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January 09, 1953 - Image 2

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Michigan Daily, 1953-01-09

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VP Ito ete
Daily Managing Editor
IT WAS A tawdry drama that was enacted
in Washington over vacation. Sen. Jos-
eph McCarthy (R-Wis.) became a retro-
active war hero, as it was announced that
he had been awarded the Distinguished
Flying Cross and the Air Medal with four
" It is only necessary to remark in pass-
ing that the medal. award came at a pe-
culiar time, coinciding as it did with the
damning revelations by the Senate Sub-
committee investigating the McCarthy fI-
nances, and point to Drew Pearson's
background material on the medals in an
adjoining column.
It was interesting, In addition to have
the opportunity of hearing during the holi-
days one who had served with McCarthy in
the Pacific describe the "heroism and ex-
traordinary achievement" for which he was
McCarthy, it seems, was qualified as an
intelligence officer during his undistinguish-
ed military career in the Marine Corps. In-
telligence personnel do not fly; McCarthy's
legendary feats as tail-gunner, which earn-
ed him the monicker of "Rear-Gun Joe,"
were all on voluntary joy-rides he made on
soft missions.
McCarthy's actual combat record, it
was recounted, consisted of one flight over
an undefended Japanese airfield. Here an
old Japanese airplane had been left sit-
ting on the field; "Geronimo" McCarthy
reports that there was nothing left of it
after his machine gun artistry. Ouside of
that, the only time he fired his famous
rear gun outside the rifle range was, at
miscellaneous cocoanut trees when the
going was particularly dull.
In all, his compatriot reported that Mc-
Carthy tagged along on 17 missions, in con-
trast to the 32 figure he peddles and the
minimum of 20 required for legitimate claim
to a Distinguished Flying Cross. And Mc-
Carthy possessed not one whit of flying
orders, which are required to get official
accreditation for missions.
In line with this it is interesting to note
that in his autobiography in the 1947 Con-
gressional Directory, McCarthy spilled forth
with the bilge about 32 heroic missions as a
rear gunner. In the latest version, after
even his friends warned him to tone it
down, he merely states more accurately
that he served in the Marines.
It is tragic that such a medal, which
may be the only solace that thousands of
gold-star parents or disabled veterans
have for their sacrifice, should be so
grossly debased. It is small wonder that
many are returning their awards in dis-
Another shabby chapter has been written
In the McCarthy epic of demagoguery.
Atthe Michigan.. ..
THE STEEL TRAP, with Joseph Cotten
and Teresa Wright.
A MOVIE ABOUT a law-breaker could
deal with, among other things, the
motivating situation or the consequences
following the anti-social act. The Steel Trap
chooses to consider a rather superficial as-
pect: how the mechanics of the crime are
worked out.
Joseph Cotten plays a minor bank of-
ficial who decides to make off to Rio
with the contents of his bank's vault. We
learn that he has been working at the
same place for eleven years, and is there-

fore ready and eager to chuck the old rou-
tine. Now, although several movies and
plays have developed this theme recently,
it doesn't necessarily follow that we must
expect every businessman to be in such a
dangerous state of 'mind. Cotten's only
motivation, aside from the mild boredom
he experiences, is his "obsession" with the
idea of embezzlement. A mysterious pro-
cess, getting obsessed, but it is offered
without a qualm.
By making his plans rather haphazardly,
Cotten manages to undergo every possible
close call. Combined with a good musical
score by Dimitri Tiomkin, these make for
a degree of suspense. But one narrow es-
cape follows another so closely that their
effect is thoroughly dissipated. At times,
too, Cotten behaves himself with such hys-
terical abandon that the forces of order
seem to be cheating a little by purposely
looking the other way. Anyway, it doesn't
seem very important that he should either
escape or be caught.
Cotten's wife, played by Teresa Wright,
is an innocent victim of these goings on.
When she recognizes her husband's dup-
licity, the naive script hits bottom. A de-
bate on morality takes place approxi-
mately on the level of a tot's class in Sun-
day school. Assured by his wife that they
"could never find happiness on stolen
money," Cotten recalls to her the New
Year's Eve he drove while drunk. Wasn't
that breaking the law too? Adamant, Miss
Wright replies that he has done "terribly,
horribly, wrong." This convinces him, and

Tunisia and Morocco

"What We Want Is Sort Of A Digest Version"


