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April 17, 1955 - Image 8

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Michigan Daily, 1955-04-17

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PAGL EIGAT'

MIME MICHIGAN DAIIV

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PAGF? ETGHT TUE W!CITJ(47%T 11~1!I*V @T~yv~*.~ 3~YW 4W 4*~

ZUNIDAY, APRIL 17, 1935

F

Paid Political Advertisement

Paid Political Advertisement

National Students Assn. Names April

17-24

Academic

Freedom

Week;

SL Policy Stand

'U' Participates
'Lack of Understanding Causes
NSA Congress To Declare Week

A democratic society depends upon the
free exchange of ideas.
It is the function of the educational com-
munity to provide for this exchange of ideas
to prepare citizens to assume their responsi-
bilities in a democratic society. Many methods
employed by legislative investigating com-
mittees tend to prevent an educational insti-
tution from doing its vital job by producing
an atmosphere in which the novel, original,
and unconventional may be punished as
being pernicious or wickedly unorthodox.
Therefore, the Student Legislature of the
University believes it especially desirable at
this time to affirm the following fundamental
principles as essental if the educational com-
munity is to continually fulfill its function to
build questioning and exploring citizens and
thus stregthen the forces of freedom.
1. The maintenance of academic freedom
is of importance both to the educational
community and to society as a whole.
2. The members of the educational com-
munity, as citizens, have all the constitutional
rights of any American citizen, and no spec.
ial restrictions not imposed upon other citi-
zens should be imposed upon them.
3. Provided a faculty member, adminis-
trator, or student speaks or writes as a citi-
zen, clearly indicating' he does not speak for
the educational institution with which he is
connected; he should be free from institu-
tional or public censorship.

4. A faculty member should be free to
express in class, along with the opposing
opinions, his own opinions relevant to the
material of the course, provided it is clear
that he is expressing his own opinions and
not insisting on their acceptance.
5. Students should be free to hear all
points of view on controversial subjects fairly
presented in order to aid individual formula-
tion of opinion.
6. Religious, racial, and other non-educa-
tional considerations shall not enter into the
appointment of administrators and faculty
members, or acceptance of students. It is
understood that where the avowed purpose of
an institution is to bring together members
for a specific religious purpose, religion may
be a factor considered in hiring and accept-
ance.
7. Administrators, faculty members and
students should be protected against dismissal
as well as economic, social and political pres-
ure becaue of membership in any religious,
political, racial, or national origin group.
8. Dismissal from membership in the edu-.
cational community should be only for in-
competence, neglect of obligations to the
educational community, moral turpitude, vio-
lation of the academic freedom of others, or
conviction under the law of the land, and
then only after a fair hearing in accordance
with the methods utilized in the United States
Courts.

LEROY GORE

Leroy Gore To Talk
April 24 on Freedom

The Seventh Student Congress
of the National Student Associa-
tion decided to hold a National
Academic Freedom Week because
"there is little understanding of
academic freedom."
"Ironically, this lack of under-
standing is true of students who
are the most direct beneficiaries
of academic freedom and the ones
most directly affected by steady
erosion of the freedoms of the
academic community. In the midst
of this poor understanding of the
meaning of academic freedom,
there has been a constant struggle
with the problem of preventing
subversion while maintaining our
freedoms.
Intellectual Curiosity
"Education is in large part de-
pendent upon a student's motiva-
tion-his intellectualscuriosity.
When an institution uses official
sanctions to prevent some ideas
from being expressed on campus,
it is implying that there are dan-
gers in thinking too much, in
studying in some areas, or in ask-
ing embarrassing questions. In-
stead of motivating a student to
greater intellectual endeavor, the
institution is stultifying the edu-
cational processes on campus.
"A failure to hear all sides
means that a student will have less
and less chance to arrive at some
approximation of reality. An in-
stitution that restricts its freedom
is having a deleterious effect on a
student's search for truth.
"The doubling of college en-
rollments within the next few
Program Planned
During Academic
Freedom Week
Three events besides the speech
by Loroy Gore have been sched-
uled for Academic Freedom Week.
The "Studio One" presentation
of Justice Douglas' new book, Al-
manac of Liberty, will be shown
in Architecture Auditorium at
7:30 and 8:30 on Tuesday, April
19.
The Wesleyan Guild is sponsor-
ing a town meeting with the topic
for discussion being, "Is Academic
Freedom Synonomous With Po-
litical Freedom?" Speakers will
be Pat Roeloffs, Associate City
Editor of The Daily; Mike Sharpe,
president of the Labor Youth Lea-
gue, and Ned Simon and Steve
Jelin, former SL presidents.

iV

years raises new dangers to aca-
demic freedom-dangers that in-
crease the importance of current
consideration of academic free-
dom. Our institutions of higher
learning will be forced to seek
huge new funds to expand their
facilities to absorb the onrush of
students.
"What price will be paid for
these buildings and related facili-
ties? Will our state legislatures,
alumni groups, corporations, and
individual donors demand new

restrictions on the freedom of the
institution as a condition for'
supplying the requisite funds?
Will the timid educator tone down
controversy on campus to assure
the necessary income?
A tendency to neutrality of
thought within higher education
in order to secure these funds can
mean the decimation of the stand-
ards of higher education. The in-.
terest of student government in
academic freedom could not be
more timely or imperative."

