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EDITED AND MANAGED BY STUDENTS OF THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN
UNDER AUTHORITY OF BOARD IN CONTROL OF STUDENT PUBLICATIONS
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... Then Longen Folk To Goon On Pilgrimages"
- ry- -,
:n Opinions Are Free.
rutb Will Prevail"
fitorials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual opinions of staff writers or
the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
ESDAY, MARCH 27, 1956
NIGHT EDITOR, LEE MARKS
Three Weapons in World Conflict:
Military, Economy, Ideology
N WASHINGTON today a review of the
fundamental character of American foreign
policy is being undertaken by the various gov-
ernment and political elements concerned.
A major consideration in this discussion is
whether or not the United States should cease.
emphasizing military alliance as a criterion for
determining allotments of economic aid, turn-
ing instead to long term economic aid to combat
the Soviet new look with its bland offers of
friendship and economic and technical aid, no
apparent strings attached.
Although it is encouraging to see a move
toward less reliance on the purely military as-
pects of foreign policy, the current debate does
not reach the core of the failings in the conduct
of foreign affairs. What is needed today is a
renaissance in the quality of American foreign
" The present global conflict is being fought
with three weapons-military force, economic
power, and ideologic persuasion. In the military
field, the United States can hold its own and
in all probability has a slight edge over the
Communists. Economically,, we can certainly
outdistance them. This nation is potentially*
the powerhouse, the industrial plant, the gran-
ary of the world. In resources and ability, none
can touch us.
It is in the sphere of ideology that we have
been found wanting. America is currently
losing the battle of ideas.
We are particularly in bad shape in that part
of the world which stretches from the Dardan-
elles across the Indian sub-continent, through
the sprawling Southeast Asian peninsula and
islands, along the East Asian coast to the tight
little islands of Japan. This vast area is in
the throes of a great social, economic, and
In a sense, America provided the impetus
which started this revolution. The United States
is the greatest revolutionary nation the modern
world has seen. The masses of Asian people
who are now in the various phases of throwing
off shackles of one kind or another are taking
their cue from what happened along the eastern
seaboard of this continent in 1776. The tragedy
of the affair is that we are no longer the undis-
puted leaders of this revolution but are rapidly
losing leadership to the Russians and Com-
munism by default.
Our failing lies in the fact that we have let
the Soviets pervert the meaning of the word
revolution. They have stolen our thunder right
out from under our noses and we have allowed
them a monopoly on the use of the word.
1T MIGHT be well to note what his dynamic
word revolution signifies. It usually connotes
a drastic and often violent method for disposing
of a despised oppression when other methods
fail. But there is more to it than this. A true
revolution does not end when M~e violent out-
burst subsides. It continues, producing a marked
effect on the entire social structure of the
nation or culture undergoing the revolt.
Revolution, to have any significant meaning,
must have as its purpose the building of a better
state dedicated to the advancement of the
welfare of its citizens. In these terms revolution
for rebellion's sake alone is worse than no revo-
lution at all. Overthrowing oppression without
a design for establishing a new order of stability
can only result in anarchy and chaos.
The greatness of. the American Revolution
does not arise from the art of revolt itself but
rather from the stable order which evolved after
the fighting was over. Today, most of the young
nations of Asia have finished their fighting and
are in the early days of their struggle for na-
The idea which we must promote, first at
home, and then abroad through the mechanism
of foreign policy, is that we are not trying to
model'Asian nations after the United States nor
are we forcing them to be mere partners in a
military alliance for our own defense.
Rather, we should promote the concepts of
independence and self-determination as out-
lined in the Declaration of Independence and
point to our own history of a growth of political
stability, not demanding that others be like
us, but encouraging them to do as we did.
Our foreign policy should'be aimed at stim-
ulating these young and vigorous nations into
channeling their efforts into areas where it
will strengthen and ultimately stabilize their
own political, economic, and political institu-
tions. Where we can be of assistance in a
material way, we should offer.
As many nations do not have the material
advantages our country had in its youth,
America should provide them with as much help
as is reasonably possible.
THIS, in many instances need not be huge
sums. Indeed, indiscriminately lavish spend-
ing can wreck a developing economy. Spending,
like energy, must be directed in proper amounts
to places where it will do the most good. Above
all, such assistance can not be tied to military
If economic aid is to be given at all, it must
be given in the spirit of encouragement to use
it wisely for the building of a strong nation with
foundations resting solidly upon its own cultural
values. American policy must emphasize inde-
pendence, self-determination, and stability as
the reasons behind assistance.