(EDITOR'S NOTE: This is the second in a
series of interpretive articles dealing with the
highly-nationalistic Middle East and North
ON THE very first day of United Nations
discussion on the question of Tunisian
independence, Ferhat Hached, Tunisian
labor leader and nationalist leader, was
assassinated-a fashionable practice in that
inflammable area. The French accused the
nationalists. The nationalists accused the
French. The Communists accused the
French. And then the French accused the
Riots immediately flared up, and num-
erous nationalists were dragged into pris-
on by the French police. The French resi-
dent general clamped down on the na-
tionalists, but Tunisia continued to fo-
Of late, tension has been mounting to
the breaking point in that North African
country, which France has held as a colonial
protectorate since 1881. Neighboring Mor-
rocco, also a French protectorate, has had
its share of violent bloodshed in the past few
Following close on the heels of the Hached
affair, Casablanca was the scene of a riot
in which more than 50 people were killed.
As of now only Algeria is still relatively
Meanwhile France is precariously try-
ing to maintain its tight hold on the
North African colonies, which are still
ripe as sources of raw materials and use-
ful markets, not to mention air bases.
The French" are holding back the prize
of independence on the grounds that it
would mean the destruction of the bal-
ance between France and its colonies.
Setting up French resident generals be-
hind the facade of local puppet governments
France has managed to pull the administra-
tive strings in its North African colonies.
In due time, the French claim they will ad-
vance the Protectorates to the highest posi-
tion in the French Union-the status of
associated states.
The colonies are strenuously tugging in
the opposite direction, for local autonomy
with no ties to france. Their ultimate goal
is nothing short of complete independence,
even if they have to resort to rebellion to
attain it.
The French maintain that the colonies
will not be ready for independence until
an adequately educated middle class has
developed to take over the government of
their own affairs.

The issue of colonialism vs. nationalism
reached a crisis last month when' a bloc of
13 Arab-Asian nation succeeded in raising
the issue from a French colonial squabble
to an international problem by putting it
on the agenda of the United Nations. Torn
between traditional belief in independence
and hesitancy to step on the toes of its
European ally, the United States has so far
not committed itself to either side.
' Nationalist hopes were raised when the
U. S. voted for placing the French North
African issue on the agenda, but fell'again
when this country opposed the Arab-Asian
proposal calling for interference by the
UN to "establish normal conditions and
normal civil liberties." Deceptively identify-
ing itself with the nationalist cause, Russia
voted for the defeated measure.
The motion, which was finally passed
with the support of the U. S., tossed the
whole problem back into the laps of the
colonies and France and admonished them
"to conduct their relations and to settle
their disputes in the spirit of the Char-
ter and to refrain from any acts or meas-
ures likely to aggravate the present sit-
uation. In this manner the UN closed the
book on the Tunisian problem with a
hands-off resolution affirming the status
France regarded the general assembly
discussion as a flagrant interference into
an issue which is of no concern to the or-
ganization-quite a reversal from that na-
tion's plea for aid in Indo-China. It also
stubbornly refused to be present at the
General Assembly meeting concerning
French North Africa.
The head-strong attitude of the French
on this occasion nearly shook the very
foundations of the United Nations, which
ideally still upholds the principle that in-
ternal strife in any country is subject to
concern and, perhaps, action on the part of
an international agency.
France is still unable to comprehend
the fact that the entire Near East and
North Africa is in revolt against the skel-
eton colonialism of the past. Patchwork
reforms, such as the French forced on the
Bey of Tunis against his will, cannot long
placate the North African nationalists. It
would seem that France has not yet learn-
ed the lesson of Syria and Lebanon.
If France ever realizes that the problem
has grown too large for it to handle, a rea-
sonable alternative-and a possible solution
-would be the establishment of United
Nations trusteeships for Tunisia and Mor-
occo-with eventual independence as a goal.
-Helene Simon

