THE MICHIGAN DAILY
THURSDAY, FEBRUARY 25, 1953
____________________________________________________________________________________________________ U I
A NEW ATTEMPT to settle the perennial
problem of the marginal sea's oil, the
so-called tidelands oil, is being discussed in
Congress this week. The outcome of this
discussion should have an important bearing
on the future of the nation's educational
The proposal now under consideration
by the Senate Interior Committee is Sen-
ator Lister Hill's amendment to a Senate
bill which would give control of the lands
to the federal government. Under Sen-
ator Hill's proposal, the federal govern-
ment would lease the lands to private in-
dustry and give 371/'% of the royalties to
those states around whose shores the oil
is to be found. The remaining 62
would be used by the national government
for educational aid to all the states. Until
the present crisis has passed, however,
the money would be used for defense.
The Hill amendment proposes that the
money for education be administered by a
council of twelve, four members being ap-
pointed by thePresident, four by the Presi-
dent of the Senate and four by the Speaker
of the House. These men would be chosen
for their experience in education and public
This proposal, which is being bacled by
such men as Senators Wayne Morse, Paul
Douglas, Hubert Humphrey and Charles To-
bey and supported by the C.I.O. and the
National Grange, seems to be the most
equitable solution to the problem. Under it,
the coastal states, which are now receiving
no revenue from the oil lands, would gain
considerable income. Considering that. the
Supreme Court has ruled that the states
have no legal claim to the oil, this seems a
But the chief merit of the amendment
is that an immense sum of money will be
made available to the nation for educa-
tional purposes, as it has been estimated
that off-shore oil is valued at 40 billion
dollars. According to testimony made be-
fore the Senate Committee of the Inter-
ior the United States' educational facili-
ties are only half as good as they should
Countless of the nation's children are be-
ing deprived of the educational opportuni-
ties that they deserve. By analyzing the
numbers of those men who failed the Arm-
ed Forces Qualifying Test, it was found that
the educational level 'of the men varied di-
rec'ly with the amount their respective
states spent on education.
As Prof. John Norton of Columbia Uni-
versity's department of education pointed
out to the Senate committee, the United
States in her present position as a world
power can no longer afford the drawback
of an inadequate educational system.
Senator Hill has produced a reasonable
solution to the tidelands oil controversy
that will profit the entire nation. Any other
plan, if accepted, will mean that only five
states will benefit. If the Hill amendment is
passed, the time is not far off when children
from all parts of the country will be able
to get a decent public school education, re-
gardless of the wealth of their respective
THE SAAR BASIN:
EDITOR'S NOTE: The recent European tour
of Secretary of State John Foster Dulles again
focuses attention on the mistrust, suspicion and
nationalistic feelings which threaten final ap-
proval of the European Defense Community.
The Saar, European tinderbox for decades, well
illustrates French fear and German nationalism
which are obstacles to a rapport between these
two key countries. The following is the first in
a series of three interpretive articles designed to
shed light on the Saar problem. Miss Greene
hasjust returned from a ten month tour of
By GAYLE GREENE
FIVE HOURS BY streamlined pneumatic
train from the bistros, existentialists,
pornographic postcard vendors and Eiffel
Tower of the tourist's Paris is a tiny land
which rarely plays host to a Thomas Cook
At the border town of Forbach, as the
train leaves French soil, there are no
frontier formalities (such as plague the
weary traveler on international forays)
no customs inspectors or currency declar-
ations. A French officer takes a glance
at one's passport but puts no stamp in it.
Yet as the train moves on, he suddenly
finds he has entered another country. The
houses flashing by the train window, the
uniform of the station master at the next
bare, clapboard station, the people, their
language have lost that distinctive Gallic
flavor. All are decidedly German.
A few minutes later as the train pulls
into Saarbrucken, the capital city, the iron
girders and blackened railroad station walls
are a reminder that a few years ago the
coal rich Saar basin was a gutted battle-
Today the Saar is no less a tinderbox
than it was when Hitler's Siegfried line
stretched its length, nor than it has been
since the days of Napoleon.
Wedged in between France, Luxemburg,
the Rhineland and the Palatinate, the Saar
has for centuries served as a political punch-
Twice France has attempted to wrest the
area from Germany. It fell to the French
under Louis XIV and again during the
French Revolution. In 1815, the Saar ter-
ritory became a part of Rhenish Prussia
and Prussian officials began to tidy up the
place. The coal mines gained importance,
and late in the nineteenth century a big
iron industry was built up utilizing ore
from the Lorraine region.