The day of Teddy Roosevelt's "speak softly
but carry a big stick" has passed. The United
States must not be so naive and foolish as to
throw away the big stick of military force.
Keeping it within quick reach will be an evil
necessity for a long time but we need not rely
on it as our main weapon for foreign policy.
Nor should economic power alone be utilized.
The leaders of the new Asian nations cannot
be bought. But they can be encouraged both
materially and ideologically to stabilize the
political order and provide an important ele-
ment in the maintenance of peace.
In this effort, America, with a revival in ideas,
her most valuable export, can regain her posi-
tion of positive and progressive leadership. In
this we must succeed, for our own safety and for
the survival of the new nations against the
encrochment of communism.
Success lies in the proper meshing of the
tools of military, economic and ideological
power at a given time as the situation dictates.
The call now is for ideologic leadership back-
ed by realistic economic assistance and holding
military force in reserve in the hope that it need
not be used.
'U' Approval of AAUP
THE RECENT report of the AAUP Committee
on Academic Freedom and Tenure in the
Quest for National Security will come up for a
vote on April 6 in St. Louis.
In essence the report summarizes faculty civil
rights action at 21 schools and universities,
lauding some, condemning others. The Univer-
sity was one of ten schools discussed but for
whom no recommendations were made.
The Executive Committee of the University's
branch of AAUP has approved the report and
Prof. Ferell Heady, the University's delegate
to the convention, has been instructed to vote
for its acceptance.
The Executive Committee's action was well-
taken. It is to be hoped the report is accepted
quickly by the AAUP in St. Louis. It is a credit
to the organization.
AT THE STATE:
"THE MAN Who Never Was" is a
true story of espionage during
the second world war.
Adapted from the best seller of
the same name by Ewen Montagu
of the British intelligence office,
the film tells the story of how
the British convinced theGermans
that they were going to attack
Greece, not Sicily.
* '' " '
THE JOB OF devising some ruse
fell to Montagu (Clifton Webb).
The plan he put before his super-
iors was this: to dump the body of
a man carrying the identification
of a British major and some per-
sonal letters pinpointing the fake
attack in Greece into waters off
the Spanish coast. A German
agent was to get hold of the papers
and report them to his superiors,
who would move troops away from
Sicily, leaving that island more
open to attack.
As Webb-Montagu says, he has a
rougher time convincing the top'
brass than the Germans. 'But he
finally gets the all-clear from 10
From this point onward, the film
proceeds with documentary-like
precision and objectivity, yet hu-
man, warmheated character de-
lineation. Webb strides through the
problem of finding a suitable body
and transportation for it with mili-
tary accuracy, yet he is very much
human when dealing with the
father of "Major William Martin"
and when going through the grisly
business of dressing the corpse
during a bombing.
The film's biggest liability is
Gloria Graham, who has been
horribly miscast as Webb's secre-
tary's roommate and "Major Mar-
tin's fake girl friend. She invari-
ably looks as if the makeup man
had carefully dipped her in oil
before each take, and her acting is
Stephen Boyd, playing the Ger-
man counter-espionage agent
whose assignment is to check up
on the authenticity of "Major
Martin," does an extremely fine
job, although his role is confined
to the last part of the film.
THE PICTURE'S major virtues
lie in its understated account of the
mechanisms of the war of brains
rather than weapons. It puts its
emphasis on those who stand and
wait and for the most part avoids
the emotionalism and histrionics
of the usual saga of men at war.
It has used the documentary ap-
proach with great care and to good
advantage, and becomes unrealis-
tic only when it turns to overplay-
It stands as an excellent and
believable account of how wars are
often won in an office, rather than
on a battlefield.
New Books at Library
DeHartog, Jan-A Sailor's Life;
Dreiman, David-How to Get
Better Schools: A Tested Program;
N.Y., Harper, 1956.
Engle, Paul & Martin, Hansford
-Prize Stories 1956; N.Y., Double-
Heyer, Georgette-Bath Tangle;
N.Y., Putnam's, 1955.
Hoagland, Edward-Cat Man;
Boston, Houghton Mifflin, 1956.
Hoffman, William-The Trump-
et Unblown; N.Y., Doubleday, 1955.
