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March 12, 1952 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1952-03-12

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WASH1NGTON-The most important po-
litical story of the year was printed last
week in the New York Times though prob-
ably not one person read it for a thousand
that eagerly followed the flood of human in-
terest copy about the primary in little New
Will Lissner pulled together an analysis
of income distribution in this country since
the last Republican president left the
White House in 1933 and discussed its
meaning. His sources are experts asso-
ciated with the government departments,
the universities, the Conference on Income
and Wealth and the National Bureau of
Economic Research.
The result is a thrilling story of the con-
quest of poverty in the United States. To
politicians its vital significance lies in the
fact of its bearing on the pocketbook vote of
the inarticulate millions who do not own
publications, sound off at country clubs or
talk back to their employers.
Of course, there are people subject to
persuasion on the subject of the foreign pol-
icy which puts their sons in Korea and Eur-
ope. They support the Sunday schools which
teach them to hate corruption and bad moi-
als. They know the adage that a new broom
sweeps clean-or cleaner at least.
Nevertheless, they naturally tend to vote
for their own economic interest, as nearly
as they can perceive it, when the curtains
of the polling booth close and they are all,
all alone. Their view is apt to be a short
range one; economic questions are hard to
understand and their probable consequen-
ces not easily seen.
A factor that also enters into the picture
is the late depression. The majority of those
voting up to now know the effects of that
depression; there is hardly an American fa-
mily that did not in some way feel it directly
and keenly.
This is a major democratic asset. Perhaps
it may not be such in the upcoming genera-

tion of voters. It could be that the war and
today's seemingly permanent crisis will influ-
ence that group toward the Republicans
though the polls do not now make it appear
Briefly summarized, Lissner's major find-.
ings were that:
1. The United States has undergone aI
social revolution with the "forgotten man"
the greatest beneficiary of the gains in
national income. These gains were sub-
stantially greater than the pre-Korean
2. The United States has gone half the
way toward eliminating inequities in per-
sonal income. But it has done it-and this
is its marvelous triumph over the Soviet sys-
tem-by leveling up, not down.
3. The very poor are fewer by two-thirds
than in 1939 and they are better off. In 1939,
three out of four families earned less than
$2,000 a year; now it is only one in three.
4. There are more well-to-do and rich al-
though the very rich have become poorer.
One family in 50 had $5,000 a year or over
in the late 'thirties; one out of 100 had
$10,000 annually. In the late 'forties one
family in six was in the $5,000 and more
class; one out of 20 had $10,000 or over an-
5. The decline in property values which
accompanied the rise in labor incomes is
the chief reason given for the situation of
the very rich. The topmost 1 per cent in
the income bracket has seen its total in-
come decline in 35 years from 16 per cent
to 9 per cent.
This record, Lissner writes, has been ap-
proached only by the other English-speaking
democracies and the Scandinavian democra-
The fact that Americans rarely turn out
an administration in prosperity was pointed
out in 1948 by Dr. William I. Myers of Cor-
nell among others.
(Copyright, 1952, by The Bell Syndicate, Inc.)

A nother, Meeting

THERE SEEM to have been two Civil Lib-
erties Committee meetings last Thursday
The meeting that Bernie Backhaut de-
nounced in his editorial yesterday bore
little resemblance to the one I attended
that same night. Mr. Backhaut described
the meeting as being "thrown into confu-
sion," the spirit of its constitution being
violated, 95% of the time being spent on
procedural matters. The editorial also as-
serted that meetings such as this one "canw
well be the cause of the apathy that most,
students show toward campus> organiza-
The meeting I attended impressed me as
being one of the most lively and truly demo-
cratic gatherings possible on campus. The
jam packed assemblage, representing differ-
ing and often conflicting points of view,
came to a definite decision after lengthy
debate which brought out these views. The
meeting met to either adopt or reject one
of two proposed amendments to the consti-
tution concerning eligibility of membership.
And through democratic, though often heat.

