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May 07, 1954 - Image 1

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1954-05-07

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See Page 4


S ir izr


" 4

Latest Deadline in the State


Probes' Social



Want Voice
For Puppets
China Seat Demand
Opposed by French





(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the third in a series of editorials and inter-
pretive articles dealing with the question of Congressional investigating
Committees and civil liberties. Today's article was written by Prof. Guy E.
Swanson of the sociology department.)
Damning the methods of Congressional probers is a dangerous
parlor sport.
The danger comes from confusing loud and righteous indignation
with effective action. The preface to such action is knowledge of the
social conditions that produce these methods.
* * * *
A DEMOCRACY is unique among societies. It is distinguished
negatively by the fact that it endorses no particular goals to be
reached in national life. It does not exist to destroy or promote social
glasses, to produce or prevent a kingdom of God on earth, to forsake
the world or dominate it, or to achieve any other thing.
It is distinguished positively by its commitment to a method
for making decisions, rather than by the decisions it makes.
The essentials of this method are free attempts to persade one's
neighbors to accept one's position on controversial issues, and the
making of policy decisions through processes that accurately re-
fleet the desires of a majority of its citizens.
All other characteristics such as freedom of speech and the
secret and equal ballot are ways of making such decisions possible
} In societies organized to reach particular goals, it is reasonable to
say that a wide variety of means may lead to the same end. In a
democratic society, the means are the ends.
This kind of society is not the result of accident, wishful thinking,'
or high ideals. People come to determine their society by having real
power that commands such a place.,
Our society became a parliamentary democracy because there
were important differences in the desires and goals of the several
sections of the country, of occupational groups, and of religious and;
ethnic communities, and because many of these had enough power,
singly or in coalitions, to force others to take their wishes into account
in decision-making. We continue a democratic society because this
diversity of interests supported by adequate power continues.
* * * *
THE DECISIONS of a democratic government are necessarily
working compromises. At any time they reflect the distribution of
power in the population. These shifts in power balance appear if we
look at the history of legislation or executive acts on a controversial
topic such as labor-management relations.
The use of Federal troops to crush the Pullman strike, the
Wagner Act, and the Taft-Hartley law mirror, in public policy,
labor's changing power. They are also reminders that democracy
means a continual testing of strength-of efforts to realize one's
own goals even at the expense of others. Under these conditions
it is inevitable that very real dangers of attack from abroad are
exploited in the domestic power struggle.
Before and during World War I, against a Fascist totalitarianism,
liberals berated domestic conservatives as "soft" toward the Nazis
Against Russian totalitarianism, conservatives charge domestic lib-
erals with "coddling" Communists.
In 1940, conservatives said liberals were getting hysterical;
by 1953, the sides changed. And, each in their time, conserva-;
tives and liberals have found it embarrassingly difficult to answer
such charges.
No one seriously believes a Republican administration would have
failed to pursue vigorous war against the Nazis or that a Democratic
administration would do less than the utmost to reduce the threat
of Russian imperialism. But, unhappily for the Republican Old
Guard, there were those failures to appreciate Hitler's deadly serious-
ness, and for New Deal Democrats there was the reluctance to work
through new methods that would assure security while protecting
civil rights.
* S * *
FOR SOME TIME it has been clear that a conservative party
will have great difficulty in winning an American election on domestic
issues. The extent to which conservatives engaged in the legitimate
business of investigating espionage are willing to distort the acts and
motives of liberals responsible for security measures, is a gauge of
their need for an issue that gives them a chance to win.
But above the struggles of conservative and liberal alike are+
the movements toward the security-conscious state-movements1
likely to be with us for a long time. It is a state in which leader-
ship is increasingly vested in those with skills in the conduct of
war. That state's concern about loyalty is not a product of the
probers. It is a product of the threat of total war-of war waged
for long periods by all of the people in a highly interdependent1
nation instead of being carried primarily by small elite groups.
To promote mass loyalty, such a state moves to curb inequality
of economic and social rewards as it strengthens fighting effectiveness
by crushing dissent through mass manipulation and force.
It can tolerate competition from the interests of neither con-
servative nor liberal. When either of these ancient opponents sub-
verts the other with knowing distortions of the facts, it builds fear1
and hate that make impossible those working compromises that fulfill1
common needs. Both parties become easy prey for the garrison state.
The task is to define and promote loyalty without giving up
freedom in exchange for the services of experts in warfare. This is
not a task for conservatives or liberals. It is a task for Americans.1