Jonson ampan Details
By DREW PEARSON<
THE Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of the University
of Michigan for which the Michigan
Daily assumes no editorial responsi-
bility. Notices should be sent in
TYPEWRITTEN form to Room 3553
Administration Building before 2 p.m.
the day preceding publication. Notices
for the Sunday edition must be in by
2 p.m. Friday.
TUESDAY, MARCH 27, 1956
VOL. LXVIII, NO. 37
ON MARCH 21, Drew Pearson
reported that Carl O. Hanson,
Montana director of the Farmers
Home Administration, had been
buying wool for private interests
while working for the government;
had also engaged in politics in vio-
lation of the Hatch Act; and had
used government phones for politi-
cal activities. On March 23, Carl
0. Hanson resigned.
HERE ARE more details on how
the giant Brown and Root con-
tracting firm, which has received
many lush contracts from the gov-
ernment, contributed to the first
Senatorial primary of Lyndon
Johnson, now Democratic Leader
of the Senate, and then deducted
the contributions from income
The case history is important
for several reasons. First, this un-
fortunately, is a practice used by
other companies. They hand out
bonuses to vice presidents, then re-
quire that a percentage of the
bonus be contributed to a certain
pet candidate. Afterward, that
candidate, if elected, is in hock to
the company. It controls his vote,
which is why the Congress today,
more and more, is losing its inde-
Second, the Brown and Root
history is important because they.
were active during the gas bill
debate. George Brown entertained
Sen. Lyndon Johnson and other
bigwigs at his Middleburg, Va.,
estate on weekends, came to Wash-
ington between weekends.
* * *
FINALLY, Senator Johnson has
exerted his influence to sidetrack
the original forthright probe of the
gas lobby proposed by Senator
Hennings (D-Mo.), and is now ex-
erting his influence against the re-
cording of political contributions
in primary campaigns. Yet, it is
primaries, including his own in'
Texas, that really elect Senators in
about one-third of the states.
In Johnson's own Senatorial
primary in Texas in 1941, Internal
Revenue agents discovered that
Brown and Root had' issued the
following checks through their sub-
sidiary, Victoria Gravel Co., to
Edgar Monteith,an attorney in
Houston: $5,000 on May 26, 1941;
$4,500 on June 7; another $3;000
on June 7.
Monteith then used a compli-
cated, roundabout way of using the
money. He distributed $10,000 of it
as a profit between himself and
his law partner, A. W. Baring.
Then Baring transferred the entire
$10.000 back to Monteith, and
Monteith, in turn, wrote checks to
pay the expense of *the Lyndon
When Johnson was given a
chance to explain this, he said he
had never heard of Monteith and
never received financial help from
him. However, Monteith's father
was the former mayor of Houston
and a well-known personage.
* * *
INTERNAL REVENUE agents
found that the Second National
Bank of Houston microfilmed all
checks, including these, and that
Monteith unquestionably had used
the money to pay for radio time,
printing bills, and other Johnson
Internal Revenue agents also
found on Brown and Root's books
an interesting list of bonuses paid
to its vice presidents and other
officials at the exact time of the
Lyndon Johnson primary election.
There was no explanation for
these sudden bonuses, and the em-
ployees who received them could
give no adequate explanation. Nor
could they show any furniture,
homes, automobiles, etc., for which
they used the money, despite the
fact that they cashed the bonuses
on the same day they got the
Yet today, Senator Johnson, a
victim of the terrific cost of raising
money in a primary, does not want
primary expenses and contribu-
tions made a public record.
More on the Brown and Root
(Copyright 1956, by Bell Syndicate, Inc.)
Automobile Regulations, spring recess:
The automobile regulations will be lifted
when classes are completed on Fri.,
March 30. 1956, and will become effective
again at 8:00 a.m. Mon., April 9.
Student Activities Scholarship appli-
cations may be picked up at the Student
Government Council office, Quonset
Hut A; or at the Scholarship Division,
Office of Student Affairs. Up to $450
will be awarded. Deadline for filing
applications is April 15.
My Very Own, 1955 Hopwood Award
Play of the Department of English,
written and directed by Beverly Can-
ning, Grad., will be presented by the
Department of Speech Wed. and Thurs.,
March 28 and 29, at 8 p.m. in the Lydia
University Lecture, auspices of the
Department of Romance Languages.