WASHINGTON-Pentagon records show that Sen. Joe McCarthy
is not the only politician to receive a decoration some time after
the end of a war. Filed in the archives of the Army is a citation dated
June 3, 1919-seven months after the armistice as compared with
nine years after World War II for McCarthy-awarding Patrick
J. Hurley a Silver Star.
Hurley, who became Secretary of War and twice was can-
didate for Senator from New Mexico, received this medal under
interesting circumstances. In fact, the wording of the award in
itself is interesting. It states that he medal is given for:
"Volunarily making a reconnaissance under heavy fire on Nov.
11, 1918."
Nov. 11, 1918, as everyone knows, was the day World War I ended.
And about one hour before the end, when there was no "heavy fire."
Here is what happened to Pat Hurley, as told by Col Wilbur Rogers
of the 77th Field Artillery, 3rd Division.
Rogers said that he was stationed 2,000 yards behind the
front line when Lt. Col. Hurley and Col. E. St. John Grebel, both
members of the judge advocate general's office, came up from
the rear en route to the front,
"I wondered what two members of the judge advocate genearl's
office were doing up there and stopped them," Colonel Rogers re-
calls. "I told them the war was about over and that no one was
wanted up there, especially army lawyers. In fact, we had instruc-
tions to keep sightseers away.
"However, Hurley insister on going forward," says Rogers. "He
wanted to see the end of the bog show."
And seven months later, he got cited for "gallantry in ac-
tion for voluntarily making a reconnaissance under heavy fire
on Nov. 11, 1918."
No wonder the Third Division association to whom Hurley ap-
plied for membership refused to accept the ex-Secretary of War.
* * * *

Republican Vistas

The Daily Official Bulletin is an
official publication of the University
of Michigan for which the Michigan
Daily assumes no editorial responsi-
bility. Publication in it is construc-
tive notice to all members of the
University. Notices should be sent in
TYPEWRITTEN form to Room 2552
Administration Building before 3 p.m.
the day preceding publication (before
11 a.m. on Saturday.)
Vol. LXIII, No. 76
General Faculty Meeting on Mon.,
Jan. 12, 4:15 p.m., Rackham Lecture
Hall. All members of the instructional
staff, including teaching assistants,
teaching fellows, instructors, and mem-
bers of all professorial grades, are in-
vited to attend.
Veterans. Fri., Jan. 16, 1953, has been
established as the final date for the
procurement of books, supplies, and
equipment using veteran requisitions.
No requisitions will be honored by the
vendor subsequent to this date.
Orientation Leaders. All experienced
men wishing to be Orientation Leaders
during the spring semester, may sign
up at the Union Student Offices on
Wed., Thurs., or Fri., of this week, from
3 to 5. Only men with previous exper-
ience will be considered.
Recreational Leaders. St. Francis
Junior High School is interested in ob-
taining the services of a college student
to supervise a lunch and play period
from 11:30 a.m. to 1 p.m., daily. For
further information contact the Bu-
reau of Appointments and Occupa-
tional Information, 3528 Administra-
tion Building, telephone University
extension 2614.
Personnel Interviews.
On Tues., Jan. 13, there will be a
representative here from the Canada
Life Assurance Company to interview
both February and June men inter-
ested in Life Insurance Sales.
The Penn Mutual Life Insurance
Company, of Detroit will have a gen-
tleman interviewing February and June
graduates on Tues., Jan. 13. Those in-
terested in Sales may make an ap-
pointment by calling Ext. 371, Bureau
of Appointments.
Personnel Requests.
The Wisconsin Civil Service an-
nounces examination for Architect II
and III. The work would be in connec-
tion with plans and drawings for new
state buildings at colleges, hospitals,
institutions, and at the university.
Employment Registration.
Those seniors and graduate students
who have not as yet registered at the
Bureau of Appointments are urged to
do. so .as soon. as possible. Assistance
will be given to those who have placed
their credentials in the office for em-
ployment after graduating, after mili-
tary service, or for future promotions in
any of the following fields: Education,
Business, Industry, Technical, and
Government. The office is located in
3528 Administration Building and is
open Monday through Friday, 9-12 a.m.
and 2-4 p.m.
For further information concerning
Lecture Committee ...
To the Editor:
T HE WORD has gone round
that the fight against the
Lecture Committee and peremp-
tory bannings of outside speakers
has failed. The struggle has been
lost, we.are. told, student govern-
ment has proven ineffective, and
much effort has been wasted in a
hopeless cause.
I do not think we have lost, re-
gardless of the Regents decision.
I am convinced that the intense
eight months struggle against the
Lecture Committee has not been
Jefferson once said, "Whenever
things get so wrong as to attract
the peoples' notice they will set
them right."
Our job has been to attract that
notice, and to give the issues clar-
ification and unified support. I
do not think we have failed in

