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October 01, 1954 - Image 4

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Michigan Daily, 1954-10-01

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By PAT ROELOFS
Associate City Editor
AFTER EXAMINING carefully all available evi-
dence in the cases of Prof. Clement L. Markert
and Prof. Mark Nickerson, one cannot understand
the Regents' decision to reinstate the former and
dismiss the latter.
Both men admitted former Community Party
membership to University faculty and adminis-
tration groups hearing their cases. Both of them
reported they had withdrawn membership sev-
eral years prior to their coming to the Univer-
sity. Both of them gave as reasons for leaving the
tarty a growing interest in their scientific studies
and a feeling that the Communist Party was los-
ing its effectiveness in promoting certain social
measures they favored.
Neither the zoologist, who was reinstated, nor the
pharmacologist, who was dismissed, denounced the
Communist Party. In fact, both of them admitted
freely they still hold many of the political and eco-
nomic views they held while active in the Party.
An argument given by some who feel that the
administration and the Regents had no other choice
but to fire Prof. Nickerson is that the Medical
School and the pharmacology department were not
being given consideration for governmental and
industrial research projects and accompanying
money grants that came under a "security" head-
ing because a former Communist was connected
with their departments. It is true that in a growing
University research grants are important, but is the
consideration here to be on the amount of ex-
pansion and research or on political freedom of
faculty members? In addition, since this considera-
tion was undoubtedly made in the case of Prof.
Nickerson, why did it not play a part in the case
of Prof. Markert who is also working in a depart-'
ment that conceivably does some "security" re-'
search. In fact, both of the men were in some way
connected with the Phoenix project which includes
classified research.
Thus far, the cases seem quite similar. There are
differences, however, which evidently played key
roles in the final outcome. First, there is the fact
that support was given Prof. Markert by the zo-
ology department where he works and by the Lit-
erary College in which the zoology department is
located. Prof. Nickerson, on the other hand, did not
receive the backing of either his department chair-
man or the medical School Executive Committee,
although a majority of the Medical School faculty
members did testify that he was competent, and
did feel that refusal to answer the Clardy Commit-
tee was not reason for dismissal. That the position
of Prof. Nickerson was made "untenable" because
his department did not trust his competence due to
past political beliefs resulted in the end in his dis-
missal. That the zoology department refused to
feel competence was lost because of past political
beliefs was equally important in the outcome of his
case-reinstatement.
One other important difference must not go
unobserved. Prof. Nickerson was on tenure at the
University-he was hired to work here until he
reached retirement age. Prof. Markert was on a
three year contract with the University-which
lapses in 1956. He was reinstated in terms of his
contract.
An assumption that can be made on the basis of
the way reinstatement on similar grounds at other
schools was handled is, that when the two remain-
ing years on Prof. Markert's contract are complet-
ed he will not be asked to sign another one-he will
be quietly removed from the picture as were two
Harvard faculty members who were reinstated un-
til their contracts ended. In other words, since the
case of Prof. Nickerson and Prof. Markert do seem
to be so much alike, perhaps they are even alike i
the respect of the final outcome-it may be only a
matter of time before the zoologist too will have to
make his exit. If this kind of action does follow no
doubt a thorough and serious investigation of the
entire procedure in both cases will be warranted.
At the conclusion of an examination of the
reports made by the faculty committees on both
men, it seems that Prof. Markert's case was
handled in a most exemplary way. And, because
the Medical School Executive Committee did re-

commend the dismissal of Prof. Nickerson, the
added hearing he was given by the Subcommit-
tee on Intellectual Freedom and Integrity was
warranted. Thus far, this case too was handled
tolerably well. But this Subcommittee unanimous-
ly recommended reinstatement of the pharma-
cologist. And its decision was not carried out by
the President and the Regents.
The differences in the two cases become matters
of departmental support and tenure in the end.
These two issues are in no way connected with the
competence of the two men. And none of the differ-
erences or similarities in the two cases relate to po-
litical freedom. Political freedom was totally dis-
regarded when the final deiision was made.