ed procedure the group adopted ope of the
With more than 90 persons present, an
unusual amount of attention must be paid
to parliamentary procedure, so that discus-
sion will be fairly distributed. The parlia-
mentarians Mr. Backhaut claimed domin-
ated the meeting, were merely attempting to
see this accomplished and aided rather than
deterred from the orderliness of the group.
The only objection to the meeting touch-
es upon a point which the editorial made
no mention of-the fact that, the 56 peo-
ple who voted on major measures were
not the original Civil Liberties Committee.
About half of them had come down to
the meeting, never previously having at-
tended CLC. Thus there is the question
as to whether the amendment was placed
into the constitution by the CLC or a
packed meeting. The answer to this hinges
on whether those new members will con-
tinue to be active in the organization.
If more clubs would be conducted in the
"slipshod manner" that this one is, all apathy
toward campus organizations will quietly
disappear. --Jan Winn

W ASHINGTON-Despite Gen. Dwight D.
Eisenhower's enormous and acknowledg-
ed popularity in the South, the great ma-
jority of the South's 192 delegate votes will
probably go to Sen. Robert A. Taft. Here is
a significant and rather mysterious political
phenomenon, which badly needs explaining,
One place to look for the explanation is
right here in Washington, D.C. For Wash-
ington, besides being the national capitol,
is also the biggest of southern cities. And
the process which will almost certainly
send six Taft delegates from Washington
to the Chicago convention is exactly like
that in a whole series of southern cities.
Washington's Republican party, like Re-
publican organizations almost everywhere
else in the South, is a tiny, exclusive club,
kept tiny and exclusive by a three-man dy-
nasty which has ruled the club for going on
32 years. The dynasty consists of three law-
years, Edward F. Colladay, who has been in
the driver's seat since the early twenties,
James C. Wilkes,'party chairman in 1948,
and Joseph MGarraghy, a law partner of
Wilkes, who has now taken over the chair-
This tight little triumvirate has its
counterpart all over the South. And vir-
tually all southern Republican bosses fol-
low a simple cardinal rule-the fewer Re-
publicans the better. This makes for ease
of control, and what is more, for fat slices
of the patronage pie when the great day of
Republican national victory comes. How
well the Washington triumvirate has fol-
lowed this rule is suggested by the fact
that in 1948, less than 500 Republicans
out of Washington's politically conscious
population of more than 800,000 registered
at the single designted polling place.
This low registration, which is achieved
partly by exceedingly inconspicuous and dul-
ly worded pre-polling advertising, is itself
insurance against the machine's losing its
grip. But there is plenty of reinsurance. In
order to have any voice, a Washington Re-
publican must first prove he is a Republican,
and register. He must then attend a meeting
of his precinct, one of 43 which elects dele-
gates to a local convention. This local con-
vention in turn elects delegates to the na-
tional convention.
IT IS NO simple matter to prove you are a
Republican in Washington. One of the
'criteria of orthodox Republicanism, laid down
by an organization leader here, is the ques-
tion, "Has he ever given money to the par-
ty?" Those considered unreliable by the or-
ganization can be quite simply "screened
out" in this way.
And this is by no means all. The precinct
leaders are easily kept in an obedieni
frame of mind, since the organization can
shift precincts about as the boss wishes.
And the docile precinct captains are pro-
vided with "official enrollment sheets,"
which they carry in their pockets, and use
to register at will voters considered reli-
able. In 1948, there were more than 1,400
so registered, three times as many as regis-
tered at the designated polling place.
The precinct leaders also display a cer-
tain reticence about the date and location
of the precinct meeti1)gs which elect dele-
gates to the local convention. These meet-
ings are ordinarily convivial but exceedingly
private gatherings of a half dozen or so of
the trusted faithful. And if the worst comes
to the worst, and a serious revolt threatens,
the organization can simply "go under-
ground and elect convention delegates at
private teas and dinner parties," as one Re-
publican leader who tried to buck the ma-
chine in 1948 described the process.