in Building


By The Associated Press
The official spokesman for Red
China said yesterday his delega-
tion would demand the -admission 51
of Communist puppet governments
from Laos and Cambodia to the
Indochina section of the Geneva
peace talks.
A French spokesman said France!
would refuse to sit at the same
table with representatives of
"phantom regimes which exist only'
in the imagination of the Viet- LargeLStude t1I,4(eof 04,7)
minh. "
The Communist-led Vietminh BReceiVed( In 'Two-Day Lefere d m 111
calling themselves the "Demo-
cratic Republic of Viet Nam," con- By MURRY FRYMER
sider their authority is limited to With a majority of 53 per cent of all votes cast. the Crary plan
Viet Nam, one of the three French for revision of the academic calendar was approved yesterday by a
hin a socated States of anmo higher than expected student vote in a two-day referendum.
chin. Th kindom of amboia, The total votes cast yesterday and Wednesday was 4,873. The
and Laos are the other two. Crary plan vote was 2,582, more than twice the second-place present
RUSSIA AND the West have semester plan vote of 1,237.
agreed that the Indochina talks
will open, perhaps on Monday, PROPOSED BY Prof. Douglas Crary of the geography department,:
with nine delegations at the con- the plan calls for beginning fall semester classes the first week inj
ference tables-the United States, September. With only a Thanksgiving vacation break in the semester,I
France, Britain, Russia, Red ; final examinations would end a(--

Hails Vote
For Channel
Decision Spells End
To Long Controversy
sional approval of the St. Law-
WASHIGTON C() ongre-
rence Seaway after more than a
half century of controversy was
virtually assured yesterday, with
prospects that ships from the sev-
en seas will be able to sail as~ far
inland as Toledo, Ohio.
Spurred in large measure by
President Dwight D. Eisenhower's
statement that the seaway is need-
ed for national defense as wel as
for economic reasons, the House
voted.241-158rto authorize this
country to join .Canada in build-
Dail-Den Moton ing the channel.
ALL THAT remains is the ad-
-ustment of minor differences with
Cthe Senate bill before sending the
Y eluSmeasure on to President Eisen-

China, the three French Union as-
sociated states and Vietminh.
But the first 'item on the
agenda is a possible invitation to
other delegations. The Commu-
nist Chinese spokesman said his
delegation would demand admis-
sion of the Communist govern-
ments of Khmer (Cambodia)
and Pathet Lao (Laos) as well
as other "interested states," in-
cluding India, Indonesia and
The West considers that Com-
munist regimes of Laos and Cam-
bodia are virtually nonexistent.
* * *
IN WASHINGTON Secretary of
State John Foster Dulles is re-
ported pressing a Far East policy
which recognizes that, short of a
military miracle, the major part
of Indochina may be lost to the
The plan is reported based on
an estimate that any "united ac-
tion" plan which can be devised
may be too late to save Viet Nam,
the biggest and richest of the three
Indochina states.

few days before Christmas.
Under the plan Christmas va- Secret ID ata
cation would then last for three
and one-half weeks with the
second semester completed byD enied U se
the middle of May. n
The vote totals for the other
plans were: the Quarter systemr
{ (academic year broken up into oe
three 10 week quarters)-369: the
Reading Period plan, ("dead" WASHINGTON - 01) - Atty.
weeks in January and June before Gen. Herbert O. Brownell ruled
exams)-347; the Dwyer plan against Sen. Joseph McCarthy (R-
(exams immediately following Wis.) yesterday on releasing some
Christmas vacation)-322; and the secret FBI data dealing with a
Brown plan (beginning first week search for espionage.

in October, four weeks of classes
after Christmas vacation, second
semester ending the fourth week in
* * *
CALtNDAR committee member
Ruth Rossner, '55, said the vote
was "very significant" and "should
open discussion again by the Cal-
endar committee." An insignifi-
cant vote, she said, would prob-
ably not have done this.

Cinema Guild
"Of Mice and Men" starring
Betty Field and Burgess Mere-
dith will be shown by the Stu-
dent Legislature's Cinema Guild
tonight at 7 and 9 p.m. in the
Architecture Auditorium.
Beginning tomorrow, "Blood-
hounds of Broadway" with Mitzi
Gaynor, Scott Brady and Wally
Vernon will be featured at 7 and
9 p.m. and Sunday at 8 p.m. Ad-
mission is 50c.

