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Viewpoints In Middle East Crisis
sOpinions Are Free,
utb Will Preval"
orials printed in The Michigan Daily express the individual; opinions of staff writers or
the editors. This must be noted in all reprints.
Y, MARCH 25, 1956
NIGHT EDITOR: ERNEST THEODOSSIN
Minimum Membership Rule
Limits New Groups
Israelis Withdraw from Arab Land
By LILY LAHAV
ONCE AGAIN Middle East tensions have become top news headlines
Two current events awoke the interest of the Western World: ) 1 The
attack of Syrian troops on Israeli fishermen, killing three of them.
2) The dismissal of Lt. Gen. John Baggot Glubb, the British commander
of the Arab Legion.
Since the armistice treaties, attacks from across the borders on
settlements and on fishermen on the Sea of Galilee have happened
continually. Hundreds of civilians have been killed and thousands
wounded in so-called border incidents. In addition to this, the continu-
ous announcements of Arab statesmen and leaders, calling for vengeance
and threatening with a "Second round," the aggressive intentions of
the Arab States have been obvious.
Nevertheless, it seems that the Western powers realized this fact
only through the recent events, mainly the dismissal of Gen. Glubb.
According to a statement made by a responsible informant, for the first
time official British thinking has shifted over to the view that the
greatest danger of war in the Middle East lies in possible Arab aggres-
Although Gen. Glubb was considered anti-Israel, the Legion under
British command was considered as a possible restraining factor on the
Arab armies. Now, with the whole top echelon of British commanders
recalled, the Legion could become a tool of Arab leaders aiming to'
The world's most crucial
area - the Middle East-re-
mains poised, a time bomb set
to go off any day.
One war has already been
fought in the area. In 1948 a
truce commission was set up to
keep the peace, yet border in-
cidents are almost a daily oc-
What are the big issues?
Why are they so irreconcilable?
Daily readers can judge for
themselves in this debate be-
tween representatives of the Is-
raeli and Arab Student organi-
zations on campus.
Lily Lahav, 28, is a Haifa, Is-
rael school teacher, in special
English studies at the Univer-
Khalid Al-Shawi, 25, comes
to the University from Bag-
dhad, Iraq, working for his doc-
tor's degree in law. He is for-
mer president of the Arab club.
Peace Pact Would Relieve Tensions
By KHALID A. AL-SHAWI
THE TRAGEDY or Palestine started in 1947 when the United Nations
Palestine, as well as Iraq, Syria and Lebanon, was under the
Mandate System. Iraq, Syria and Lebanon acquired their independence
as was stipulated in the Mandate and it was expected that Palestine
would follow the same course.
The United Nations, under the pressure of the Big Powers, created
that state without a legal or even a moral right to do so. The right
of the indigenous population of Palestine to form an independent state
is unquestionable under the doctrine of self-determination. The United
Nations applied this principle in such cases as Indonesia, Korea, Syria
and Lebanon, but not only ignored it in the Palestinian case but
deliberately adopted the opposite by giving the Jewish minority the
best part of Palestine for the purpose of creating Israel.
Sadly enough, the trend of American policy since has been to disre-
gard both the legal and moral elements involved in the case in order
to uphold what is called the status quo.
To this policy whether Israel's creation is legal or moral is of no
consequence; what matters is that Israel is now in existence and must
remain. Even though this attitude forms a bad precedent in interna-
tional relations and world morality, the Arabs recently showed their
good intentions by reconciling themselves to accept the United
Nations resolutions of 1948 regarding Palestine, to wit: first, the
TTEMPTS to remove minimum member-
ship qualifications for, campus organizations
11 probably be labeled red-tinged. When Stu-
nt Legislature tried to force through similar
islation three years ago it was voted down
th a similar connotation attached. The red
g stems from claims that the only organiza-
n to profit from the change would be the
,bor Youth League which is struggling under
ver in Ann Arbor with a microscopic mem-
Such reasoning is short-sighted from many
.gles. Need for removing minimum member-
ip qualifications goes beyond recognition of
'l. It by no means promotes University
cognition for the group presently on Attor-
y General Brownell's subversive activities list.