* * *
THERE IS REALLY no way to attack this
airtight system. Delegates to the local con-
vention elected at "rump" precinct meetings
are simply'tossed out on their ear by the or-
ganization-controlled credentials committee.
Washington's Eisenhower backers tried a
frontal assault, with a proposal for a well-
advertised general primary, with a secret
ballot. But4Joseph McGarraghy stomped out
of the meeting called to discuss this pro-
posal, exclaiming angrily that the whole idea
was "perfectly ridiculous." The walkout was
accompanied by cries of "Gromyko" and
"Malik," but there was really nothing any-
one could do.
So there is not much question how
Washington's six delegates will vote in
Chicago. McGarraghy himself is main-
taining an above-the-battle attitude in
public. But his mentor, Colladay, made the
position clear when he announced that he
was "all out" for Sen. Taft. Washington's
six delegates may not seem to matter very
much. But precisely the same process is
at work in most southern cities-McGar-
raghy's Gromyko act, for example, has
been duplicated with variations in such
cities as New Orleans, Memphis, and
And the 192 southern delegates, delivere&
by overwhelmingly Taft-minded southern
"regulars" using the techniques described
above, may very well determine the identity
of the next American president. This curious
phenomenon of southern Republicanism thus
hnc amr mAnnina n-ndi+tmuilhacm n--,

CLC Packing . .
To the Editor:
IN A RECENT letter, an indig-
nant member of the Civil Lib-
erties Committee said that the
new constitutional amendment
was not adopted by the Civil Lib-
erties Committee. He charged that
the meeting was "packed." And
so it was. It was packed with peo-
ple who had always been sincere-
ly interested in the need for a
Civil Liberties Committee on cam-
pus, and who had always followed
the committee's action carefully,
if passively.
When the direction CLC was
taking became apparent to the
whole campus, these passive sup-
porters realized that their active
participation was necessary to
form a Civil Liberties Committee
which stood for the ideals and
practices sith a group must up-
hold. They joined the committee.
And I, realizing that their ac-
tive participation is necessary if
CLC is to survive, join with Mr.
Reader in hoping they will all
return to use their membership
and the committee in the wisest
possible manner.
--Leah Marks
Contribution . . .
To the Editor:
I WOULD LIKE to make a con-
tribution to the present discus-
sion of civil liberties and freedom
of speech on the campus.
My contentions may be sum-
marized thus: (i) subversion is a.
real problem for almost any group,
society, or nation, and is a prob-
lem of importance in American so-
ciety. (ii) The present methods
for dealing with the problem, such
as the methods of the House Un-
American Activities Committee,
are inappropriate and ineffective
in getting at the roots of the prob-
lem, confuse the real issues, and
are themselves subversive of many
of the values which our society
cherishes. (iii) Serious inquiry
and research into the nature and
meaning of subversion, its place in
a healthy society, and the ap-
propriate methods for dealing
with it is much needed. -
"Subvert" means literally "un-
derturn". It connotes an attempt
to change the basic values of a
society by methods which are
secret, underhanded, and treach-
erous. It is deeply disturbing and
corrupting'to any group faced with
it. In this sense there can be no
doubt that communists are "sub-
versive" in American society, They
seek to change its basic values, and
they work through methods of
secret manipulation rather than
open discussion.
In thinking about how to deal
with this problem, however, two
errors should be avoided. One is+
to suppose that in the defense of
basic values, as well as in the at-
tack on them, the end justifies
the means, no holds are barred,l
and the basic values themselves
may be violated in order to defend+
them. If a society violates its basic+
values-for instance, constitution-
alism, respect for differences, due+
process of law, open discussion,+
and so on, in the attempt to de-
fend them, clearly it is not de-+
fending them! The other error-
into which relatively few of us in
these days are likely to fall-is1
to suppose that there is no real1
problem, and that the basic values
of a society or group can be left
to look after themselves.
The remedy for subversion,
therefore, is not self-subversion,
but "superversion"-the bringing]
of the challenge out into the open,+
and answering it openly. I am my-
self, I hope, a superversive. There.
are many aspects, even basic val-

ues, of current American society
which I seek to change-our racial
discrimination, our faith in vio-