"L'Esprit du dix-huitieme siecle," in
French. Prof. Gilbert Chinard, President
of the Modern Language Association of
America. 4:15 p.m., Tues., March 27,
Readings by Members of the English
Department. Prof. R. H. Super, "The
Poetry of John Donne," Tues., March
27, Aud. A, 4:10 p.m.
University lecture: Proessor Richard
Waterman of the Department of Anthro-
pology, Northwestern University, "West-
ern African Music" on wed., March 28,
at 4:10 p.m., in Aud. A, Angell Hall.
Illustrated with recordings. Sponsored
jointly by the Department of Anthro-
pology and the School of Music.
Wed., March 28, Prof. S. D. Atkins,
of Princeon University, University lec-
ture, auspices of the Department of
Classical Studies and the Committee on
Linguistics, at 4:15 p.m., in Aud. C of
Angell Hall. "The Theocritean Pastoral:
Ingredients and Structure."
Reading Improvement Classes. Regis-
tration for the April series of 7-week
reading classes will be held Wednesday
through Friday, March 28-30, from 8:00
to 11:30 a.m., and 1:00 to 4:30 p.m., and
Saturday, March 31, from 8:00 to 11:30
a.m.' at the office of the Beading Im-
provement Services, 524 University Ele-
mentary School. Call university exten-
sion 648 for further information. Regis-
tration will require one hour.
Preliminary Examinations in English:
Applicants for they Ph.D. in English who
expect to take the preliminary exami-
nations this spring are requested to
leave their names with Dr. Ogden, 1634
Haven Hall. The "old style" examina-
tions will be given as follows: English
Literature from the Beginnings to 1550,
Tues., April 10; English Literature, 1550-
1750, Sat., April 14; English Literature,
1750-1950, Tues.; April 17; and American
Literature, Sat., April 21. The "new
style" examinations will be given as
follows: English and American Litera-
ture, 1550-1660, Tues., April 10; 1660-
1780, Sat., April 14; 1780-1870, Tues.,
April 17; and 1870-1950, Sat., April 21.
The examinations will be given in
Angell Hall, Room 2203, from 9 a.m. to
Seniors: College of LS&A, and Scool
of Business Administration, Education,
Music, and Public Health: Tentative
lists of seniors for June graduation have
been posted on the bulletin board in
the first floor lobby, Administration
Building. Any changes therefrom should
be requested of the Recorder at Office
of Registration and Records window
Number A, 1513 Administration Build-
Applications for admission to the
Joint Program in Liberal Arts and
Medicine must be made before April
16 of the final preprofessional year.
Application may be made now at 1220
Students intending to take preliminary
examinations for the doctorate in Lin-
guistics should notify Prof. Marckwardt
before March 30. These examinations
will be given on May 11 and 12.
Notice to Freshman Men enrolled in
Physical Education. Men who were en-
roiled in beginning golf during the fall
semester may now transfer from their
present activity to Intermediate Golf.
These classes will meet outdoors one day
per week for a two-hour period. Fly
and Bait Casting classes are also avail
able to men currently enrolled In Physi-
cal Education for Men. All transfers
may be made in Room 4, Waterman
Sports and Dance Instruction. Women
students who have completed their
physical education requirement and who
wish to elect classes may register on
Tues. and Wed., March 27 and 2s from
8:00 a.m. to 12 noon on the main floor,
Barbour Gymnasium. Instruction is
available in tennis, swimming, diving,
life saving, synchronized swimming,
ballet and modern dance.
Seminar in the Resolution of Conflict
(Problems in the Integration of the
Social Sciences, Economics 353) will
meetTues., March 27, in the Conference
Room, 3063, of the Children's Psychiatric
Hospital. Dr. George Levinger will
speak on "Conflict Resolution in the
System of Kurt Lewin."
Mathematics Colloquium: Tues., March
27, at 4:10 p.m., in Room 3011 Angell
Hall. Prof. A. L. Shields will speak on
"Semigroups onLa Manifold with Boun-
dary." Tea and coffee in 3212 A.H. at
Doctoral Examination for Calvin War-
ren Lane, English Language and Litera-
ture; thesis: "Narrative Art and History
LETTERS TO THE EDITOR:
Readers Offer Differing Points of View
INTERPRETING THE NEWS:
RepTercussions in Moscow
By TOM WHITNEY
Associated Press Staff Writer
IN DENOUNCING Joseph Stalin the present
Kremlin leadership may have started some-
thing it won't be able to stop.