Present University regulations require a group
have 20 members before being recognized
SGC. Only in rare cases does the Council
e a loophole which permits recognition if the
oups aims are commensurate with the small-
membership. The spirit is quite obviously
r a minimum of 20 members.
To clarify questions raised because of the
,phole and to make SGC recognition based
rely on the merits of the group involved
e 20 member requirement should be elimi-
Groups asking recognition are often just or-
nized and need University recognition to
ild up their membership. This is especially
ue with political groups not espousing one of
e "popular" causes. The early months for
ese groups are a struggle. With University
cognition they could get publicity and meet-
g rooms in University buildings which are
ten the final touch needed to become a suc-
COURSE extremist groups are often
frowned on at the University. With recogni-
n they would be using the good University
ime to promote causes out of sympathy with
e educational obectives of the University. But
ee expression of opinion should be one of the
niversity's objectives and extreme political
oups would help to stimulate this presently
agnant area. If they got out of hand, SGC
uld immediately clamp down. The Council
ill must approve their all-campus activities.
But it's not just extreme groups. Eliminat-
ing membership qualifications~would end neces-1
sity for SGC to make exceptions everytime. a
small nationality group asks for recognition.
With no minimum membership qualifications
SGC would be completely free to admit the
groups it wanted. It could judge each group
on its merits. Membership could be a factor
but not as it is now the decisive factor in
LYL RECOGNITION is a needless fear. SGC
still can keep the group off-campus even if
it's eligible by membership standards. Removal
of minimum membership qualifications would
simply force the Council to build a logical case
against their recognition on basis other than.
too few members.
Some think removing minimum membership
qualifications doesn't go far enough, They
favor removing the requirement that all mem-
bets of organizations must be listed with the
Office of Student Affairs.
Membership listings with the OSA can be
scrutinized by outsiders and -keep many stu-
dents from joining groups that carry an ex-
treme left-wing label.
However if only officers were registered there
would be no way for the University and SGC
to keep touch with the numerous groups on
campus. Padded memberships would become
an immediate problem. Organizations could
become loaded with non-students, scholasti-
cally ineligible students and students who make
it a habit of duplicating their memberships in
various organizations with similar aims and
N 1949 the Daily checked into a .claim that
five student organizations with around 20
members were backing a position then in con-
troversy at the University. They found that
the same 20 people were in all the organizations.
With no minimum membership small groups
could still be >recognized. Membership regis-
tration would simply keep everything above
board. Students enthusiastically supporting a
cause should be recognized by a liberal edu-
cational institution. But the University is
under no obligation to provide legitimacy for
undercover propaganda groups.
Soviets Better Than Orwell
MANY AMERICAN readers of George Orwell's
"1984" found sections of the book so fan-
tastic as to be completely unbelievable. For
example, there were the instantaneous, almost
unnoticed switches of sides in the constant
Suddenly, with no official announcement, the
people discover that they are fighting East-Asia
instead of Eurasia, indeed that they have
always been fighting East-Asia, when only a
moment before the change they knew they
were formally at war with Eurasia.
Simultaneously throughout the land, speakers
in the midst of their speeches, denouncing the
enemy begin substituting the word "East-Asia"
for Eurasia" and, when lauding their ally, sub-
stitute the word "Eurasia" for East-Asia."
Posters attacking the European state are re-
placed abruptly by posters attacking the Orien-
tals. And the people do not appear to notice
And yet, this is not really so whimsical as it
may first appear.
One thousand, three hundred and fifty-five
party members were told at the 20th Congress
of the Communist Party in Moscow last week
that Stalin was guilty of "torture," "murder,"
"dictatorship," "lies," "anti-Semitism" and. a
"Reign of Terror."
Shouting at one moment, and with tears
streaming down his cheeks the next, party
leader Nikita Khrushchev enunciated the new
dogma. The present party leaders had opposed
Stalin all along, all the people had opposed him.