Overnight, the Saarland became something
of a Franco-German sibling, needing the
three square meals per day France could
provide, yet loathe to sever Teutonic fam-
ily ties. The Saar remained economically
bound to France, until 1914, when Germany
IN REALIZING the long-planned question
and answer session on residence hall
food and budget problems, Tuesday, the
Inter-House Council has at last started to
come into its own as a worthwhile mem-
ber of the campus community.
At the meeting, University Vice-Presi-
dent Wilbur K. Pierpont, Manager of
Service Enterprises Francis C. Shiel,' and
and France took up guns and started shoot-
ing at each other again.
At the end of World War I, France
thought it only right that the Saar be
returned to them along with.the Lorraine.
The French were short of all types of
coal-much of which the Saar would
provide-ant the Saar obviously needed
However, the Saarlanders were as German
in body, mind, custom and tradition as
they had always been despite their proxi-
mity to France. As nationalism was the
keynote of the day, the French claim was
rejected by the Peace Conference.
Instead it was decided that the newly in-
augurated League of Nations should admin-
ister the Saar Territory for a 15-year per-
iod. At the end of that time, the Saarland-
ers were to be given an opportunity to
choose by vote between union with France,
Germany or a retention of the' status quo.
France received the Saar coal mines as par-
tial repatriation. The plebiscite fell -due ex-
actly two years after a mustachioed paper-
hanger was appointed chancellor of the
Reich. A strong majority of pro-German
votes became a matter of prestige.
A tidal wave of intimidating propa-
ganda and malicious falsehood flooded the
Saar in 1934, resulting in a 90 percent
vote in favor of union with Germany.
Yet, even as early as 1935 the Reich re-
alized what the Saar had lost by being com-
pletely cut off from France, the area's chief
source of provision. Food needs had to be
met by Germany and prices soared.
A confidential report prepared by the
Nazis revealed the difficulties faced by
Saarland industry, whose coal could not
compete with that of the Ruhr because of
higher production costs, inferior quality.
and added transportation charges. Nor
could Saarland iron compete with the
higher blast furnace output of the Rhine-
On the first day that the frontier op-
ened between the Saar and Germany, a
line of trucks filled with low-nrice, now
duty-free goods, manufactured in Ger-
many, entered the territory and German
firms began undercutting each other in.a
bid to win the Saar's business, toppling
Saar industry out of the picture.
With prices rising and employment fall-
ing steadily, a call-to-arms was next on
Hitler's agenda. The Saarlanders paid a
terrific price for their loyalty. They missed
out on the golden years of the Hitler regime
and suddenly found themselves marching
off to conquer a world.
(Tomorrow: The Post-World War 1 Saar)
Books at the Library
Bates, H. E.-LOVE FOR LYDIA, Bos-
ton, Atlantic-Little-Brown, 1953.
. Herzog, Maurice-ANNAPURNA. New
York, Dutton, 1953.
Masters, John-THE LOTUS AND THE
WIND. New York, Viking Press, 195.
Phillips, John-THE SECOND HAPPI-
EST DAY. New York, Harper, 1953.
Selvon, Samuel-A BRIGHTER SUN.
New York, Viking, 1953.
'Th~ra.Vhmla W TTVIN A mn.
THE CAMPUS Young Democrats are now
conducting a fund-raising drive to help
make it financially possible for Adlai Ste-
venson to properly assume the role of the
nation's opposition leader.
Unfortunately, the SAC ruling of Tues-
day, prohibiting the YD's from pushing a
public drive will greatly hamper the
group's efforts. However, the club has
stated the drive will continue privately.
Both Republicans and Democrats will
agree that in order to preserve a clearly de-
fined two-party system, there is a definite
need for both a strong and active opposi-
In his first month in office, President Eis-
enhower has begun to map out policy lines
for his administration. As it becomes in-
creasingly clear what the GOP program
will be, it also should become clear in the
course of public discussion what the alter-
However, a sporadic and haphazard cri-
ticism of the government will not be suf-
ticism of the government will not be suf-
Democrats to present to the people a for-
mal, organized, and continuous opposition.
In the last month, Stevenson has made
it clear that 'he is willing to lead such an
opposition, and the party has already dem-
onstrated its eagerness to support him in
such a role.
After addressing a national audience this
evening, Stevenson will shortly leave for a
four month world-wide tour to acquaint
himself first hand with global conditions.
By the time of his return, the present
administration will have formulated the
foundations of its policies. Stevenson not
only will have more information at his
command, but also will have a sharply
outlined target to attack.
Radio networks have already offered Ste-
venson free air-time, so that he may bring
the message of the Democrats to the people.
This is an encouraging sign.