Illinois Student Senate
Asks Speaker Ban End

'Misuse of Fifth Amendment'
Causes Dismissal of Professor

A Temple University philosophy'
professor, Barrows Dunham, was
dismissed last year because of
"misuse of the Fifth Amendment."
Prof. Dunham was investigated
by the Velde Committee and Tem-
ple officials on charges of subver-
sive activities.
The American Civil Liberties
Union has since taken up the case.
Temple University has threatened
to release further "withheld in-
formation" if the ACLU released
its report. In the meantime, the
professor's lawyer admitted that
he was formerly a member of the
Communist party.
Fifth Amendment
When Prof. Dunham, who was
chairman of Temple's Philosophy
Department, was called before the
Velde Committee, he refused to re-
veal any other information besides
his name-under the terms of the
Fifth Amendment.
The Committee immediately
voted unanimously to recommend
him for contempt and later se-
cured the citation from Congress.
The citation was thenforwarded,
to the Attorney General's office
and is waiting for a decision on;
presenting it to a Grand Jury. 1
Temple immediately suspended
Prof. Dunham, called him before
their loyalty committee, and final-
ly dismissed him fror. the faculty
on a Pennsylvania law providing
for a loyalty oath. The ACLU took
up his case and charged Temple
with violating due process of law
and academic freedom. A report
was submitted to Temple officials
by an ACLU committee.
Charges Made
The report charges that Temple
did not follow proper procedural
safeguards In the dismissal of
Prof. Dunham. Temple officials
threatened to "release more infor-
mation on Prof. Dunham"-which
they had discovered in private
closed hearings with him, if the'

4
I

4

ACLU were to make public its re-
port.
Prof. Dunham's lawyer felt that
Temple was referring to the fact
that the teacher was a member of
the Communist party until
"around 1945 or 1946." He said
that Prof. Dunham is no longer
a member.
"No Reason To Fear"
Prof. Dunham said that he has
asked ACLU to publish its report
because he had "no reason to fear
criminal action from anything in
the transcripts of the University
hearings."

Temple trustees haC formerly
told newspapers that Prof. Dun-
ham had explained his conduct on
the ground that "he disapproved
of the committee and that he in-
tended to avoid acting as an in-
former."
Although Prof. Dunham quit the
Communist party around 1946, he
wrote a book in 1947 entitled "Man
Against Myth-a. analysis of so-
cial superstitions." The New York
Times Book Review called the
book a distortion of "history to fit
the Procrustean bed of his Marxist
convictions."

Wolpert Wins First Prize
In National Essay Contest
Students Will Benefit Most Only if the Teacher
Can Question Free From Popular Pressure

Leroy Gore, originator of the
"Joe Must Go" campaign will talk
on the topic "Freedom is Not a
One-Way Street" for Academic
Freedom Week, April 24.
A graduate of the University of
Nebraska School of Journalism,
Gore has acted in the capacities
of both editor and publisher in
Wisconsin for the last twenty
years.
Always a staunch Republican
and once a personal friend as well
ACLU Takes
Case of Prof.
Northern California American
Civil Liberties Union has interest-
ed itself in the case of a visiting
professor at the University of
California.
In April, 1953, this professor
stated that he had been deprived
of the privilege of teaching be-
cause of charges of past Commu-
nist affiliation, which threw doubt
upon the truth of his Levering
Act loyalty oath.
Communist Affiliations
The University's Committee on
Privilege and Tenure was told by
Chancellor Kerr that there was
information believed credible to
the effect that there had been
Communist affiliations during the
five-year period preceding the per-
son's appointment to the univer-
sity. However, he was not at lib-
erty to release this information of-
ficially to the committee.
Northern California ACLU be-
lieves that the case represents a
"complete denial of the presump-
tion of innocence, of the right to
answer detailed charges duly made
in support of any evidence pro-
duced and in the hands of the
hearing body, of the right to be
present when testimony is given,
of the right to confront accusers,
cross-examine witnesses-and, in-
deed, of the whole requirement
and spirit of fair hearing and due
process."
Two Schools
Fire Prof.
Immediately after Harry C.
Steinmetz was fired from San
Diego State College for refusing
to say whether or not he was a
Communist, he was offered a sum-
mer teaching job by Cornell Uni-
versity.
However, a Cornell spokesman
recently withdrew the University's
offer
Steinmetz first became involved
in serious difficulty when he re-
fused to state whether he was a