lence, our lack of confidence in the
basic principles of our own revo-
lution and constitution. The chal-
lefige to our existing way of life,
however, must be made openly,
frankly, and honestly. The "super-
versive" works in the light; the
subversive in the darkness.
Someone has said that Ameri-
can society is in danger of com-
mitting suicide to avoid being
murdered. One cannot help feel-
ing that the present campaign
against the communists veers
towards this danger. The cam-
paign of the Department of Jus-'
tice to deport a handful of foreign
born communists is petty and un-
worthy of a great nation devoted
to liberty. It is true that many
who speak in defense of these piti-
ful and misguided people are
themselves pharisees and hypo-
crites, attacking the mote in the
eye of their own country while be-
ing oblivious to the beam in the
eye of Russia, straining at the
gnat of a few hundred American
expellees while they swallow the
camel of the millions of refugees
created by Soviet tyranny. It is al-
so true that motes and gnats can
be very irritating, and it is also
hypocritical to pretend that the
gross sins of others excuse us in
peccadilloes. It is the mark of a
great nation to be generous and
merciful rather than to be pettily
This letter is already very long,
and I cannot adequately deal with
the many problems raised by the
activities of the House Un-Ameri-
can Activities Committee. It faces
a real problem, and I believe its
intentions are honorable. It has,
however, had results which are
probably quite different from its
intentions. It has created fear and
confusion, not so much among the
communists themselves., but
among many who are honestly
concerned with the betterment of
our society. Its worst result is that
it has diverted attention from
communism to communists; it has
not thrown light on the sources
of communism, or on what it is in
the experience of an individual
that makes him a communist. This
however, is the real question. It
needs careful scientific study,
which it is not receiving.
Finally, on the question of uni-
versity censorship of speakers;
here again I feel that the method
defeats its own ends, and that a
revision of university policy is
needed. I believe the way to deal
with subversion is to bring it out
into the open, and to promote as
much talk about it as possible.'
Suppressing speakers actually en-

. 1
courages subversion, and I think
the University should have the
courage to say so, even in the face
of popular hysteria. One cannot
say that no lines should ever be
drawn-rabble rousers and people
who create civil commotions ob-
viously should be confined to semi-
nar rooms where they can be han-
dled. But we are in real danger of
self-subversion, and the students
who are pressing for a liberaliza-
tion of University policy have my
full support.
--Kenneth Boulding
Prof. of Economics
Red Accusations . .
To the Editor:
IT IS exactly the kind of hysteria.
and irrational outburst gener-
ated by David R. Luce in his
letter to the editor of March 7.
blasting the editorial "The Speak-
ers and the Committee," which
Barnes Connable must have had
in mind when he condemned those
who in the name of defending
civil liberties add assmuch hysteria
to the national scene as those
who flagrantly advocate abridge-
ment of civil liberties, in his edi-
torial of a few days ago.
Although I disagree with the
reasoning used in "The Speakers
and the Committee," the writers
of the editorial, nevertheless, have
the right to state their opinions
without having these opinions
labeled as ... whitesupremacist,
slanderous apologetics :. ." Luce's
statement is McCarthyism t its
worst. Nowhere in the article did
the writer raise the race ques-
Another example of an ill-
devised statement in Mr. Luce's
letter is "The editors are in ef-
fect, justifying the rule of the
Ku-Kluxers in Mississippi, and
smearing all struggles against
lynch justice." This wholesale
glossing over of complexities and
insinuation smacks of the same
stuff used by those, who, for in-
stance, label one a "Red" if he
stands up for civil liberties today.
In another statement made by
Luce ". ..(and the editors too)
know full well that Mr. McPhaul
is not "subversive," he is accusing
the writers of "The Speakers and
the Committee" of insincerity and
purposeful misrepresentation. If
the criteria used by Mr. Luce in
his judgment of the writers were
to be employed in consideration of
his statements, then one could
accuse Mr. Luce also of being in-
sincere and purposefully mis-
The defense of zivil liberties to-

