a case decided in 1929. he warned, "the problem will never
A search of the court's records be solved."'
showed that the cited case in- "Many of these so-called ob-
volved dismissal of an appeal as jections to segregation are exag-
filed "without any authority of gerated," he continued. "We have
law," and which "needlessly con- already learned in States like New
sumed our time." York and New Jersey, where they
Unconstitutional Burden have desegregation laws, that no
The ban on intrastate segrega- problems occur. People accept it;
tion came 10 years after the court the fears they have imagined just
struck down compulsory separa- don't materialize."
tion of the races by state law in Citing a recent article in the
buses crossing state.lines, In the Atlantic Monthly by a Georgian
1956 decision the court said segre- journalist, Prof. Walcott said that
gation on buses was an uncon- there are a lot of people in the
stitutional burden on interstate South who are advocates of de-
Commerce. segregation. "There are a lot more
Yesterday's action, coupled with of them who give, it silent ap-
earlier decisions and an interstate proval," he commented. "They feel
Commerce Commission order in the immorality of discrimination,
November 1955, directing that but won't admit it.
segregation be ended on interstate An example of this attitude was
traianbuesnd intwatgpresented not long ago. A Negro
trains and buses and tn waiting educator from the South told Prof.
rooms used by interstate travel- Walcott that a local official had
ers, covers all conceivable angles approached him when several
of public transportation. Negroes had been jailed during
Not Correct Statement the bus boycott in Alabama giving
The Court of Appeals ruling last him $300 and saying, "Get those
July 14 said the Supreme Court's people out of jail, but don't say
1896 decision laying down the his- anything."
toric "separate but equal" doc- Missouri, Maryland, Delaware
trine "can no longer be regarded See PROF., Page 6
By LEE MARKS
By an overwhelming majority
the University Faculty Senate yes-
terday approved continued partici-
pation in the Rose Bowl according
to Prof. George McEwen of the
However the approval favored
continuation of the pact on a
term basis (such as three years)
rather than the open-end contract
urged by the Pacific Coast Con-
A motion expressing disapproval
of the Rose Bowl pact was de-
feated 127 to 96 after what was
termed "lengthly discussion."
The Faculty Senate action is an
advisory vote. Final authority for
determining University p o i c y
rests with the Board in Control
of Intercollegiate Athletics on
which sit 10 faculty members.
Presumably the Board could
still vote for an open-end contract.
There was no indication yester-
day what policy the Board would
follow. No date has been set yet
for their meeting
Extension of the Rose Bowl pact,
which expired this year, is pres-
ently being considered by Big Ten
schools. Purdue has already gone
on record as favoring continua-
tion on an open-end contracts
Urge Open-End Contract
The open-end contract suggest-
ed by the Pacific, Coast confer-
ence provides that the pact be
Following unsportsmanlike in-
cidents during the last football
season, particularly at the Michi-
gan-Ohio State game, several pro-
fessors and administratorsraised
doubts as to the advisability of
continuing the pact.
Overemphasis of post-season
games, it was felt, was partly res-
ponsible for the tensions that
arose. President Harlan H. Hat-
cher has publicly claimed that
bowl games have been blown up
out of proportion in recent years.
Arms to Israel'
Ann Arbor citizens will discuss
whether or not the United States
should send arms to Israel at 8
p.m. today in the west cafeteria
of the new Ann Arbor High School
Prof. John P. Dawson of the
law school wil'introduce the topic.
University students are invited
ill Soon H
Iraqi Hits U.S.
By GERALD DeMAAGD
The best quality of the American
people is their fairness once they
understand the facts, Abdul Rah-
man Al-Bazzaz, representative
from Iraq to the United Nations
Commission on Human Rights said
Al-Bazzaz, who is also the Dean
of Baghdad University College of
Law, is currently visiting the Uni-
versity Law School, and is sched-
uled to see George G. Cameron,
chairman of the department of
Near Eastern studies today.
NEW YORK WP-Documents
purporting to show that Joe Louis,
former world heavyweight champ-
ion, agreed to resign as champion
and sign the four leading challeng-
ers to exclusive contracts, were
brought to light yesterday in the
International Boxing Club monop-
The government contended that
Harry Mendel, publicity man and
T r u m a n Gibson, representing
Louis, met with Jim Norris and his
partner, Arthur Writz early in
Louis Got $150,000
An agreement was reached in
which Louis would turn over the
contracts to the IBC for $150,000.