l ---

as supporter of Senator McCar-
thy, Gore called for a recall of
the Wisconsin Senator with an
editorial in his own newspaper
the Sauk-Prairie Star March 19,
1954.
"I'm still reeling with astonish-
ment at what has happened to
me since then," said Gore. "As
everyone now knows, the recall
missed its fabulous goal of 403,000
signatures by a hair."
Because of his political activi-
ties legal and business pressures
forced Gore to sell his newspaper.
As the founder of the "Joe Must
Go" club, charges were brought
against him for belonging to a
Wisconsin corporation which en-
gaged in political activity. "Politi-
cal corporations have been doing
business in Wisconsin for forty-
four years, and this is the first
occasion on which their right to
do so has been questioned," said
Gore.
"I will be back in the news-
paper business as soon as the con-
stitutional questions are resolved
by the Supreme Court, probably
early this summer."
Dr. Novi koff,
Vermont, Out
College Professor
Uses 5th Amendment
Dr. Alex B. Novikoff, a profes-
sor of Experimental Pathology and
Biochemistry at the Vermont Col-
lege of Medicine, was recently dis-
missed from the University by the
Board of Trustees for refusing to
answer questions before the Jen-
ner Committee.
The Jenner Committee claimed
to have evidence of Novikoff's
participation in Communist acti-
vities while a member of the fac-
ulty of Brooklyn College, prior to
coming to Vermont in 1948.
No Communist
A Vermont trustee committee
formulated a policy that no known
Communist would be permitted on
the faculty. However, if a fac-
ulty member invoked the Fifth
Amendment, he would be relieved
of his teaching duties, although
remaining at full pay, until a
special faculty-trustee committee
could investigate the circum-
stances of the case and recom-
mend appropriate action to the
full board of trustees.
Vote Overruled
A faculty-trustee committee was
immediately set in action at Ver-
mont University. Af ter two
months' deliberation, 5 of the 6
members voted to retain Novikoff
on the faculty. The Board of
Trustees overruled the committee's

Climaxing weeks of campus dis-
cussion, the University of Illi-
nois Student Senate has unani-
mously endorsed a resolution call-
ing for removal of a university
ban on political speakers.
The .vote followed a campus
wide opinion poll by members of
the senate, estimated to have
reached more than 3,000 students.
Only 56 of those polled voted
against removal of the ban.
Request Endorsed
Emphatic endorsement of the
Senate position was promptly
voiced by the Panhellenic and In-
terfraternity Councils. Next step
in the effort to remove the speak-
er ban will come when university
president Lloyd Morey presents
the Senate resolution to the board
of trustees.
Stating that "the Senate favors
the use of university buildings,
grounds, and facilities by or on
behalf of candidates for nomina-
tion or election to state or national
offices," the resolution suggests
the following steps for Implemen-
tation:
1. An appropriate University
committee with a student mem-
bership be authorized to admin-
ister the political speaker pol-
icy of the University.
2: The speaker shall meet the
following conditions:
a. The speaker shall be a
member of a recognized political
party having legal status in the
state of Illinois.
b. The speaker shall be spon-
sored by a student, faculty, or
administration group. However,
in the event the aforementioned

"Unless the teacher is free

groups do not choose to do so,
the opportunity for sponsorship
shall remain open to the official
state party organization of the
proposed speaker.
c. Campaigning speakers shall
be seeking state or national of-
fice.
d. Equal opportunities must be
available to all political parties
using University facilities.
Scientists Protest
Oppenheimer Ban
The University of Washington
announced last month that it had
been forced to cancel an import-
ant scientific conference April 7-8
because of its ban against Dr. J.
Robert Oppenheimer.
Seven of eight Eastern and Mid-
western scientists who were to
have led the meeting signed a
round-robin letter refusing to ap-
pear because of the ban. The let-
ter asserted that refusal to per-
mit Oppenheimer to appear on
the university campus had "clear-
ly placed . . . Washington outside
the community of scholars."
University President Henry
Schmitz invoked the Openheimer
ban because of the scientist's
"governmental relationships." He
maintained the university's posi-
tion had been misunderstood and
said no question of academic free-
dom was involved.
Week Declared
National Students Association
has declared the third week in
April as Academic Freedom Week.
Before SL went out of existence,
they also declared this week, in
conjunction with NSA, as the Uni-
versity's Academic Freedom Week.
Working with NSA and SL, the
Academic Freedom Ad Hoc Com-
mittee has arranged for the acti-
vities of the week.
This committee was a sub-com-
mittee of SL before it went out of
existence. All expenses for the
week have been payed by SL.

to T.