"Look Away! Look Away! Look Away! Dixie Land"

day is a tryingrand difficult thing.
It calls for reason and logical
argument. There is not just roo
for hysterical polemics from both
sides; one can offer some very
logical and well-reasoned argu-
ments concerning civil liberties.
The McCarthyism of David Luce
sheds no real light on the subject,
and what is worse, weakens the
defense of civil liberties today.
-Leonard Sandweiss
* * *
Modern Art...
To the Editor:
THE pieces that have appeared
in the Daily concerning the
show, "Advancing French Art,"
have shown considerable confusion
as to how a critic should approach
"modern art." In the letter in
Sunday's Daily, it was suggested
that the proper approach is to
consider three questions: "What
has the painter tried to do? Has
he accomplished it? Was it worth
accomplishing?" Actually these
questions have little bearing on
the critic's main task, since they
only obliquely refer to the work
of art itself. Whether an artist
has achieved what he intended is
certainly important to the artist
but not the gallery goer or art
critic. The latter are concerned
not with the intent of the art*
which they often have no wayt
knowing, but with the content of'
his work. If this were not so, the
natural artist might find his work
damned, simply because he was
unaware of the formal reasons
behind it, that is, because creation
did not go hand in hand with
analysis. A critic is poor if he
dismisses things of value simply
as "not consciously intended."
The same issue arises in Sieg-
fried Feller's review when he asks,
"How much credit for aesthetic
creativity can be assigned to the
workings of the unconscious?" A
critic should ask himself not
"What did the artist intend to
do?" and 'Was it worth doing?"
but rather "What has the artist
done?" and "If this, what canI
find of value?" If our critics
would worry less about "assigning
credit" and think more about what
they see, they would be of moae
use to their readers. Such an ap-
proach would not prejudge the is-
sue, but it would certainly avoid
a morass of confusing side issues.
-Jamie Ross
* * *
Search for a Date...
To the Editor:
HAVE been at the University
for some time and I have
been able to understand most of
the theories of my under-classman
status but there has been one
thing that has come to my atten-
tion in the past few months that
has perplexed me no .ed. I just
have to know'who this person who
calls himself "Kabrilarich Frat
inski" is.
I believe there must be some one
on campus that just might know
who this anonymous person is. I
don't think that I am the only
person that has been. called in
search of a date, but a great nun
ber of other innocent co-eds like
myself. I would like a date with
this person, whoever he is, but
I am so frightened because of the
doubt in me just who thisperson
really is. He may even be a Senior
Medical Student ... I do believe
that this is of very great impor-
tance to many of the Co-eds that
have been called. Please Mr. Frag-
inski tell us all just who you are,
-Annie Waterman '52


CteriSto the61or . .



Late Hours

THE UNIVERSITY has recently corected
a curious anomaly in women's hours by
permitting men to remain in women's resi-
dences until 1:25 a.m. on late permission

But there seems to be another side of the
picture which is equally inconsistent.
The Student Affairs Committee has a rul-
ing which permits only major campus func-
tions to be considered for one o'clock per-
mission. University regulations define these
major events as: a) the annual functions
sponsored by the campus wide independent
and affiliated men's and women's associa-
tions; b) the annual function of a school
or college; c) all-campus dances sponsored
by representative groups for philanthropic
However, closed social events, "those
sponsored by student organizations for mem-
bers and invited guests only," can end no
later than twelve even if they coincide in
date with one of the enumerated campus
Late permissions were first accorded to the
major functions in 'order to make them more
THROUGH March 24th, the Nackham
Galleries will bear the artistic fruit of
Ann Arbor's youth, under the auspices of
the Ann Arbor Art Association. Every age
group, from tiny tot to late teen-ager, is
well, represented by paintings and, to a les-
ser extent, by sculpture, collage, and other
At every level, the quality is fairly uni-
form, with a few outstanding exceptions.
There are more outstandingly good ex-
amples among the lowest age groups, and
more bad ones as the age increases. The
reason for this change is fairly obvious.
As ic it h. exvneetecd if i a ha..rnciaaA

attractive. The added popularity which this
privilege gave them enabled them to meet
their high expenses.
If all approved parties received the same
advantage, the major functions would prob-
ably go out of existence after a few years
spent on the red side of the ledger.
The administration is therefore justified in
protecting affairs of general campus interest,
e.g. Senior Ball and Paul Bunyan Formal.
But there are a certain number of evenings
each year devoted to professional school
dances, such as Odonto, Slide Rule, and
Caduceus Balls. These functions appeal only
to a very restricted number of students
leaving the vast majority of students free to
attend other parties which are not detri-
mental to the attendance of the late per-
mission dance.
There are at least six evenings when late
permission could be granted to closed affairs
-as well as eligible major campus functions.
Although the competition among residence
halls and fraternities would be terrifically
keen for approved affairs on these weekends,
the change would be warmly appreciated.
-Barbara Goldblum