And now, everyone stands for the new Khrush-
chev gang. They always have.,
WHAT IS SO inconceivable about it is that
this enormous change of policy has gone
into effect like the flick of a switch. Except for
the quelled riots in Stalin's native state of
Georgia, there has been practically no friction.
Portraits of purged leaders, such as Voznesen-
sky, suddenly appear, the Stalin Auto Works is
renamed the Moscow Auto Works, the Lennin-
Stalin tomb is rechristened the Lenin tomb
once more. Throughout the world, Communist
officials are all denouncing Stalin.
Perhaps this superlative degree of "double-
think" would surprise even George Orwell
himself if he were still alive.
In fact, throughout all thec
rael's attitude was always a peaces-
ful one. The government of Israel
has offered at various times a
settlement of peace which was
always rejected by the Arabs who
deny even the existence of Israel
as a legal state.
Recently there has been talk
about Israel's intention of starting
a preventive war. In one of his
latest addresses before the Knes-
seth (Israel Parliament), prime
minister BenGurion stated that his
government never intended and
never will start a war, adding that
the talk about a preventive war
was an outsider's invention.
The Arab Tripartite pact (in-
cluding Egypt, Syria and Saudi
Arabia) against possible Israeli
aggression seems ridiculous. If they
are afraid of Israel's violence, why
do they oppose any suggestion of
signing a non-aggression pact with
this state? The truth is that the
Israelis feel that they have nothing
to gain by war. Besides longing to
avoid all bloodshed. Israel looks
forward to peaoe because any kind
of war would delay the nation's
plans for development upon which
her economic growth would de-
pend. Furthermore, any kind of
war would interfere with the inte-
gration of the new immigrants
which is one of Israel's main
THE DANGER of a possible
blow-up in this area became acute
late in 1955 after the Czechoslo-
vakia-Egypt weapon deal which
supplied the latter with modern
equipment, including 200 MIG
Soviet fighters, 100 Russian tanks,
6 submarines, quantities of artil-
lery and other arms.
Shipments of Communist arms
soon arrived in Alexandria, and
Syria, too, got an offer.
The United States, Britain and
France are standing by a 1950
declaration intending to stem the
flow of arms to both sides. The
idea was to maintain the balance
of power in the area.
This balance has been upset by
a single stroke coming from behind
the Iron Curtain. Yet, while the
Western powers loudly protested
the shipment of arms to Egypt
by the Communists, Britain con-
tinued without publicity her regu-
lar shipment of arms to the Arab
States, including 15 jet planes
to the State of Jordan and 60
Centurion tanks to Egypt. The
United States sent 18 tanks to
Saudi Arabia. No doubt these sup-
plies will upset the balance still
Justr as the Western world has
to increase her defense power to
ensure world peace, Israel needs
defensive arms to guarantee her
sovereignty. While weapons keep
flowing to all Arab States, Israel's
request for defensive arms is still
being discussed and delayed.
When explaining his approval of
sending weapons to the Arab
States, Secretary of State Dulles
declared that Israel cannot hope
to match the Arab States in arms
volume. She had better place her
faith in the Tripartite Pact and in
the United Nations themselves
which had "created Israel."
* * *
MR. DULLES forgot that all the
United Nations did was pass a
resolution in November 1947 au-
thorizing Israel's establishment. It
did nothing to defend or imple-
ment this when the Arab nations
defied the United Nations and at-
tacked Israel. It was the fact that
Israel fought for her existence, al-
though the UN abandoned her to
her fate, which created this nation.
The present situation with the
Arabs getting more and more
powerful may make a second at-
tack seem deceptively easy to Nas-
sar's glory-hungry army. Only the
possibility of a second defeat could
The deterrent t war lies in Is-
rael's acquisition of defensive arms
of a quality capable of meeting the
entirely new type of equipment
which has been brought into the
Middle East. The solution is - re-
balance of powers.