Although Stevenson's campaign debts
have been considerably reduced, funds are
still necessary to meet the remaining de-
ficit and further expenses to be incurred
when he takes over the helm of the party.
It would be a hopeful omen for the fu-
ture of a democratic opposition if the res-
ponse from our academic community were
a hearty one.
WASHINGTON - Grim, Gray Alcatraz,
arising from the middle of San Fran-
cisco Bay, the nation's toughest prison, may
be closed as part of the Republican econ-
omy wave. .
The tip-off was given behind closed
doors of the Senate Judiciary Committee
by James Bennett, director of federal pri-
sons, who said the recommendation is
supposed to be contained in President
Eisenhower's forthcoming budget message.
"I haven't seen the budget message, but
the boys in the budget bureau said they
were going to do it," Bennett told Senators,
adding that "I have recommended that Al-
catraz be replaced."
TIDELANDS LOBBY WANTS 250 MILES-
JT'S A LONG time in the span of years
between the rum-runners of prohibition
days and tidelands oil. But, in the legal
opinion of Eisenhower Administration law-
yers, the two are going to be connected.
For the oil companies, and especially
Ike's Texas friends, not satisfied with the
Holland bill for tidelands oil, now want
to extend the drilling limit 250 miles out
This is because there is no important oil
off the cost of Texas unless you go about 12
to 14 miles out, and the Holland bill gives
Texas only 10%/ miles. The bill also gives
Louisiana only three miles, as it does the
other states, and there is no important oil
within three miles of the Louisiana coast.
Just a quarter of a century ago, how-
ever, a small rum-runner called the "I'm
Alone," racing 25 miles off the Texas coast
in the Gulf of Mexico was shot up by fed-
eral prohibition agents. And the I'm Alone,
which became a famous international inci-
dent, may stand in the path of Texas and
IF RUSSIA CLAIMED 250 MILES?
'OR, THOUGH the I'm Alone was sus-
pected of being owned by the Sam Ma-
ceo-Frankie Costello ring of rum-runners,
it was actually under Canadian registry.
And Canada, feeling that an important
question of law was involved, sued the Uni-
So a special international tribunal, on
which ex-Justice Willis Van Devanter
represented the United States, was ap-
pointed to arbitrate the I'm Alone case,
and in the end found against the United
States. Even Justice Van Devanter ruled
that the United States could not claim
any rights over a vessel 25 miles out at
Xetter4 TO THE EDITOR
The Daily welcomes communications from its readers on matters of
general interest, and will publish all letters which are signed by the writer
and in good taste. Letters exceeding 300 words in length, defamatory or
libelous letters, and letters which for any reason are not in good taste will
be condensed, edited or withheld from publication at the discretion of the
M ArEROF F A CT
By JOSEPH and STEWART ALSOP
WASHINGTON-Chiang Kai-shek and his government have loudly
but rather meaninglessly denounced the Sino-Soviet agreement
of 1945, which grew out of Yalta. The hard-shell Republicans in
Congress are grumbling against President Eisenhower, because he will
not "repudiate Yalta." Both groups would do well to study and to
ponder one of the most interesting fragments of truly secret history
that has been published since the war.
This is an astonishing sidelight on Yalta, contained in the al-
together remarkable biography of Marshal Tito of Yugoslavia,
by his partisan comrade and close friend, Vladimir Dedijer. It
appears in the course of a detailed account of a meeting with
Stalin in February, 1948.
On this occasion, the Yugoslav Foreign Minister, Eduard Kardelj,
had gone to Moscow to discuss several thorny subjects, including the
support the Yugoslavs were then giving to the Greek Communist guer-
rillas. Less than a year before, President Truman had issued his fa-
mous declaration and Greece had been taken under American pro-
tection. Very significantly, Stalin now ordered the Yugoslavs to cease
aiding the Greek Communists. The Yugoslavs objected to the order,
but Stalin insisted strongly.
"We do not agree with the Yugoslav comrades that they should
further help the Greek partisans," he is quoted as saying. "In this
matter, we think we are right and not the Yugoslavs. It is true, we
have also made mistakes. For instance, after the war, we invited the
Chinese comrades to come to Moscow to discuss the situation in
China. We told them bluntly that we considered the development of
the uprising in China had no prospect, and that the Chinese com-
rades should seek a modus vivendi with Chiang Kai-shek, that they
should join Chiang Kai-shek's government and dissolve their army.
"The Chinese comrades agreed here with the views of the
Soviet comrades, but went back to China and acted quite other-
wise. They mustered their forces, organized their armies, and
now, as we see, they are beating the Chiang Kai-shek army.