Guilt by
Doubt?
A FEW DAILY readers may remember the case of
Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer, a thin, lean-faced
scientist who had acquired the somewhat dubious
distinction of being known as the man who built the
atom bomb.
The full irony of this distinction became ap-
parent on April 12, 1954 when a three-man panel
of the Atomic Energy Commission's Personnel
Security Board opened hearings on Dr. Oppen-
heimer's security rating.
The panel's 2-1 decision against security clear-
ance and the final AEC rejection was based on so
slender a line that puzzled citizens were pushed to
strange conclusions. Some of the more charitable
explanations attributed the decision to professional
jealousy, while others ominously hinted at thought-
control.
Appeal to the full committee of the AEC result-
ed in a 4-1 decision to deny him any further role in
secret government work. In the matter of security,
quoth the AEC, "Dr. Oppenheimer has fallen far
short of acceptable standards," although the panel's
findings of "loyalty" and "discretion" were echoed.
The scientist in the dark-grey flannel suit with-
drew to his Princeton laboratory.
The facts of this case have a certain disturbing
resemblance to those of the Nickerson affair. Prof.
Mark Nickerson, a pharmacologist with a world-
wide reputation, was dismissed from his Univer-
sity post because of past Communist affiliations
which, it was felt, might "injure the reputation of
the University as a whole."
It must be noted that the report of the Medical
School Executive Committee quoted above casts no
aspersions on Prof. Nickerson's ability as a teacher
or as a scientist.
This report, which seems to have been the most
influential in President Harlan H. Hatcher's rec-
ommendation of dismissal, indicates that Prof. Nick-
erson's "usefulness to this Medical School appears
limited," even though "we support the right of a
faculty member to the privacy of his political be-
liefs."
Remember that in both these cases there was
no question of professional incompetance or po-
litical conspiracy. Oppenheimer had worked for
the government for 15 years under the strictest
surveillance with no evidence of security danger.
His contact with the Communist party had been
limited to interest in front-organizations. By 1942,
his association with these organizations held "very
little interest" for him, and by 1946 he found the
aims of Communist groups completely incompatible
with his own ideals.
As the panel itself stated, "the board has before
it eloquent and convincing testimny of Dr. Oppen-
heimer's deep devotion to his country in recent
years."
Dr. Oppenheimer may have been guilty of politi-
cal naivete about Communist party goals, but once
he realized that the goals were not as the Party rep-
resented them, then "it was clear to him that he
would not collaborate with Communists.'
In Prof. Nickerson's case one also finds a cer-
tain ignorance of Communist patty aims, but not
once did either of the scientists advocate any ac-
tion which could be termed directed toward vio-
lent overthrow of the government.
We understand that both actions were perptrat-
ed in the names of mighty gods: in one case, se-
curity; in the other, reputation. And we appreciate
the reverence and caution which these words de-
mand. But the question still remains-was this ac-
tion justified?
The ability of these men was never doubted. Prof.
Nickerson received the John Abel Award for "most
outstanding work In the United States in the field of
pharmacology" in 1949. Dr. Oppenheimer was con-
sidered a brilliant physicist by national scientists.
Traitorous action has never been attributed to
these men.
The guilt of these two men rests on something
as tenuous as "doubts." This very word appears
in committee reports on both men:
"Any doubts whatsoever must be resolved in favor
of the national security." -Majority report, Per-
sonel Security Board of the AEC, May 27, 1954.
" .- -doubts and suspicions . . . have weakened se-
riously the confidence of a large number of his col-
leagues in him." -unanimous report of the Execu-
tive Committee of the Medical School. June 11, 1954.
Is it actually possible that within the period of