Results of the referendum will
be taken into consideration by
the Calendaring Committee,
headed by assistant to the Pres-
ident, Eric A. Walter, and com-
posed of faculty and student
The earliest a change could g
into effect would be 1956.
Phone Strike
Threatens City

Sen. McCarthy (R-Wis.) late
yesterday declared he would not
abide by Atty. Gen. Brownell's de-
cision to not release secret FBI
With this question still open,
the McCarthy-Pentagon inquiry,
delved into the record of a certain
"Mr. X." This man never was nam-
ed. but Sen. McCarthy charged he
is one of several persons with
"communist connections" who
have served on the Pentagon's top
security screening board.
* * *
JOHN G. ADAMS, Army coun-
sel, replied that the man had been
cleared of security risk allegations
after an investigation.
Brownell got into the inquiry'
when the Senate investigators ask-
ed him if it would be all right to
make public a "letter" produced
earlier by Sen. McCarthy-a let-
ter that turned out to be a cut-
down version of an FBI memo on
the question of espionage at Ft.
Monmouth, N.J.




City To Host
Ad Conclave
Ann Arbor plays host today to
a one-day Advertising Conference
sponsored by the University. {
Participating in the conference,
which has as its theme "Improv-
ing the Effectiveness of Advertis-
ing Through New Understandingsf
of the Consumer," are such not-#
ables as Theodore S. Repplier,
president of the Advertising Coun-
cil, Inc.; Walter Weir of Dona-
hue & Coe, New York and Prof.
Rensis Likert, Director of the In-I
stitute for Social Research and!
member of the psychology and so-
ciology departments of the Uni-
John B. Lansing, Assistant Pro-
gram Director in the Economic!
Behavior Program, Survey Re-
search Center of the University;
Edward H. Weiss, president of
Weiss & Geller, Inc.; Pierre Mar-

Ann Arbor may be affected by
the telephone strike that now
threatens the state. Professor Speaks
"Right now Michigan hasn'tA
taken a strike vote," said William On Civil Liberties
Backlund, president of Local 4011.#
The dispute, according to Back- Prof. Harold M. Levinson of t
lund, is over a bargain for paid economics department yesterd
hospitalization for workers and a addressed the University chapt
general wage increase. of the National Association f
He said that the only way Ann the Advancement of Colored Pe
Arbor could be affected is if West- ple concerning the economic a
ern -Electric strikes, which would ! pects of racial segregation.
probably affect the entire nation. The professor noted that d:
Otherwise, he said, Bell Telephone crimination, in that it lowers t
cannot see any danger of a strike. morale of the subject and mak
If a strike does occur, the com- him aware of his occupational i
pany plans to set up special strike security, tends to limit his pr
circuits which will take care of ductive capacity thus reducing t
any urgent or emergency calls. nation's total product.