Now, in the case of China, we admit we were wrong .. ..But that
is not the case in the Balkans."
This extraordinary direct quotation from Stalin is taken from
the official records of the Kardelj~ mission. But why, it may be asked,
is what Stalin said to Kardelj in 1948 a sidelight on the Yalta agree-
ment of 1944? The answer is simple.
The Far Eastern clauses of Yalta came in two parts. On the one
hand President Roosevelt made his much-attacked promise to Stalin.
He said he would approve a special Soviet position in Manchuria,
which the Soviet Far Eastern armies were in a position to take any-
way. On the other hand, Stalin made certain equally vital promises to
(Copyright, 1953, New York Herald Tribune, Inc.)
[D:AILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN]
Gulantics Emcee ...
To the Editor:
GULANTICS REVIEW MC Mills
annual attempt to make last
years joke good this year flop-
ped. So solly, as honorable rice-
eater, cannot understand why Col-
lege Boy Jokester Mills assume
eating of rice and doing of laun-
dry have plus 1.0 correlation?
Perhaps honorable MC Mills
guilty of eating too many pota-
toes-figure self to be informed
vocational guidance counselor for
all rice eaters?
* * *
A Bit More Effort ...
To the Editor :
IN HIS LETTER to Carole Brum-
baug and D. J. Clarkson, Mr.
David R. Reitz gave a typical atti-
tude of many "men" of today.
They seem to feel that it is the
girl's place to chase the fellows
where it is actually the fellow's
to do the chasing. And yet, by
taking this attitude (that of let-
ting the girl do the work) Mr.
Reitz and his type are forcing
many girls to do just that-yet
he would be the first to say that
"today's girl is much too forward!"
It seems to me that, if the men
were to expend that "bit more
effort" of which Mr. Reitz speaks,
they too might find the "returns
Concerning Lunn ..
To the Editor:
tF, AS Messrs. Jacobs and Pryor
claim Harry Lunn "was lucky
enough to spend two semesters in
South Quad," then they should by
all means inform Harry of this
"fact," for I am certain he at pre-
sent is completely unaware of this
period of his life.
Now, then, I cannot help but
look with amazement at the state-
ment made by Messrs. Jacobs and
Pryor 'that fraternities allow
"complete freedom in dress and
actions." If I am not mistaken
both the gentlemen of ATO and
South Quadrangle dress for din-
ner, and as for bedtime attire, I
believe, neither the fraternities or
the quads attempt to control this.
As for complete freedom in ac-
tions, I would except the campus
cops tobe somewhat dismayed by
this rash statement made by our
Lost Horzons ... .
To the Editor:
N TUESDAY'S Daily a letter
from "Battling Backhaut" ap-
peared concerning his freedom of
expression. Although Mr. Back-
haut has a new gripe, he has used
his same techniques to exploit it
-confusion and idea twisting.
I would like to remind the young
politician that the Young Repub-
licans have not censured him as
an individual, but as a Young Re-
publican. When he joined the
Young Republicans he must have
accepted some of the things for
which the group stood, and also
the organization's name that went
along with these ideas. To coin an
old phrase, membership in YR is
a "privilege" and not a right.
If he wishes to deny that he is
a Young Republican, and yet claim
to speak for that club, then the
club has a perfect right to "make
him sell his stock in the company"
and resign. If on the other hand
he wishes to "hold" his member-
ship in the corporation, he must
accept the fundamental tenet that
he is a Young Republican. This
acceptance does not mean that he
must agree with the party on ev-
ery single issue, this is too much
to ask of anyone. As a member he
has the right to help formulate
policy in the club.
To determine Mr. Backhaut's
position, a difficult problem even
for those who understand English,
I suggest that he do one of two
things. In the first place he could
admit that his remarks on mem-
bership in the Young Republi-
cans were a mistake and that he
wants to be a member in good
standing of the party. In this case
I think that the Young Republi-
cans should reverse their stand on
Mr. Backhaut. The other alterna-
tive is that Mr. Backhaut could
Back-Out and quit the organiza-
As a final note to the case of
the Young Republicans versus
Backhaut 'versus the Young Dem-
ocrats one more point stands out.
Is this the same Bernie Backhaut
who exclaimed the virfues of par-
ty harmony and unity in the Feb.
19 Daily? If the young man be-
lieves in this principle, certainly
he could have adopted other
means to settle his present diffi-
culties than blasting them all over
-Maurice Oppenheim '54
'Sadt Plight'.. .