Under this agreement, it was
contended Gus Lesnevich, former
light heavy champ, received $10,-
000 and Lee Savold of Paterson,
N. J. was paid $5,000. Ezzard
Charles and Jersey Joe Walcott,
the other two contenders, were to
meet in the first match for the
The trial continued today with
the Government introducing doc-
uments to support its claim that
the club operates in restraint of
free enterprise in professional
U.S. Attorneys Trace Papers
The details of the formations
and operation of the IBC were
traced by Assistant United States
Attorneys William Elkins and
Lawrence Gochberg through a
series of documents.
The Government also produced
documents to show how the IBC
moved into Madison Square Gar-
den, paying the late Mike Jacobs
$100,000 to surrender his boxing
lease and $10,000 for rights to out-
door arenas and certain contract-
ural rights between him and Ray
In an interview with The Daily
the Mesopatamian said that Amer-
icans are lacking in information
about the Middle East, and some
harmful acts have happened as a
"Half the truth might amount
to a complete lie," he said. Al-
Bazzaz charged that the press in
this country is dominated by in-
fluential people in high positions
who are influenced by the Zion-
ists. "If you take an anti-Zionist
editorial to a big New York or Chi-
cago paper none of them will print
Al-Bazzaz said that he thought
the attitude of -the people of this
country was improving. "We are
not against the American people,"
The UN delegate blamed the hot
political situation in the Middle
East on two points. (1) "Tension
comes out of the policy of Israel,
which is very aggressive toward
us," and (2) "The oppression of
the French who still stick to the
reactionary imperialism of the
When these two questions are
resolved the relations with the
West will be better he declared.
Up To U.S.
It is largely up to the United
States to settle the unrest in the
Arab States, Abdul Al-Bazzaaz
stated. Without our assistance the
French would not be able to con-
tinue their present policy, he said.
Morocco was the first state to
recognize the independence of the
United States, he pointed out, ask-
ing why the U.S. shouldn't recog-
nize the same anti-colonial posi-
tion of French Morocco.
The foreign policy of the pres-
ent administration is "much better
than the Truman administration,"
because Truman did not follow the
recommendations of the state de-
partment, he said. He pointed out
that Truman admitted in his
memoirs that he had the informa-
tion but was forced not to follow
the state department policy by
Al-Bazzaz said that his country
was progressing in economic devel-
opment' but "we are not a very
rich country, and are thankful for
American aid. The more you un-
derstand us, the better our rela-
tions will be," he concluded.
Students For Adlai
"Whom Should the Democrats
Nominate?" will be discussed be-
fore the Students for Stevenson
at 7:30 tonight in Rooms 3LMN
of the Union.
The meeting is open to the
AL SIGMAN leads off in the fourth inning with a line single to
left. Although he stole second base, his teammates stranded him
M' Nine Downs Wayne
On Fox's One-Hfitter 2-l
By LYNNE TOWLE
Bruce Fox made his pitching
debut by hurling a one-hitter to
lead Michigan to a 2-1 baseball
victory over Wayne at Ferry Field
Fox was untouchable until the
The winners of the competition
among booths for the largest num-
ber of tickets collected during the
two-day Michigras carnival have
The show category was won
by Alpha Tau Omega-Chi Omega's
"Nutcracker Sweeties," with 25,529
tickets collected, skill by Tau Delta
Phi-Delta Phi Epsilon's "Frigid
Fun," at 21,249, and refreshment
by Phi Sigma Kappa-Alpha Omi-
cron Pi's "Candyrama" at 14,242.
Honorable mentions in the show
category went to Gomberg-New-
berry's "Showboat," the winner of
the overall judging Saturday
night, and Beta Theta Pi-Alpha
Delta Pi's "Beta Burlesque."