two months, two capable men have been dismissed
from their positions simply because of doubts? The
evidence, showing that there was no danger to ei-
ther the country or the University in retaining the
men, does not support these doubts. It is impossible
to point to any guilt.
And yet in the name of security and reputation
doubt seems to have been enough. It would seem
to us that security and reputation are both se-
riously in danger if guilt by doubt becomes guilt
by definition.
If each case was an isolated instance, the situa-
tion would be distressing, but perhaps not alarm-
ing. Unfortunately, the circumstances are too sim-
ilar and too ominous to be ignored. It leaves a bad
taste in our mouths.
--Debra Durchslag
Lana Turner remind each other at every turn that
"this is war."
With the way prepared fror an attempt at a
meaningful dramatic handling of a problem such
as the nature of loyalty, Betrayed does a back-flip
into a pat psychological solution. Mature is pro-
vided with a heavy Oedipus complex that makes
him sell out when his countrymen are mean to his
mother.
The sub-intrigues contribute very little to the
picture. Mostly they're anachronistic, or stupid,
or both. There is Gable's involvement with his op-
posite number in German intelligence, for instance.
It's conducted strictly with World War I ground
rules: Gable is always talking about the integrity
of "an officer and a gentleman,"' while the Ger-
man, when he's got the upper hand, makes insidi-
ous propositions based on "the craft of spying,
wxhich ?v, ,4-ho nn+4ctiA likes nv.v jnfhav ,r.ft

DREW PEARSON:
Washington
Merry-Go-
Round
WASHINGTON.-If you go down
to the Interior Department to in-
quire about Secretary McKay's
plan to lease Alaskan oil lands to
private oil companies, you'll find
the place like a tomb.
All you get are icy stares. Strict
orders have been given that no
Interior Department underling
shall talk to a newspaperman.
Reason is that generous Doug
McKay, who has been more lavish
with the public domain than any
secretary of the interior since
Albert Fall's day, almost got the
Eisenhower administration in
stormy political water.
The Interior and Navy Depart-
ments have 48,000,000 acres of oil
land in Alaska, hitherto set aside
for national defense, and McKay,
together with Undersecretary of
Defense Bob Anderson, has pro-
posed opening up the area to oil
companies for private exploitation.
what makes this so dynamite-
laden from a political viewpoint
is, first, that many naval officers
oppose it. So do Democratic con-
gressmen and some Republicans.
Third, Undersecretary Anderson,
who first favored the move as Sec-
retary of the Navy, is himself an
oilman. And though he is one of
the most respected members of
the Cabinent, his position as for-
mer vice-president of Associated
Refineries in Texas and head of
the Texas Mid-Continent Oil and
Gas Association makes him vulner-
able.
Herbert Hoover, Jr.
Finally and most important, it
happens that the new Undersecre-
tary of State, Herbert Hoover, Jr.,
has long been a director of Union
Oil and president of United Geo-
physical, which has had a con-
tract with the Navy for exploring
Alaskan oil lands. Hoover's com-
pany is more familiar with the
whereabouts of oil in Alaska than
any other.
.It also happens that Herbert
Hoover. Jr., was one of the heav-
iest contributors to Vice-President
Nixon's secret $18,000 personal ex-
pense fund. Furthermore, it
doesn't look too good from a politi-
cal viewpoint that 15 of the secret
donors to Nixon's fund were oil-
men.
Another interesting point, as
noted by the conservative New
New York Journal of Commerce,
is that the oil companies got every
law they wanted through the last
Congress. They increased the pub-
lic domain for oil and gas leasing.
They got the right to develop both
minerals and oil and gas on the
same public land simultaneously.
And they put across certain im-
provements in leasing regulations.
Go Slow, Ike
Taken together with tidelands
oil, there was almost nothing the
oil industry didn't get. And when
you compare this with the long
list of political contributions from
the oil boys to the Eisenhower
campaign, and then turn the 48,-
000,000 acres of Alaska oil lands
over to the oil companies-well,
no wonder some Republicans such
as Senator Saltonstall of Massa-
chusetts have warned Eisenhower
personally to go slow.
Yet Secretaries McKay and An-
derson propose the Alaskan pri-
vate leasing plan despite the ad-
vice of Ray M. Thompson, long-
time expert for the Navy who
worked in the Alaskan oil fields.
"At least one major oil field,
plus big reserves of natural gas,"
is what Thompson says have been
discovered in Alaska. "I do not be-