To the Editor:
WE THE undersigned take note
of the sad plight of the two
lonesome Ann Arbor belles. As
Michigan men we feel partially
responsible and thus in some way
obligated to help remedy their
We would like to suggest that
they take up stamp collecting. Not
only can they have the enjoyment
of possessing entire books filled
with stamps but also the satisfac-
tion that their education is being
furthered at the same time. They
will learn the geography of the
entire world. They will be able'to
amaze their friends by quoting
the capita)s of Lebanon, San Mar-
ino, and Andorra. And should
either of them decide to join The
Daily staff they would be invalu-
able as a source of filler material.
E. John Brunel Jr.
Gordon G. Wepfer
Edited and managed by students of
the University of Michigan under the
authority of the Board in Control of
Crawford Young ...Managing Editor
Barnes Conna ble ... .. City Editor
Cal Samra...... Editorial Director
Zander Hollander Feature Editor
Sid Klaus .. .. Associate City Editor
Harland Britz ..Associate Editor
Donna Hendleman Associate Editor
Ed Whippie ............Sports Editor
John Jenks ......Associate Sports Editor
Dick Sewell. .Associate Sports Editor
Lorraine Butler...... Women's Editor
Mary Jane Mills. Assoc. Women's Editor
Al Green ... ...... Business Manager
Milt Goetz..... Advertising Manager
Diane 4ohnston ....Assoc. Business Mgr.
Judy Loehnberg..... Finance Manager
Harlean Hankin ...Circulation Manager
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The Associated Press is exclusively
entitled to the use for republication of
all news dispatches credited to t or
otherwise credited to this newspaper.
All rights of republication of all other
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Entered at the Post Office at Ann
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(Continued from page 2)
Mason Hall. See your instructor, then
sign list in History Office.
The Applied Mathematics Seminar
will meet Thurt.. Feb. 26, at 4 p.m. in
247 West Engineering. K. M. Siegel and
H. Weil, both of Willow Run Research
Center, will speak on "The Far Zone."
Arts Chorale Concert Cancelled. The
Arts Chorale program previously an-
nounced for Trhurs., Feb. 26. and in-
cluded in the current University cal-
endar, has been cancelled. The new
date will be announced later.
Events T oda y
The Michigan Sailing Club will hold
their weekly meeting at 7:30 in 311 West
Engineering Building. The guest speak-
er for the evening will be the distin-
guished thistle designer, Gordon Doug-
las, who will speak on sailing technics.
Alpha Phi Omega will meet at 7 p.m.,
at the Michigan Union.
International Center Weekly Tea for
foreign students and American friends,
from 4-6 p.m.
La Petite Causette will meet today
from 3:30 to 5:00 p.m. in the North
Cafeteria on the Michigan Union. Allii
interested students are invited.
International Relations Club organi-
zational meeting on Thurs., Feb. 26, at
7:30 in Michigan League. Meeting is
open to the student body and all inter-
ested students are invited to attend.
The Weekly Graduate Record Concert
will be held in the East Lounge of the
Rackham Building, at 7:30 p.m.; pro-
gram: Beethoven. Quartet No. 4 in C Mi-
at 5:15. All members and pledges are
requested to be present.
Christian Science Organization. Tes-
timonial meeting 7:30, Fireside Room,
Ukrainian Students Club. There will
be a meeting of all Ukrainian Students
at the Madelon Pound House, 1024 Hill
Street, at 7 p.m. Guests are welcome.
Society for Peaceful Alternatives.
The Rev. Charles Hill will speak on
"Peace Is Impossible under Present
U.S. Foreign Policy" at 8 p.m., in Kel-
The Modern Dance Club will meet to-
night at 7:30 in Barbour Gymnasium.
Please, will all members attend.
German Coffee Hour. Today from 3:00
to 4:30 in the Michigan Union Cafeteria.
An opportunity for informal German
Chinese Students Club will have its
first Welcoming Party at the Women's
Athletic Building on Sat., Feb. 28, 8
S..A. Coffee Hour will be sponsored
by Hillel this Friday at 4 p.m. at Lane
Hall. Everyone is welcome for an aft-
ernoon of coffee and conversation.
Motion Pictures, auspices of Uni-
versity Museums, "Making Maple Sy-
rup" and "Osmosis," Fri., Feb. 27, 7:30
p.m., Kellogg Auditorium. No admis-
Wesley Foundation. Meet in Wesley
Lounge at 7:45 p.m., Fri., Feb. 27, to
Hillel Friday night services will be
held a7:45a 1429 Hill St. After serv-
ices a program will be presented as
LITTLE MAN ON CAMPUS
by Dick Bibler
1 ', I 1/ /