RT +
ism becomes diluted with attempted realism.
Realism is manually a much more ambitious
undertaking, and efforts along these lines
result first, at the intermediate level, in a
style roughly approximating Rousseau's
Finally, at the high school level, al-
though the painters generally retain their
love of color per se, they do their utmost
to imitate the world of which they have
become physically (and in at least one
case, socially) aware. Since their tech-
nical skill has not developed sufficiently
to overcome the deficit caused by the by
now pronounced imaginative restraints,
th-a -u-g-c a,..- .: v a-s a- aw -T

(Continued from Page 2).
U-M Student Players: General mem-
bership meeting, 7:30 p.m., Ann Arbor
Room, League, to discuss constitutional
amendments and forthcoming produc-
tion of "Brigadoon."
Congregational-Disciples Guild: Sup-
per Discussion Groups, 5:30 to 7 p.m.,
Guild House. Second study group on
"Fundamentals of the Christian Faith,"
7:15 to 8:15 p.m., Guild House.
Gilbert and Sullivan Society. Import-
ant all-chorus rehearsal, 7:15 p.m., Un-
Hillel: Petitions for Hillel Council are
due at Lane Hall by 1 p.m.
Le Cercle Francais: Meeting, 8 p.m.
in the League, featuring a Parody on
Carmen. Registration for tutoring. New
members welcome.
SL Candidates Open Houses: Presi-
dents of student housina groups are

volunteer Naval Research Reserve Theories: Art as Expression,", "Losses,"
Unit 9-3. Meeting, 7:3v p.m., Thurs., apid "The Difficult Resolution." Mime-
March 13, 2082 Natural Science Bldg. ographed copies of these poems are
Subject: Tentative meeting with re- available in the English Department of-
cruitment team representing Naval Re- fice. A collection of Jarrell's works is
search Labs. Also administrative meet- on reserve in Angell Hall Study Hall.
ing; bring all training duty and appro- Everyone is welcome.
priate duty orders covering entire time

since assignment to unit.
Canterbury club: Morning Prayer
and the Litany, 7:30 a.m., Thurs., March
Student Marketing Club. Open meet-
ing, 4 p.m., Thurs., March 13, 131
Business Administration Bldg. Guest
speaker: Mr. Basil Livingston. "Devel-
oping American Markets for British
Products." Everyone is welcome.
International Center Weekly Tea for
foreign students and American friends,
4:30-6 p.m., Thurs., March 13.
Deutsche Kaffeestande: German Cof-
fee Hour. 3 to; 4:30 n.m. tomorrow in

Student Science Society: Meeting,
Thurs., March 13, 7:30 p.m., 2308 Chem-
istry Bldg. Prof. K. Fajans will speak on
"What Makes Mica Split." (slides). Re-
Assembly Newspaper. Staff meeting,
Thurs., March 13, 4 p.m., Ann Arbor
Room, League. Attendance important.
U. of M. Sailing Club. Meeting, 7:30
p.m., Thurs., March 13, 311 W. Engineer-
ing. Organization of spring sailing.
University Oratorical Contest. Pre-
liminaries for the contest will be held
Fri., March 14, 4 p.m., Room 4203, An-
gell Hall. A five minute talk .on the
topic of the proposed oration will be

Sixty-Second Year
Edited and managed by students of
the University of Michigan under the
authority of the Board of Control of
Student Publications.
Editorial Staff
Chuck Elliott.......Managing Editor
Bob Keith...............City Editor
Leonard Greenbaum. Editorial Director
Vern Emerson........ .Feature Editor
Ron Watts...........Associate Editor
Bob Vaughn............Associate Editor
Ted Papes ................Sports Editor
George Flint ....Associate Sports Editor
Jim Parker .. .. .Associate Sports Editor
Jan James ............ Women's Editor
Jo Ketelhut, Associate women's Editor
Business Staff
Bob Miller.........Business Manager
Gene Kuthy, Assoc. Business Manager
Charles Cuson ....Advertising Manager
Milt Goetz........Circulation Manager


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