lieve you could duplicate that rec-
ord in the state of Oklahoma dur-
ing the early years of discovery."
Naval officers were put' on the
spot by the decision of their chief,
Secretary Anderson, to get the
Navy out of the Alaskan oil lands.
Cross-examined at a secret session
of the House Armed Services Com-
mittee, Capt. Robert H. Meade,
the Navy's expert, testified:
"There has been a reasonable
chance of finding a tremendous
oil field. There is still a reasonable
chance of finding a tremendous
oil field. When we stop, it is still
possible that someone else, our-
selves or someone, depending on
the national policy, of course,
might find a very substantial oil
field in that area."
Congressman Demur
The Congressman who chiefly fa-
vored pulling the Navy out of the
Alaskan oil fields was Leon Gavin,
Republican, who, significantly, is
from Oil City, Pa.
Venerable Congressman Carl
Vinson, Georgia Democrat, how-
ever, asked two questions of Naval
Secretary Anderson.
"Let's see what you are going
to do. We have a great reserve up
there that we spent $40,000,000
on," Vinson pointed out. "Now we
are going to stop. Now what are
you going to do, just let it stay
there, or are you going to make
contracts with private enterprise
to go in there and develop it?"
"Oh, no Sir," replied Anderson,
"we will not plan to make private
contracts.'

The Open Door

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OAS T. g

etteĀ°-4 TO THE EDITOR
The Daily welcomes communications from its readers on matters of
general interest, and will publish all letters which are signed by the writer
and in good taste. Letters exceeding 300 words in length, defamatory or
libelous letters, and letters which for any reason are not in good taste will
be condensed, edited or withheld from publication at the discretion of the
editors.

olV

NPccr'CO. SA. .
-CO

'O"m "W .gsgyl 9 t P*,W 4.

DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN

.J

Correction ..
To the Editor:
ON WEDNESDAY, September
29, the Daily published on its
front page a gargoyled account of
proceedings at a debate sponsored
by the Young Republicans. I re-
quested a correction but regret to
say that the so-called corrected
version published in the following
issue of your paper is equally mis-
leading.
This new version strongly im-
plied that I objected to being con-
fused with my debating partner,
Mr. Ash. The facts, however, are
quite different and were repeated-
ly communicated to you by phone.
I would, of course, not have ob-
jected if your story had done noth-
ing else but attribute to me the
perfectly sound remarks made by
Mr. Ash.
What I really objected to were
three errors, (1) the garbling of
remarks made by the Republican
members of the debating panel,
(2) the ommission, in a direct
quotation, of an essential quali-
fied phrase, (3) the erroneous at-
tribution of the gargoyled, excis-
ed, and disconnected version to
my person.
Every newspaper editor knows
what his responsibilities are. I
trust that you do not claim ex-
emption of these responsibilities.
-Henry L. Bretton
Ureg To Vote, .
To the Editor:
THE RIGHT to the privacy of
religious beliefs is a funda-
mental democratic principle. Sim-
ilarly the right to advocate or to
remain silent about ones political
beliefs has been traditionally one
of the most basic aspects of our
political system. Yet, Professor
Nickerson and Dr. Davis have been
dismissed from the U. of M. for
refusing to relinquish those rights

under the high pressure atmos-
phere of the Clardy Committee.
Why is it that the Fifth Amend!-
ment to our Constitution is under
such an organized and powerfhl
attack? Why is it that the exclu-
sive use of the First Amendment
leads to the danger of a jail sen-
tence for contempt as the case of
Dr. Davis shows? Why is it that a
powerful University proud of its
tradition of ' academic freeettm
bows before the will of a Clardy?
To answer these questions thior-
oughly would take considerable
analysis. Yet I would venture to
say that the main reason is that
demagogues -like McCarthy and
his followers have cleverly utiliz-
ed the so-called question of" "sub-
versive ideas" in order to syste-
matically destroy the systfem of
Constitutional Liberties in this
country and in order to obtain a
dictatorial rule over the thinking
and activities of our people.
The encouraging fact remains
however that despite the tempor-
ary successes of such politicians
the resistance to their anti-Con-
stitutional activities is steadily
mounting. The resilincy and the
strength of our tradition of demo-
cratic liberties is yet to be fully
felt. It probably is very significant
that McCarthy supporters have
been defeated in recent elections.
By going to City Hall and ob-
taining an absentee ballot if one
is not a Michigan resident, or by
registering to vote in the, local
elections before Oct. 4 if one is a
Michigan resident, and has not
previously registered, we students
can play an important part in see-
ing that candidates who support
the principles of the Constitution
and not those of McCarthy will
get elected. This will be an im-
portant step in returning to sane
and mature methods of running
the government. Only in such a
manner, can we hope to solve in
a constructive fashion all the
pressing social problems that face
us.
-Robert Schoo