that job. I hope the work will go
on and I am confident that in the
long run we will set the super-
structure right.
Whether or not there is some
future, practical, political victory
we have already won the import-
ant battle-the one for the hearts
and minds of our fellow-students
and future fellow-citizens. The
awareness of and loyalty to a cer-
tain set of ideals is more, import-
ant than the reform of a particu-
lar committee structure or pro-
Every political club on campus,
from the Young Republicans
through the YP's actively attack-
ed the five man faculty group.
Last April two-thirds of the vot-
ing student body offered their crit-
icism of the restrictive powers of
the Lecture Committee.
The Student Legislature, de-
spite delays and counter-propo-
sals, stood steadfast to the cri-
teria of individual guilt, judged
after the act on specific evidence,
and freedom of expression for po-
litical ideas, no matter how un-
popular or repulsive.
We continue in our belief that
at a university serving a democ-
racy these ideals must be main-
tained in working order. The fight

the above openings call Ext. 371, Bu-
reau of Appointments.
Academic Notices
Doctoral Examination for Thomas N.
Johnson, Anatomy; thesis: "The Su-
perior and Inferior Colliculi of the
Mole (Scalopus aquaticus machrnus,"
Fri., Jan. 9, 4559 East Medical Building,
at 3:30 p.m. Chairman, E. C. Crosby.
Doctoral Examination for Henry
Klomp, English Language & Litera-
ture; thesis: "The Idea of Aspiration
In Early and Mid-victorian Literature,"
Sat., Jan. 10, 1953, East Council Room,
Rackham Building, at 9 a.m. Chairman,
L. I. Bredvold.
Doctoral Examination for John Fran-
cis Castle, English; thesis: "The Mak-
ing of An American Tragedy," Sat.,
Jan. 10, East Council Room, Rackham
Building, at 2 p.m. Chairman, J. L, Da-
vi s.
Interdisciplinary Seminar in the
Theory of Growth. There will be a
meeting of all faculty members inter-
ested in the interdisciplinary seminar
in the theory of growth on Fri., Jan. 9,
4 p.m., in the west Conference Room
of the Rackham Building. This seminar
is offered in the second semester (Eco-
nomics 353). Those interested should
contact Mr. Boulding (Ext. 403).
Psychology Colloquum meets Fri.,
Jan. 9, 4:15 p.m., in Auditorium D, Ma-
son Hall. Dr. Charles E. Osgood, Pro-
fessor of Psychology, University of -
linois, will speak on "Aphasia and Lan-
guage Theory."
Astronomical Colloquium. Fri., Jan.
9, 4:15 p.m., the Observatory. Speaker:
Dr. F. D. Miller; Subject: "Two Recent
Soviet Contributions to Galactic Dy-
University Symphony Band, William
D. Revelli, Conductor, will be heard at
4:15 Sunday afternoon, Jan. 11, In Hill
Auditorium, with Leroy Anderson ap-
pearing as guest conductor. The con-
cert will be played in conjunction with
the Eighth Annual Midwestern Music
Conference, and will be open to 1the
general public. It will include Rich-
ards' Hail Miami, Bach's Prelude and
Fugue in B-fiat minor, Rossini's Over-
ture to "Italian in Algiers," and Jacob's
Music for a Festival. After Intermis-
sion the band will play Wagner's com-
position "Elsa's Procession to the Ca-
thedral from 'Lohngrin'" and five
works by Leroy Anderson: The Phan-
tom Regiment, Serenata, Trumperter's
Lullaby, Belle of the Ball, and Sleigh
Events Today
Wesley Foundation. Meet at Wesley
Lounge at 7:30 to go to the Hockey
Motion Pictures, auspices of Univer-
sity Museums, "OurnAnimal Neigh.
bors," "Common Animals of the
woods," and "Gray Squirrel. 7:30 p.m.,
Kellogg Auditorium. No admission
SRA Coffee Hour, Lane Hall, 4:15-
5:30 p.m. Canterbury Club, co-hostess.
All students invited.
Sophomore Cabaret Central Commit-
tee meeting at 4 p.m., in the League. All
chairman or their assistants should be
there as important questions will
have to be decided.
Gamma Delta, Lutheran Student
Club, will have a hockey party tonight.
Meet in front of the Union at 7. Re-
turn to the Student Center after the
Hillel Foundation. Friday evening
services at 7:45, alsoSaturday morning
services at 9 a.m.
Motion Picture, ausices of the Stu-
dent Legislature-Cinema Guild, "All
That Money Can Buy," Fri... and Sat,
Janm- and9;450; 9S---7land- 95 p.m.,
and Sun., Jan. 11, 8-p~n. Architecture
Coming Events
Square Dance Section of the Faculty
Women's Club will hold Its January
dance Saturday evening, Jan. 10, at the
gymnasium of Tappan Junior High
School. A 7:30 dessert and coffee -hour
will precede the dance. Mr. M. Van
Ameyde of Detroit will be the caller.
Beacon. Lunch at noon Sat., Jan. 10,
in League Cafeteria. Ajourn at 1:15 to
Professor Price's studio in Burton Tow-
er to read a play.
Tryouts for the Annual French Play
will take place on Tues., and Wed.,