The "collective leaders" have set in motion a
re-examination of Soviet history in which they
themselves were intimately involved. It may be
they are doing this in full confidence there is
nothing in their own personal records of which
they need to be reticent or ashamed.
A leading American authority of the USSR
suggests that one of the reasons for revealing
Stalin's crimes now may be that the present
leaders retained a Leninist morality throughout
the years they served Stalin. This Communist
"conscience," he feels, may have emerged after
Stalin's death as a force driving them to expose
his real record.
If this is true Soviet Communists and the
Soviet citizenry may understand and respect
it and accept Nikita Khrushchev as the leader
of the new era.
T COULD also be that the Kremlin leaders
by convicting Stalin of blunders and crimes
plied, according to this account: "What could
we do? There was a reign of terror."
There is certainty that Russians will accept
that as a satisfactory answer. It is certain that
many are asking themselves where Khrushchev,
Nikolai. Bulganin, Anastas Mikoyan, Georgi
Malenkov and other leaders were when Stalin
was doing his purging.
N 1936 the important Bolshevik leaders Leon
Kamenev and Gregory Zinoviev were tried in
the famous treason trials and shot. In January
1937, Nikolai Yezhov was named commissar for
state security and the purges begin in earnest.
Before it was over several million were victims,
In December 1938; Stalin decided to call it off.
He brought Lavrenty Beria up from Georgia
and put him in charge of the secret police.
Beria purged the purgers, including Yezhov.
'Khrushchev during these crucial years was
the Communist party chief in Moscow. Like
other Soviet leaders during this bloody period
he denounced openly and repeatedly the "trai-
tors" who were executed. '
Georgi Malenkov was closely associated with
the great purger, Yezhov. In 1934, before Kor-
To the Editor:
IN FRIDAY'S Daily Murray Fry-
mer bemoans the Stevenson fail-
ure in Minnesota and asks: "Why
is a man who has won such wide
support among our educators and
educated people unable to appeal
similarly to the nation as a
whole." There are two interesting
(and unwarranted, methinks) as-
One is that Stevenson's appeal to
the whole nation was proportion-
ately smaller than his academic
appeal. I just don't think this was
true in 1952-as Frymer suggests.
For example on this campus Stev-
enson probably received about the
same percentage of votes as he did
nationally . . for though I per-
sonally do not likerit I believe this
university community, like most,
gave more votes to-Ike than to
Adlai. (If you study the vote in
Ann Arbor precinct by precinct in
that election it is difficult to as-
sume otherwise.) Frymer writes
that "college men . . . cannot be
optimistic about their own chances
in the political battlefield." Per-
haps in view of the support which
non-intellectuals (to be mild about
it) like Eisenhower received and
continue to receive from supposed-
intellectuals the sentence should
be revised to read, "The political
gressional leaders who did not vote
for the sectional interests of. an
immediate constituency but who
thought, acted, and voted in terms
of the total welfare. To either con-
sciously or unconsciously think of
his as having less concern for in-
tellectual problems or the total
community well-being than his
distinguished primary opponent is
less than accurate. To this point
witness Kefauver's differentiation
on the parity question between the
family-sized farm and the large
Kefauver is trimming Stevenson
because Stevenson'has been trim-
ming his sails. Apparently deter-
mined riot to repeat 1952's "errors"
Stevenson's present campaign has
been managed by the professional
polticians. The results in his ap-
proach to many issues, particularly
racial discrimination and segrega-
tion, have been apparent. Kefauver
has never trimmed his sails to suit
the timidity of the professional
pols, the recalcitrance of an ugly
Southern old guard, or the ques-
tionable ethics of big-city ma-
chines. This is why he lost the 1952
nomination. This is why he is win-
ning it in 1956.
This writer 'worked hard for
Adlai in 1952-nor was I dissatis-
fied with his campaign and its
content. However the key to the
Minnesota primary is found in
Frymer's statement about Steven-
son in 1956: "His call to reason
and moderation . . . is not much
different than President Eisen-
hower's." Exactly! And many Min-
nesota voters apparently felt this
an accurate statement, anti chose
to vote for a more liberal, con-
sistently more liberal, candidate
than Stevenson. By my personal
lights this is a cause for rejoicing,
Inot the sour note Frymer struck.
'The Minnesota vote cannot be in-
terpreted as an anti-intellectual
N~ew Investigatio ...
To the Editor:
T IS encouraging to note that the
SGC, having completed investi-
gations into the automobile prob-
:. ,.: ~