question and dissent, the student's
mind will emerge from school,
not strong with wisdom, but at
best heavy with information."
Speaking on "The Meaning of
Columbia U'
Acquits Prof.
After a year-long investigation,
Dr. Goodwin Watson, Professor of
Education at Columbia University
and a part-time research consult-
ant for the Guidance Center of
New Rochelle, has been "acquit-
ted" by the Larchmont Commun-
ity Chest of charges of pro-Com-
munist affiliations.
The charges, brought by the
Westchester County American Le-
gion, were investigated by a seven-
man committee of the Larch-
mont Chest, of which the Center
has been a beneficiary. Five mem-
bers found that Dr. Watson had
not been a dupe of the Commu-
nists or a "conscious, articulate
instrument of the Soviet conspir-
acy."
They recommended that the
Chest continue its support of the
Guidance Center and pay it the

Academic Freedom," Stanley A.
Wolpert won the first prize in
the 1954 national essay contest
sponsored by the National Coun-
cil of Jewish Women.
Doubt and Wonder
"The teacher who tailors his
opinions to the cut of the popular
pressure will hardly encourage
bold inquiry in his classroom. But
the shortest distance to educa-
tion is still the circuitous route of
doubt and error, of wonder and
conflict, of struggle in the arena
of ideas where all things are to be
proved, and the good held fast.
"Men who will one day govern
themselves must first learn to
think for themselves. Independent
minds can neither be hammered
nor drilled into shape-they must
grow. Weeds and tangled brush
will sprout from unscraped soil,
but to reap a rich harvest of grain,
the land must be plowed deep, the
clods of earth turned up and brok-
en, pummeled and agitated, fer-
tilized, fed and watered.
America's Tradition
"The teacher should inspire and
stimulate thought, and, by living
his own fervent love of freedom,
incite as fierce and beautiful a
love in the hearts and minds of
youth. In her colleges and univer-

Chicago, U', NU Students
Oppose State Broyles Bills
By unanimous vote, the Student " °--
Governing Board at Northwestern tories or student organizations.
University recently expressed op- Formed four times since 1949,
position to the so-called Broyles the Committee works on an ad
Bills pending in the Illinois State hoc basis to present its views on
Legislature, issues affecting the civil liberties
The Board also sent student of students.
representatives to present their
views before the state Senate.
According to The Daily North-
western, the bills make it unlaw-
ful to "teach ... anyone to com- I to a t
mit any acts to overthrow the
government" and would force
teachers to sign a loyalty oath. Ta e Fr d
"Undesirable"
The SGB resolution termed the The National Student Ass
bills "undesirable because: (1) grounds on which a professors
they destroy existing public ser- sional competence and integri
vice tenure provisions; (2) they "This principle is basic. On
may be used to prevent students This pniperis sic.
and teachers from exploring con- petence and integrity should
troversial issues; (3) they may be a teaching position.
construed to apply to groups which "The NSA believes thatr
are innocent of un-American acti- conspiratorial group or organiz
vities, and (4) they lack provi- overthrow of the United States
sions to guarantee judicial re- of certain principles and meth
course and redress." the search for truth. At the
Shortly after the SGB decision case, such membership extingu
was announced, several North- to be professionally competent
western students protested that "Membership in totalitarian
student government had become zations that advocate the viole
"self-appointed guardians of our is not, in and of itself, suffic
liberty."
SGB Representative? a university position . . . dism
They maintained SGB had made vestigation of each individual+
"no effort to determine how the petence and lack of integrity.

s

week ave een pyed y IS I

ident Group
tom poseion
;sociation believes that the only
should be judged are his profes-
ty.
only for lack of professional com-
a professor be removed from
membership in any totalitarian
ation that advocates the violent
government requires acceptance
ods which surrender freedom in
present time, in almost every
uishes the ability of a professor
n conspiratorial groups or organi-
nt overthrow of the government
lent grounds for dismissal from
missal is justified only after in-
case proves professional incom-
a tribunal of one's faculty col-
mine the facts and judge fairly
trespass upon academic integrity,
spass merits.... such a tribunal
o conduct such an investigation,
il outside pressures.
t of the Cnaressof theU.~nited

1

Fi red Prof. Used
Fifth Amendment
Officials at Rensselaer Polytech-
nic Institute recently dismissed
Prof. Arthur L. Levy from the
faculty.
Prof. Levy, member of the chem-
istry department faculty, invoked

students which it claims to rep-
resent felt toward the bills, held
no public forum to discuss the is-
sue, and did not even inform the
student body it was going to dis-
cuss ... the bills."
Meanwhile, at the University of

"The NSA believes thata
leagues is competent to deters
the nature and degree of any t
as well as the penalty such tre
is the only body competent to
and . .. must be free from a'
"NS~A rAe'nffnizpe fthe igfht

.,

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