Jan. 13 and 14, from 3 to 5:15 p.m. in
408 Romance language Building. Any
student on the Campus with a cer-
tain knowledge of the French lan-
guage is eligible.
. 1.Ig
Sixty-Third Year
Edited and managed by students of
the University of Michigan under the
authority of the Board in Control of
Student Publications.
Editorial Staff
Crawford Young . ..... . Managing Editor
Barnes Connable.........City Editor
Cal Samra . .... Editorial Director
Zander Hollander .... Feature Editor
Sid Klaus.....Associate City Editor
Harland Britz ......... Associate Editor
Donna Hendleman ....Associate Editor
Ed Whipple........ ..,...Sports Editor
John Jenks .... Associate Sports Editor
Dick Seweil Associate Sports Editor
Lorraine Butler . Wowen's Editor
Mary Jane Mills, Asoc. Women's Editor
Business Staff
Al Green.......... . Business Manager
Milt Goetz........Advertising Manager
Diane Johnston .. Assoc. Business Mgr.
Judy Loehnberg . FInance Manager
rom Treeger ......Circulation Manager





WASHINGTON-The new year will really
begin, for America and for the West-
ern World when Dwight D. Eisenhower
takes his Presidential oath.
That day, in his inaugural address,
Eisenhower will summon Americans to a
new unity and a new sense of their high
task. Soon thereafter, he will reveal the
broad outline of his practical program in
his message on the State of the Union,
which will be his first down-to-earth
statement of policy.
The two speeches, which Eisenhower has
already decided to differentiate in this
manner, will symbolize together the two
great goals he has set for himself. In an
atmosphere grown fetid with political squa-
lor and political ugliness, he hopes to bring
about a renewal of faith. And in a time
when American policy sometimes seems to
swing aimlessly, like a broken shutter in
the wind, he hopes to achieve reinvigora-
tion by works.
One thing is clear, even now, about this
great enterprise that Eisenhower is em-
barking on. It is going to make 1953 a won-
derfully busy and probably argumentative
year. The range of activity, the variety of
the already foreseeable causes of debate, are
little short of stupendous.,
The State Department is to be reor-
ganized again-John Foster Dulles has
asked Donald B. Lourie, President of the
Quaker Oats Company, to undertake this
grisly job as a 'Second Under -Secretary of
State. While the policy-making machinery
is in mid-upheaval, the Korean problem
is to be boldly tackled-certain of Eiseh-
hower's advisors are now discussing the
use of atomic weapons against the enemy
ground forces there, which should pro-
voke a major inter-Allied turmoil. Other
great problems, like Indo-China, are also
to be firmly attacked-and this can make
trouble with the Congress,
The defense budget is to be recast-among
the Eisenhower-men there is much talkrof
cancelling the bulk of the giant carrier pro-
gram and otherwise "bringing the Navy
forces' level into line with national strat-
egy," which should touch off still a third
resounding controversy. While the existing
defense program is being turned upside
down, it is also planned to grasp such huge
nettles as the great issues raised by the
hydrogen bomb and the vast and urgent