';

a

The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of the University
of Michigan for which the Michigan
Daily assumes no editorial responsi-
bility. Publication in it is construc-
tive notice to all members of the
University. Notices should be sent in
TYPEWRITTEN form to Room 3553
Administration Building before 2 p.m.
the day preceding publication (be-
fore 10 a.m. on Saturday).
FRIDAY, OCTOBER 1, 1954
Vol. LXV, No. 10
Notices
A special meeting of the University
Senate will be held Tues., Oct. 5, at
4:15 p.m. in the Rackham Lecture Hall.
The October meeting of the Faculty
of the College of Literature, Science,
and the Arts will be held Mon., Oct. 4,
1954, at 4:10 p.m. in Angell Hall Audi-
toriumn A.
Representatives from the following
company will conduct personal inter-
views on campus at Engineering:
Monday, October 4-
Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Day-
ton, Ohio-B.S. & M.S. in Aero., Elect.
& Mech. Engr. for Research & Devel-
opment at Wright Air Development
Center, Production Engr., Quality Con-
trol, & Maintenance Engr. at Air Ma-
terial Command, and Application Engr.
at Air Technical Intelligence.
Students wishing to make appoint-
ments for interviews with the above
company should contact the Engineer-
ing Placement Office at 248 W. Engr.
ext. 2182.
Design Committee of the Block "M"
Section of the Wolverine Club will hold
its weekly meeting today in room 3-B
of the Michigan Union, between 3:00
and 5:00. All those who have signed
up for the committee are required to
be there. Anyone else who is interested
in this type of work is invited to attend.
SPECIAL ANNOUNCEMENT:
AWARDS FOR STUDENTS INTEREST-
ED IN THE FIELD OF INDUSTRIAL
RELATIONS
Students now pursuing or planning
to pursue course work in the field of
industrial relations and/or who wish
to engage in research in this area may
apply for the following grants:
The Clarence Hicks Memorial Fellow-
ship in Industrial Relations of $1,000.
Applicants for this award must be
graduate students who are planning to
pursue an educational program that
devotes some emphasis to the field of
industrial relations.
This Fellowship is also awarded at a
number of other universities having
course work and research in the indus-
trial relations field. The Hicks Fellow
therefore gains substantial recognition
in his professional field.
The candidate will be selected who
gives greatest promise of a successful
career as an executive or teacher in
industrial relations by reason of a bal-
anced combination of scholarship and
previous study in this or related fields,
personality and temperament, partici-
pation in student activities, and stand-
ing among his fellow students and as-
sociates. Need for financial assistance
shall be taken into account only as
between candidates for equal merit.
R. C. A. Scholarship of $800.
To qualify for this ward a student
must be an yundergraduate and plan-
ning to take a concentration of courses
in the industrial relations area. Appli-
cations will be considered on the basis
of the candidate's merit and maturity
of interest in this field.
The Burton Arnold French Scholarship
of $300.
Any undergraduate or graduate stu-
dent in the University may apply.
Preference will be given to a student
who is prepared to pursue original re-
search on a subject related to indus-
trial relations. If desired, the student
may work with any member of the
faculty in industrial relations who will
provide general guidance and assist-
ance,
These awards are open to students
currently registered in the University.
Applications may be secured from Mrs.
Cooch in the office of the Bureau of
Industrial Relations, Room 354, School
of Business Administration (ext. 2195).
As it is expected that the recipients
will be announced early in November,
applicants are urged to complete the
form prior to October 20. Students who
think they may qualify for any one of
these grants are urged to discuss their
interests with faculty members in In-
dustrial Relations in the School of
Business Administration.
For additional information, students
may consult with Professor Leonard
Sayles, 306 School of Business Admin-
istration (ext. 2872).