id hnower for his signature.
li For FinanceA d President Eisenhower, In a
Sstatementlate yesterday, hailed
the House vote as "the end of a
(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the second in a series of articles on -the long and historic effort." He
University's year-old Development Council, an agency set up to coordinate said the seaway would "con-
fund raising programs with 'educational objectives.) tribute materially to the eco-
By VIRGINIA VOSS nomic well-being and security"
Daily Editorial Director of both the United States and
Mention the Development Council and the question you are most Canada.
likely to encounter is: "What is it?" Proponents say construction of
Partially this is a result of the fact that the Council is designed to the seaway, which will take an
promote not specific goals but long-range objectives. Partially it is esthe, pdospxoyeat w o -
because the Council's membership is broadly defined as including "all the prospect of great new eco-
alumni and friends of the University assisting in the work of the Lakes area and the Midwest.
development program." When completed, the 27-foot-
But however much broad goals and sprawling membership defy deep channel will enable ships of
definition, they do not negate the Council's integral part in the Uni- the Victory and Liberty classes, for
versity's future. example, to pass directly from the
* * * * Atlantic Ocean to inland ports on
WHEN THE TIME came for University administrators and alumni the Great Lakes. Ships of this size
to shift from the Phoenix Project0 -------------- have a cargo capacity of 10,000
to the Development Council point tons.
of view, several problems were at ia l nt * I of
hand. ' NAVIGATION of the river now
According to the Council's as- Tis restricted to ships with a draft
sistant director Tom Dickinson, L ew tonor r of 14 feet or less because of a 46-
Michigan alumni had never been mile stretch of rapids near 0g.
conditioned to giving financial Michigan's new honorary, Quad- densburg, N. Y.
aid to the University, and in the . rant, tapped last Tuesday: The legislation passed yester.
four or five previous fund drives, New members are: Rosalind day permits elimination of this
the solicitation was directed to- Shlimovitz, '55; Hazel Frank, '56; shipping bottleneck through the
wards a specific project. William Weber, '55; Leonard Sip- digging of a canal-the 'sea-
The Alumni Fund Board, the iore, '55; Roger Wilkins, '56; James way--27 feet deep.
most important Council sub- East; John Collins, '54; Don Ken- ,The canal became a practical
group, is where this problem now ' ney; Jay Millman, '55E; James ;proposition only after the Federal
rests. Used strictly for non-operat- Evans, '55; Joel Margenau, '54BAd, Power Commission last year grant-
ing projects like student aid, re- and Ronald McCreight, '56. ed New York State a license to
build, with the Province of On-
search and specialized equipment, Former students elected to life tario, a giant 600-million-dollar
the year-old alumni fund took in; membership are: hydroelectric project.
more than $60,000 from 2,600 con- William O'Hern, '50; Russell The granting of this license is
tributors in its first solicitation. Gregory, '53; Jerry Ryan, '52; 1 now being contested in the courts,
Aim of the board is to get large Frank VanSchiick, '51; Nahum with indications that a decision
j or small contributions from as Ray Litt, '52E; Carl A. Hassel- may be reached by early summer
many alums as possible on a con- wander, '55; Murray Barron, '52; or fall.
tinuing basis. Although undesig- Arthur Ablin, '48; Harry C. Olsen,
nated gifts are the most readily I '52; Earl Aldon, '52; and William
usable, the board occasionally gets Gerson, '52. iscrim inaton
letters like a recent one from a Those who were elected to hon-
veteran enclosing a single dollar orary membership* were:
with the stipulation that it be Mrs. Elliot K. Herdman, Mrs.
used for children of the gradu- Theron S. Langford, Prof. Karl
ates of '23. Thus the "all contri- Litzenberg, Prof. Joseph Kallen- The executive board of Young
butions accepted" policy takes up bach, Prof. John P. Dawson, Erich Democrats has passed a resolu-
the Alumni Fund's time. A. Walter and Dr John E. Bing- tion condemning discrimination
See OBJECTIVES Page 6 ley. on campus and the University in
action on it.
The resolution reads: "We con-
sider recent evidences of discrim-
ination in the campus community
deplorable. We find still more de-
plorable the refusal of University
SPlans Concerts officials to speak out against dis-
crimination occurring on property
subject to University regulations
Shakespeare, James Joyce and when it has been brought to their
William Blake will be represented attention.
in the chamber music concerts "Discrimination against individ-
scheduled for today and Sunday uals because of race or religion is
as part of the four-day Inter- clearly conduct unbecoming a stu-
Arts Festival, dent or any other member of the
Texts from these and other po- University community. Westrong-
ets have been set to music by the ; ly urge that the University take
fstudent composers, who will be immediate action to end any form
represented in the two programs, of racial or religious discrimina-
8 p.m. in the Henderson Room of tion in League Houses and any
the League. other units subject to University
y * * * control."


Hays To Talk
To Journalists
Speaking on "What Do We Do
About Communists?" Arthur Gar-
field Hays, General Counsel for)
the American Civil Liberties Un-
ion, will present the sixth in the
current U-M lecture series spon-

World News
By The Associated Press
HONG KONG-A Flying Boxcar
flown by an American crew in In-;
dochina failed to return to its base,
an announcement said today.

Inter-Arts Festiva

sored by the Department of Jour- * * * tineau of the Chicago Tribune;
nalism on "The Press and Civil DETROIT-The National Auto-: Alberta Hays; Allan Greenberg;
Liberties in Crises" at 4 p.m. today motive Parts Association consented Melvin S. Hattwick, and John L.
in Rackharn Lecture Hall. yesteiday to a Federal court de- McQuigg.
cree directing it to stop what the-
government claimed were viola- o
Seniors To Rate tions of anti-trust laws. roposa eeks
College Careers DETROIT-The acting president To Join SL, SAC
of the Girl Scouts of Metropolitan'
Focusing on graduating seniors. Detroit recommended, yesterday, The Student Affairs Study Coin-
the next Literary College Confer- the "immediate suspension" of a mittee yesterday considered a ten-
ence will discuss the question "Has j 27-year-old troop leader, Mrs. j tative draft of recommendations
you fr vel'sin-: 'Ylpaphpn 'PnPln lrlcn, u. rlnlinr f on the nI'nn OSel revisionof rn-

SONATA for violin and piano, by
Gordon Sherwood, Grad., will be'
the first composition in Friday's
concert, followed by songs com-

Military Honorary
The following men were called

.;. ..
__ ,..: ..
> .

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