A new relation between Congress and the
White House must be hammered out-and
it may be said on good authority that few
Eisenhower men count on basing this re-
lation on continued peaceful cooperation be-
tween Dwight D. Eisenhower and Robert A.
Taft. Taxes, inflation, wage and price con-
trols, farm policy, internal security policy
-all these must be revised or re-defined.
And while all this is going on, the outside
world will still be pressing ever new pro-
posals and demands upon Eisenhower.
It is only necessary to go down this ex-
tremely incomplete list to see two things.
First of all, the great numbers of people
who hope the Eisenhower Administration
will prove a sort of political golden age,
are due for a sad disappointment. So many
complex questions cannot be ventilated,
so many vital decisions cannot be reached,
without a good deal of friction. The con-
cord that prevails today cannot prevail
much longer, for very obvious practical
Second, however, the very fact that Eis-
enhower and his co-workers plan such an
aggressive attack on so many fronts at once
is in itself vastly encouraging. American
government has too long been languid and
palsied. The biggest trouble, at home and
abroad, has been the loss of vigor and self-
Yet with all their vigor, all their self-
confidence, all their freshness of outlook,
Eisenhower and his new men will also
need to be wise in themselves and
strengthened by the support of a united
nation. This time that is beginning now
is the time that must shape he future
of America and of the world.
It is the time that all the Chiefs of Staff
in all the Western nations have chosen as
the moment of greatest danger, by reason of
the completion of the Soviet rearmament
program. It is the time that will tell whether
the Western alliance can hold together. It
is the time that will tell whether this nation
can do its job as the leader of the free
world. No President, not even Abraham Lin-
coln, has taken office with such a heavy
burden of immediate responsibility, amid
such dangers, or surrounded by such dif-
ficulties. If Eisenhower fails, the last best
hope will fail with him. But as the year
1953 opens, the signs are that Eisenhower
will succeed.
(Copyright, 1952, New York Herald Tribune, Inc.)




SENATOR MC CARTHY certainly deserved his medal more than
Hurley, and more than Maj. Gen. Harry Vaudhan deserved the
various medals handed him by Dictator Peron and other foreign
governments merely because he was the President's military aide.
Because of the many queries received by this column regard-
ing McCarthy's medal-especially since some veterans have been
mailing their medals to the Senator-here are the exact facts
about the McCarthy award as obtained from official sources:
1. The navy declined to give Senator McCarthy the Purple Heart
for alleged wounds in action. The refusal was based on the fact
that McCarthy was not wounded, but incurred a slight injury to his
foot while being initiated by "King Neptune" in a bit of horseplay
aboard the Navy seaplane tender Chandeleur as the ship crossed
the equator. McCarthy was climbing down a ladder with a bucket
tied to his ankle during the shellback initiation, when he slipped
and broke a bone .in his foot.
McCarthy has stated that he carried "ten pounds of shrapnel"
in his leg. But he was never wounded and the Navy so found when
they refused him the Purple Heart.
2. The Distinguished Flying Cross, when awarded by the
Navy during the early part of the war, was given only for rare
and heroic action under fire. However, the Navy found that the
Army Air Corps was handing out Flying Crosses at a rate of
100 to 1 compared with the Navy. So, on Dec. 18, 1944, the Navy
decided to award the Flying Cross automatically to any man
who had floyn on 20 air missions,
3. McCarthy asked to be mustered out of the Marines in Octiber,
1944-even though the Pacific war was at its peak. Earlier he had got
a leave of absence to run against Senator Wiley ofWisconsin though
it was against the regulations to run for office -while on active duty.
Defeated by Wiley, McCarthy then wanted to run again for a
judgeship. So finally the Marines discharged him, and it was at about
this time that McCarthy first applied for a Flying Cross.
In sending in his application he stated "as an officer and a
gentleman" that he had participated in 32 air missions. However,
when Marine corps headquarters processed the application in Wash-
ington, it was noted in McCarthy's file that he had flown only in 19
missions. Therefore his application was refused.
4. Last year, McCarthy reapplied for his medal, and through
some of his friends in the Marine corps, got the application on
the desk of assistant Secretary of the Navy Floberg, who OK'd it.
Floberg is a former member of the Chicago Tribune law firm, a
paper vigorously supporting McCarthy. This was in August, 1952.
For some unexplained reason, however, the award was held up
until just the other day. Just why it was signed in 1952 when re-
fused in 1944, and just why it was held up from August until
December remains a mystery. Naval officials would give no ex-
NOTE-McCarthy's claim of 32 air missions conflicts with one of
his own campaign leaflets issued in Wisconsin in 1944, which re-
ported: "McCarthy participated in 14 dive-bombing missions." Wis-
consin campaign literature also gave him the nickname of "tail-
gunner Joe," though naval records show that his trips were as an




, 14

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