Preliminary Ph. D. Examinations in
Economics: Theory examinations will
be given on Thursday and Friday, Oc-
tober 28 and 29. The examinations in
other subjects will be given beginning
Monday, November 1. Each student
planning to take these examinations
should leave with the Secretary of the
Department not later than Monday, Oc-
tober 11, his name, the three fields in
which he desires to be examined, and
his field of specialization.
Seminar Friday, October 1, under the
direction of M. Mason, Department of
Biologica1 Chemistry at 4:00 p.m.,
Room 319 West Medical Building.
Doctoral Examination for Elliott
Greenberg, Chemistry; thesis: "Prep-
aration and Thermodynamics of Urani-
um Oxyhalides," Saturday, October 2,
3003 Chemistry Bldg., at 9:00 a.m.
Chairman, E. F. Westrum, Jr.
Doctoral Examination for Charles
Manson Thatcher, Chemical Engineer-
ing; thesis: "Local Rates of Mass
Transfer in a Packed Bed of Spheres,
with Orifice Entry of Air," Saturday.
October 2, 3201 East Engineering Bldg.,
at 9:00 a.m. Chairman, J. C. Brier.
Make-up Examinations in History will
be given Saturday, October 9, 9 to 12
*a.m., 429 Mason Hall.
See your instructor for permission
and then sign list in History Office.
Concerts
Stanley Quartet, Gilbert Ross and
Emil Raab, violin, Robert Courte, vio-
la, and Oliver Ede, cello, will open the
Sunday afternoon series of concerts
covering the Beethoven quartets at 3:30
October 3, in the Rackham Lecture
Hall. The first program will include
Quartet in B-flat major, Op. 18, No. 6,
Quartet in C major, Op. 59, No. 3, and
Quartet in E-fiat major, O p.127, and
will be open to the public without
charge.
Events Today
Newman Club Open House Friday
night from 8-12 in the Father Richard
Center. There will be dancing, an or-
chestra and refreshments. Everyone
welcoule - bring your friends
Lane Hall Coffee Hour honoring In-
ternational students, Friday, 4:30-6:00
p.m., sponsored by International Com-
mittee of Inter-Guild. All students are
cordially invited to meet fellow stu-
dents and the directors of the student
religious groups.
Episcopal Student Foundation. Can-
terbury Club at 7:30 on Friday, Octo-
ber 1rat Canterbury House, Professor
Gerhard E. Lenski will discuss "The
Christian and the Family."
A graduate mixer will be held in
the third-floor assembly hall of the
Rackham Building at 9 p.m. Friday,
Records will be provided for dancing.
Admission is 35 cents.
Wesleyan Guild Friday, Oct. 1 - 8
p.m. Wiener Roast. Meet in the Lounge
for transportation to one of the Guild
members' homes.
First Baptist Church. 8:00 p.m. -
Guild Party in the Fellowship Hall of
the Church.
Lecture on modern optics by Pro-
fessor Zernike of the University of
Groningen, Friday, October 1, 4 p.m.
Room 2038 Randall. Optics of the Dif-
fraction Grating.
Episcopal Student Foundation. Cider
and doughnuts after the game on Sat-
urday at Canterbury House. All stu-
dents invited,
Westminster Student Fellowship will
have open house in the student center
of the Presbyterian church at 8:15. Dr.
Henry Walch of Plymouth will show
pictures of the Holy Land and discuss
some of the current Arab-Israeli prob-
lems. Refreshments will be served. All
students are cordially invited.
Lutheran Student Association - Pep
Rally Party Friday evening at 8:30 p.m.
at the Center, corner of Hill St. and
Forest Ave. In case of a Pep Rally,
our party will follow it.
The Congregational-Disciples Guild:
7:00 p.m. - meet at Guild House to go
as a group to the Pep Rally-Return
to Guild House after for games, sing-
ing, refreshments.
Coming Events
S.R.A. Saturday Lunch Discussion.
12 noon at Lane Hall. Ulrich Curtis