However, overcoming the dan-
prey nf an nothn rs tfwa r rine no+
1 ' .t
years of her existence, Is-
_ ,. ,_
.+ y t^'
"N F, S^
'y " b'=' t
repatriation of the Arab refugees
"You'll Be Much Safer With This Young Man Driving"
to their homes and compensation
to those who declined to return;
second, the enforcement of the
proposed partition plan of 1947;
third ,the internationalization of
Today, acceptance of these three
points is the only solution. They
are the most to which the Arabs
can concede. They alone can form
the basis for a peaceful settlement.
* * *
AT THIS POD"T, one may ask
why the Arabs then disputed the
Partition Resolution at the time
it was adopted and entered the
Palestinian war. The answer .is
simple. The Arabs, along with a
great number of imminent jurists
and publicists, challenged the UN
interference and still believe it was
illegally imposed. A body which
does not have jurisdiction upon a
matter cannot render judgment,
particularly when the judgment is
unfair and involves a denial of
justice, self-determination and
basic human rights.
But since the UN adopted the
resolutionand created the prob-
lem, the Arabs feel that the UN
must solve the problem Itself.
However, under current develop-
ments, the Arabs showed the world
their best intention of co-opera-
tion with that organization by ac-
cepting these resolutions, primarily
as a practical solution to the prob-
As for the Palestinian war, part
of the Arab armies entered Pales-
tine to save the inhabitants from
the savage raids of the Zionist
terrorists. Those raids were mali-
ciously organized even before the
mandatory Power left Palestine.
* * 9
BUT THE unanswerable ques-
'tion is why the Zionists, who
agreed to those resolutions in
1948, are violating them now by
occupying 800 square miles more
territory than they are supposed
Zionists bluntly claim they have
a right to it because they occupied
it by force. This is pure nonsense,
as occupation by force does not
give title to the occupant of the
occupied territory, otherwise, for
example, Russia can claim title to
East Germany. If Israel is honest
in its cry for peace, it must with-
draw from that Arab territory.
A solution to the problem of the
Arab refugees is urgent. They
cannot live as they are forever.
Their recent plight is indescribable.
The nonsensical argument of the
Zionists that they should be forced
to live in the neighboring Arab
countries can be silenced by the
fact that these are people, not a
commodity, and they cannot be
moved from one place to another
without their consent.
:egardless of the great effort
the Arab States made by-issuing
laws giving the refugees the same
rights and privileges as their own
citizens, and regardless of the UN
plan to settle the refugees in other
Arab countries, the refugees em-
phatically refused. Their lands,
which they owned for thousands
of years, have a greater value to
them than the Zionists can imag-
WHAT SHOULD America do?
America's stake in the Middle
East is tremendous. Its tangible
and intangible interest in the area
is vital. America should not sacri-
fice its interests; its prestige, and
its responsibility in leading the
free world in order to 'please a
small segment of American Zion-
ists who split their allegiance be-
tween Israel and America.
We are aware of the Zionist
lobbyist pressure on some of the
American policy makers. We
know their false and misleading
propaganda in this country. It is
time for the American people to
know that the Arabs sustained an
unbelievable amount of damage as
a result of this policy. It is time
that American policy in the Near
East be derived from America's in-
terests in the area.
S* * s
THE ONE-SIDE;} and partial
policy in favor of Israel is reach-
ing its climax in this country. If
it ontinues it is linh l n thrnw
BROADWAY SHOWS IN VOGUE:
Movie Year Shabby Despite Changes
Adlai and the Folks
MAYBE the whistle-stop campaign is not
Truman did all right with it in 1948 and now
Kefauver has further confused an already hazy
Democratic political picture by using it, in
effect, in his sweeping primary win over Adlai
Stevenson in Minnesota.
At least this thought may occur to two men;
namely President Eisenhower, who may very
well be contemplating a "front portch" cam-
paign this fall, and Stevenson, who realizes
that one must do more than jump from a warm
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Dirk AlstrAm-.-.-.............._...--usine sManager
car, say a few words from behind the rostrum,
jump back into the car and head back home.
Stevenson did travel far and did work hard
at his campaign but he just didn't have the
hand-shaking charm and folksy ways of Sen.
Kefauver that influences people and wins votes.