The skill boothbhonorable men-
tions were won by Sigma Alpha
Mu-Hobbs' t "Illuminate Your A-
Rate" and Delta Tau Delta-Victor
Vaughn's "Golden Garters," the
winner of the overall skill judg-
Honorable mentions in the re-
freshment competition were copped
by Phi Gamma Delta-Alpha Phi's
"Fee Fee Saloon" and Theta Delta
Chi-Alpha Xi Delta's "Michi-
sixth inning, when Wayne's Fred
Snowden drilled the lone hit off
I him, a single to left field past the
outstretched arm of third baseman
Fox also contributed one of
Michigan's five hits as he lined a
sizzling single through the second
baseman into short centerfield to'
open the third inning.
The Tartars got'an unearned
run in the third inning when Al
Oshinsky led off with a walk, Ray
Herndon reached first on an error
by shortstop Moby Benedict, mov-
ing Oshinsky to second. Clarence
Straughn then sacrificed, but
everyone was safe on an error by
Don Halverson grounded out
second to first, scoring Oshinsky,
but Herndon was thrown out at the
plate trying to score from second.
Snowden then grounded out to
third base to end the inning.
Michigan's two tallies came in
the first inning. Benedict led off
with a base on balls. Fox grounded
out to first baseman Tom Keller,
Benedict taking second.
Howie Tommelein then dropped
a clean single into centerfield,
which sent Benedict 'scampering
See WOLVERINES, Page 3
BIRMINGHAM, England (A) -
Nikita Khrushchev told the world
yesterday Soviet Russia soon will
have hydrogen-bomb guided mis-
siles "which can hit every point
in the world."
And to those who belittle or jeer
the Soviet Union, the Communist
party boss declared: "Never shake
your fist at a Russian."
He had just been through a
whirl-wind tour of Birmingham,
Britain's Pittsburgh, in which he
and Soviet Premier Nikolai Bul-
ganin were met by heckling de-
monstrators and banners saying
"Down with Moscow."
The guided missile reference
came as Khrushchev tried to il-
lustrate that the Soviet Union is
geared to compete on any level
with the Allied West.
"The point I want to make is
that restrictions of trade do not
prevent us in any way from mak-
ing advances in armament," he
told the civic leaders in the heart
of Britain's industrial belt.
"We have seen fists shaken at
us," Khrushchev said. "I would
remind the man with the fist that
attempts have been made previ-
ously to speak to us in that man-
ner. Never shake your fist at a
"Is it not time that we became
more intelligent and not shake
our fists at each other? As a mat-
ter of fact this fighting requires
much less brains than trading
Exploded Plane H-Bomb
Khrushchev said the Soviet Un-
ion had already exploded an H-
bomb from a plane, and then as-
serted that thus far the United
States has only set off H-bombs
from ground installations.
Commenting on his talks with
British officials, Khruschev said
he felt the visit would be beneficial.
"We are engaged in serious talks
with the government," he said.
WASHINGTON (R) - Russia's
latest claim-that she will have
a hydrogen-headed missile soon
and has beaten the United States
in dropping a superbomb from a
plane-was received in Washing-
ton yesterday with general calm-
There was no official comment
from the Petnagon or State De
Sen. Stuart Symington (D-Mo)
now conducting a Senate investi-
gation of United States air power
as compared with Russian, had-
this to say of the Soviet claim:
"If true, it is a significant and
terrible warning to the American
people and the free world."
American officials, in the ad-
ministration and in Congress, have
been saying for months that Rus-
sia is launched on an all-out pro-
gram to build inter-continental
ballistic missiles which would be
armed with nuclear warheads.
But the Defense Department has
insisted that the United States has
accelerated its program for ICBM
and intermediate-range missile de-
velopment in a series of contracts
. Unofficial speculation on the
time needed for American devel-
opment of the long-range, hydro-
gen-armed missiles has ranged up-
ward from two or three years.
Khrushchev's broadly worded
reference to developing such a
missile "quickly" did not appear
to add any specific new informa-
tion to estimates here of the time
of ocean-snanning rockets.
as a correct statement of law."
The 1896 decision, in varying de-
grees, remained the law of the
land until the 1954 Supreme Court,
decisions striking down segrega-
tion in public schools.
Southern leaders branded the
decision yesterday as another "un-
warranted invasion of state and
municipal rights" and a new step
in "federal dictatorship."
At least one governor and sev-
eral officials said they would do
everything legally possible to re-
sist the new decision.
