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December 14, 1951 - Image 4

Resource type:
Michigan Daily, 1951-12-14

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Legislating Prejudice

WJHEN THE Student Legislature's Human
T Relations Committee meets this after-
noon to consider anti-bias clause legislation,
it would do well to base its action not on the
IFC's "hands off" attitude, but rather on the
fact of fraternity discrimination on this
campus and on the proven effects of legis-
lation against prejudice.
At this University there is hardly a
single sorority or fraternity that does not
practice discrimination, whether it be
against Negroes, Jews, Christians or
Whites. The entire affiliated system is
ruled by the gentlemen's agreement that
during rushing, only certain houses are
open to certain religious and racial types.
The lack of bias clauses does not presup-
pose a lack of discrimination.
For example, several campus fraternities
whose bias clauses are not directed against
Jews do not accept Jewish members while
Eastern chapters of the same fraternities
do. And it would seem facetious to ever
imagine a University of Michigan fraternity
severing national ties in order to pledge a
Negro. As Universities go, this one is among
the worst when it comes to fraternity and
sorority discrimination.
* * *
THE .OBJECT of anti-bias legislation is
to remove their racial and religious pre-
judices that are in direct opposition to the
principles of democracy by which we profess
to live.
Admittedly, removing bias clauses will
not immediately remove the prejudice. No
one ever became democratic because they
were forced to. What will be changed is
the conditions in which the prejudiced at-
titudes operate. By removing the legal
support that clauses give, the prejudices
are likely to weaken and eventually
change. This is especially true when pub-
ic opinion and the prestige of "law" are
in favor of removing prejudice.
FEPC laws have proved successful in
many cities. By bringing people together in
a practical work situation it has given them
the opportunity to learn that their preju-
dices and fears were unfounded. FEPC places
individuals on an equal social level where
animosity can be reduced to a minimum.
Anti-bias legislation on this campus can do
the same.
Besides removing the legal endorsement
of prejudice, anti-bias agitation and legis-

lation will continuously make affiliates
aware of the hypocrisy which they practice.
Unless these affiliated groups are pressured
they will never stop to examine and evaluate
their "principles."
Once outside pressure has caused the
prejudiced attitude to change, continued
pressure must be maintained if change is
to be enduring. The tendency to lapse
was clearly shown Wednesday night when
IFC abandoned positive action as soon as
the pressure was off.
In effect then, eliminating bias clauses
will not get rid of prejudice, but it will get
rid of the barrier that keeps prejudice from
changing. What is needed after bias clause
removal is an educational program through
which mutual respect and understanding
can be fostered.
legislation against bias clauses is found
in the overall organization of a University
community. Supposedly a place of higher
education, it disseminates knowledge and
understanding. It sanctions rules under
which its members must live, rules which
should uphold the basic tenets of our demo-
cracy. By allowing fraternities to bar Ne-
groes or Jews, Christians or Whites, the
University approves these actions no mat-
ter what ideals are written in its books.
Student Legislature with its overall interest
in the welfare of the campus and its demo-
cratic representation is the proper means
through which such legislation should start.
It is students assuming a responsibility
which their teachers and administrators re-
The situation, however, calls for imme-
diate action, not continued study and de-
bate. The Human Relations Committee
without delay should adopt a plan similar
to that which SL and the Student Affairs
Committee passed last year, but that was
vetoed by President Ruthven. A plan,1
without an escape clause, setting a 1956
deadline for fraternities to get rid of their
bias clauses is the most practical, the
most logical and the most efficient.
Such legislation will begin a positive anti-
bias campaign, a campaign that would see
fraternities compelled to take action rather
than allowed to perpetuate prejudice.
-Leonard Greenbaum

IFC's Action
chosen the fairest and most effective
means to remove the discriminatory clauses
from University fraternities.
Their action Wednesday night was the
culmination of extensive discussions by
every house on campus for a full semester.
The result of their discussion is a work-
able method striking at discrimination
through democratic methods of individual
house initiative with assistance from IFC.
A study committee was established to
look into IFC policy regarding discrimina-
tion as adopted last year. It was charged
with making reports to the Executive Com-
mittee at every meeting and to submit a
final report for Executive Committee con-
For three and one-half hours the Execu-
tive Committee studied the proposal and
decided it was not qualified to be an IFC
policy. Fulfilling their responsibility as a
policy-making group, members of the Com-
mittee then considered the whole problem
again and decided that the proposal sub-
mitted by Acacia fraternity better reflected
IFC ideals.
Both the study group and Acacia pro-
posals were read and considered at the
House Presidents' meeting. In the ensuing
debate, it was decided by a majority of
representatives that forced elimination of
bias clauses would be an ineffective, un-
just means to attack the discrimination
There was no argument over the fact that
the clauses should be removed from Michi-
gan fraternity charters. Both policies recom-
mended that discrimination should be elim-
inated. The entire question revolved on the
manner in which clauses were to be re-
The IFC established a policy, then, and
prepared plans to carry out the provisions of
its policy.'Immediately SL expressed "great
regret" over IFC's action.
The Interfraternity Council and Student
Legislature are confederate bodies. IFC has
not attempted to dictate policy to SL, but
SL demands that IFC follow its decisions or
be punished. This is neither wise nor just.
When SL cries out against University pa-
ternalism, only to turn around and call for
paternalistic attitudes toward Interfrater-
nity Council, it is being grossly inconsistent
and is overstepping its delegated power.
Contrary to what the senior editors of
The Daily have said, the IFC has not
"backed away from the problem"-they
have taken a large stride in the right di-
rection. Rather than backing "into a
state of virtual impotence," they are
working to resolve the problem democra-
There is now a trend towards elimination
of discriminatory clauses in fraternities all
over the country. The opponents of IFC's
action Wednesday night should exercise a
little faith ,and realize that University fra-
ternities will follow this trend and solve
their problems without outside coercion.
-Harry Lunn and Mike Scherer

"Shall We Begin With Vocabularies?"