I

Rebels Against Terror

DESPITE THE "new look" put
on the horrors of Soviet ex-
istence by the Malenkov regime,
as recounted by Harrison E..Salis-
bury, there is growing evidence
both of continued opposition
among the masses and of spread-
ing revolt among members of the
state apparatus charged with im-
posing the terror by which that
apparatus rules. The continued
opposition of the masses is proved
by the undiminished stream of
refugees and by the millions still
being thrown into slave labor
camps. The revolt within the state:
apparatus is manifesting itself in
increasing defections from virtual-
ly all its branches-the Govern-
ment, the party, the military forc-
es, and, most particularly of late,
from the secret police.
The latest such defection now
revealed is that of Josef Swiato,
deputy chief of the Polish Minis-
try of Security, which is respon-
sible for protecting the Commun-
ist puppet regime imposed by the
Soviets on enslaved Poland under
the iron hand of a Soviet Marshal.
Mr. Swiato's flight is especially
interesting because it has enabled
him to provide first-hand infor-
mation about the fates of Mr. and
Mrs. Noel Field and Hermann
Field, who disappeared behind the
Iron Curtain five years ago. Ac-
cording to Mr. Swiato, who per-
sonally arrested Hermann Field in
Warsaw, they were imprisoned in
Poland and Hungary for use as
pawns in Communist purge trials
and as pegs for anti-American
propaganda. The United States Gov-
ernment is now able to expose the
perfidy of the Polish and Hungar-
ian regimes by the testimony of
one of their own highest function-
aries.
But quite aside from this parti-
cular development affecting Amer-
ican citizens, the defection of Mr.
Swiato is important in itself be-
cause he joins the ranks of the
many others who wearied of being
tools of Communist terror and cast
aside the prerogatives of position
and power to seek an uncertain
but free existence elsewhere. They
are not merely refugees; they are
rebels against the regimes they
served. They bring us not only
valuable information but also new
insight into the dark recesses of
Communist domination. And their
growing defections despite all
Communist precautions in u s t
throw confusion into the ranks of
those they leave behind.
In all these respects Mr. Swiato
takes his place at the side of Yuri
A. Rastvorov, who bolted the So-
viet spy apparatus in Japan; of

Jan Papanek and Vladimir Hou-
dek, who headed some fourscore
other satellite state officials in
seeking freedom in the United
States, and Mrs. Oksana S. Kasen-
kina, who leaped to freedom from
a Soviet consulate window in New
York. The list also includes Soviet
and satellite army, navy and air
force officers too numerous to
mention. And these dissenters
were preceded by such men as
Victor Kravchenko, A. Barmine
and Gen. Walter G. Krivitsky, who
died a mysterious death in Wash-
ington.
Defections like these illustrate
the corrosion now going on at the
center of Soviet power. Therein
lies hope that the Soviet dictator-
ship is not immune to the disease
that has brought down dictator-
ships in the past and that the en-
slaved people of Russia and the
satellite states can look forward
ultimately to a new dawn of free-
dom.
--N.Y. Times
.r

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Current Movies

AT THE STATE*...
BETRAYED, with Lana Turner and Clark
Gable.
O JUDGE from this picture, World War II has
ceased to mean anything particular as far as
wars go. Set in Holland at the time of the Norman-
dy invasion, Betrayed might just as well be about
one of the Crusades for all its specific relationship
to World War II.
Like King Richard and the Crusaders, it's most-
ly just a historical romance: lots of attention to
costumes (in this case the smock and beret of the
underground pitted against the leather trench coat
and steel helmet of the ,Nazis); a great deal of

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