Dr. William Morgan Brace, sen-
ior physician for men at University
Health Service, died at 5:30 p.m.,
yesterday in University hospital.
Primary cause of death was not
An autopsy was scheduled to be
performed this morning. -Accord-
ing to a report received late last
night, Dr. Brace had been suf-
fering from a lung ailment for a
long time. An earlier circulating
rumor that' he was suffering from
cancer was disputed.
Dr. Brace, an assistant profes-
sor of hygiene of the School of
Public Health, was considered a
friend of all on the University
He served as physician for var-
ious University groups, including
the Biological Station in Cheboy-
gan, from 1933-45, the Geography
Camp in Wilderness State Park,
from 1936-41, and the Marching
World News Roundup
By The Associated Press
MONTGOMERY, Ala.-The Montgomery city bus lines yesterday
ordered an end to segregated seating on buses today. A notice on the
company bulletin board said the desegregation order was the result of
the United States Supreme Court's ruling yesterday holding segregated
* * * *
NICOSIA, Cyprus-A wave of violence between Greek and Turkish
Cypriots washed over Nicosia yesterday.
It left two Turks dead, at least eight men and women wounded,
dozens of Greek store fronts<
smashed, and a large Greek-owned
building in flames.
DAMASCUS, Syria-United Na-
tions Secretary General Dag Ham-
marskjold yesterday plunged into
what may be the most complex,
frontier problem that he will face
on his Middle East mission.
Within an hour of landing at
Damascus Airport from Beirut, he
and his aides were closeted with
Syrian Premier Said Ghazzi and
The first session lasted two
hours. Hammarskj old refused to
DETROIT-Detroit Mayor Al-
bert E. Cobo appeared yesterday
to be the major Republican hope
for unseating G. Mennen Williams,
four times Michigan governor.
Mayor Cobo said he would "wait
and see," whether to run.
Republican leaders were certain
that the three-time Detroit mayor
would sacrifice the final two years
in his term to answer a party
draft. Mayor Cobo has long been
SPROWL ADDRESSES LAW HONORS BANQUET:
ATttorneyTells Value of Intellectual Side of Law
James A Sprowl, Chicago attorney, speaking on "The Legal Idea-
man" at the 1956 University Law School Honors banquet last night
said that the intellectual side of the law is very important.
"We will hire a top man in his class over an average man who is
more mature and has more assurance. The brilliant lawyer has some
-- ~~~advantages over an average lawyer," he said.
The intellectual side of law is very valuable from the legal stand-
point because there is "no business in which a good idea is worth more
than the law," Sprowl said.
He brought out several instances where searching of the statutes
produced results where oratory had failed. He cited one example
from his own experience where he was beaten on an issue in 1934 by
:..... .the Rock Island Railroad.
It takes' the competitive spirit and physical energy to be a good
litigation lawyer Sprowl said. "It is the same thing that makes a
great athlete-the desire to do just a little better within the rules."
_ Awards totaling more than $1,750 were presented to the top men
in the University Law School at the banquet.
Certificates of membership in the Order of the Coif were pre-
.nsented to the seniors in the top 10 per cent of their class. Editor-in-
chief of the Michigan Law Review, Paul R. Haerle, '56L, and the
Associate editors, Richard R. Dailey, '56L, Howard M. Downs, '56L,
Edward H. Hoenicke, '56L, Arne L. Hovdesven, '56L, William R. Jentes,
NEW YORK (P)-Secretary of
State John Foster Dulles said yes-
terday the time has come to de-
velop the North Atlantic Treaty
Organization into something more
than an purely military instru-
He did not pinpoint his ideas
beyond mention of "more inde-
pendence . . . more economic
development . . . more sense of
equality and human brotherhood."
More Hope, Less Fear
"Our new task is to build more
on hope and less on .fear," Dulles
told the annual luncheon of The
Dulles referred to Soviet Russia's
efforts to present an aspect of
conciliation, with talk of economic
aid rather than threats of violence.
Without accepting this new look
at its face value, Dulles said:
"We would not, if we could,
smother the hope that a benign
transformation may have begun."
Some Washington sources pro-
fessed to see in Dulles' speech a
new milepost in American foreign
policy, comparable in scope to the