Stevenson will simply have to work harder at
Political experts across the country are say-
ing it is impossible to give a precise appraisal
of the damage that has been done in the Stev-
enson camp. Granted-there has been damage
but the extent and reason for it are only
While some writers are ready to bury Steven-
son right now we can not quite believe that he
is dead yet. They point out that Dewey upset
Wendell L. Wilkie in Wisconsin in 1944 and
Harold E. Stassen in Oregon in 1948 in a
similar manner. But in 1952, Kefauver did
very well in the primaries but Stevenson's name
appeared on the ballot in November.
ACTUALLLY IT IS fairly obvious that this
defeat, while being a setback, has also aided
Stevenson in that he now realizes a more con-
contrated campaign effort, possibly of a slightly
different nature, will be necessary in the future.
Kefauver's success has indicated to Republican
leaders that the GOP standard bearer in
November may have to get out and stump,
particularly in the farm areas, if he expects
By ERNEST THEODOSSIN
Daily Staff Writer
THE ACADEMY of Motion Pic-
ture Arts and Sciences last
Wednesday tried very hard to make
its award presentation something
more than a big bore.
The Academy got Jerry Lewis to
emeee tke program. It acquired the
services of top singers like Harry
Belefonte, Jane Powelland Mau-
rice Chevalier. It cut the official
business to the bone, didn't both-
er to mention nominated pictures
and performers for most of the
categories. It recruited almost ev-
ery film artist available whose
name is known to the public.
But despite everything, the en-
trie business of Academy Awards
appeared very shabby indeed.
* * *
IN THE FIRST PLACE, the
winners were almost predeter-
mined. Hollywood had produced
practically nothing that deserved
any award. "Marty" and "Rose
Tattoo" received most of the
awards. But what would the Acad-
emy have done without them?
There was little else to choose
from, so scarce were good Ameri-
The question of which size
screen to use was still unanswered.
CinemaScope, VistaVision a n d
Cinerama were busily exploring the
beauties of exotic foreign locales.
Venice, Paris, London, the Rivi-
era, Hong Kong, Switzerland, Ver-
mont and a dozen other examples
of natural and created beauty had
become more important than per-
formers. But scenery alone does
not make a great film.
Then there was the old business
of studio politics. Foreign films
THE MOST APPALLING fact
was that almost no one was
creating anything new for the
A glance at 1955's Hollywood pic-
tures reveals one original effort,
"Love Me or Leave Me." A biog-
raphy of Ruth Etting, it was
warmly received by critics and
made money. Then the biography
craze began. Studios started film-
ing everybody's biography.
Billy Mitchell's story was a
must. Lillian Roth's story of alco-
hol between songs was also a must,
So was Eddie Foy's story. But Hol-
lywood biographies don't make
great pictures either: they are us-
ually more song and dance than
Broadway shows were another
vogue in 155. "Oklahoma!" "Pic-
nic," "Guys and Dolls," "Mister
Roberts" and "The Desperate
Hours" were put on film. The us-
ual complaint was that the origi-
nal show was much better, that
Hollywood had changed too much.
Hollywood was buying up tele-
vision plays madly, remaking its
older pictures; no one was think-
ing up very much that was new,
and the screen had become a
news for preserving the best ef-
forts of such transitory media as
the stage and TV.
* * *
LAST YEAR was also in the
midst of a "change of pace"
craze. Frank Sinatra is a singer,
so he takes dramatic roles. Susan
Hayward is an actress, so she
sings. Bing Crosby is a singer, so
he acts. Marlon Brando and Jean
Simmons are dramatic stars, so
they sing. The fad is still contin-
uing. Audrey Hepburn is going to
dance with Fred Astaire. Grace
Kelly will sing with Bing Crosby.
Gina Lolobrigida will sing alone.
Hollywood had forgotten that
there might be something beyond
novelties and Broadway shows,
novels and television plays to film.
About the only new things in 155's
Hollywood movies that deserved
mention were different sizes and
shapes of screens. Hollywood had
a hard time last year. It did well
by publicly thanking Paddy Chay-
efsky, Ernest Borgnine and Anna
Magnani. Without this trio, the
year would have looked even more
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