..yS Yi*


> } .
. _.
. ".
I '

,.; '
_ «.o, . ' ' e-s
ptSpR _ -x

it should only attempt to remove
what is evil while still retaining
what is good about varsity ath-
j --Douglas Peck
* * *
Spanish Aid . .
To the Editor:
ONE OF THE most disgraceful
acts of the "Western Demo-
cracies" was the embargo on arms
to the Spanish Republic during
the years of the civil war there.
While Nazi bombers were destroy-
ing civilian Spanish villages, and
German weapons in the hands of
Franco's generals were wiping out
the ill-equipped Republican arm-
ies, America and Britain were ev-
en going so far as to aid the fas-
cists in some cases. The feeling of
democratic Spaniards can be re-
presented by the fact that the
great cellist, Pablo Casals, will not
play in America because of Am-
erica's action in the Spanish civil
Today America is adding to the
shame of the 30's by initiating an
American-Franco alliance. Ameri-
ca is actually bolstering the Fran-
co dictatorship by loans and the
establishment of military bases in
Spain. An article in the Flint
Journal titled "U.S. Pressure Stops
Plans for Spanish Revolt Against
Franco" says: "The regime of
Generalissimo Francisco Franco
has been reprieved by 'strong U.S.
pressure' from the threat of an
armed revolt and Spain will be
nominated again in November for
membership in the North Atlantic
Treaty Organization."
The conditions in Franco Spain
are appalling. Young children rare-
ly wear any clothes. At least a
day's heavy work is usually re-
quired to earn a loaf of bread.
Masses of the people are disease
ridden and over half of them are
illiterate. Strike-leaders are ar-
rested and "liberal fascists" are
dismissed from their posts.
With all this, we find pro-Fran-
co sentiment abounding in our
congress and press. Newsweek pub-
lished a feature article sympathe-
tic to Franco fairly recently.
The sincerity of America's lead
in "the fight for democracy and

The Daily welcomes communications from its readers on matters of
general interestsand will publish all letters which are signed by the writer
and in good taste. Letters exceeding 300 Words in length, defamatory or
libelous letters, and letters which for any reason are not in good taste will
be condensed, edited or withheld from publication at the discretion of the

tioned on the basis of what is hap-
pening with regard to Spain. The
student, and the American in
general, can not be excused for
standing by indifferently while
such outrages are going on in
higher levels.
-Stephen Smale
Civil Liberties .
To the Editor:
TWO WEEKS AGO a group to
protect civil liberties and stu-
dent rights was formed. There
seems to be current on this cam-
pus some basic misconceptions
about the purpose and nature of
this organization. The Civil Li-
berties Committee is not aimed
mainly at the protection of Coi-
munists; it is concerned with the
revitalization of the inalienable
rights of man as expressed in the
Bill of Rights.
The President's Committee for
Economic Development, in a very
impressive report, pointed out that
"security measures, uncurbed by
the requirements of freedom, can
undermine our free institutions."
If it is true that most Americans
are conscious of the need for se-
curity measures because they see
what is involved in the Soviet
threat, it is also true that there is
an increasing number who are
asking whther our retort to this
threat, it is also true that there is
an increasing number who are
asking whether our retort to this
threat may not be endangering
certain of the values of American
ife which we are not willing to
lose. They see the possibility of the
loss of two of our basic rights: the
right of dissent, and the right to
a fair trial. Certainly these rights
are now more seriously challenged
than at any time in the past 150
All too often in recent months
we have seen examples of men la-
beling those with whom they dis-
agree "Communists" or "fascists,"
when the evidence for such seri-
ous charges has been lacking. Loy-
alty oaths are being required of
vast numbers of citizens who have
never laid themselves open to any
justified suspicion of disloyalty.
Many an American fears that his
livelihood or his reputation will be
put in jeopardy because he has
legitimate differences with others
regarding the policies of our gov-
ernment. Safety does not lie in
secrecy; it lies in the stimulation
and encouragement of the nation's
intellectual resources. The paraly-
sis resulting from hasty security
measures has permeated this cam-
pus. There is an apathy in class-
rooms concerning social issues; an
apathy towards any campus poli-
tical or social organization; a fear
of such basic concepts of our Am-
erican democracy as "peace,"
"civil liberties" and "anti-discrim-
Oliver Wendell Holmes put this
clearly when he said: "If there is
any principle of the Constitution
that more imperatively calls for
attachment than any other, it is
the principle of free thought-not
free thought for those that agree
with us, but freedom for the
thought we hate."
--R. H. Estrin
1A~V rn~~~








THE HOLY SINNER, by Thomas Mann.
Translated from the German by H. T.
Lowe-Porter. (Alfred A. Knopf.)
THE MEDIEVAL legend of Pope Gregory
may not excite the secular age.
Hartmann von Aue's verse epos, Gregori-
ous von Stein, dealing as it does with the
sin of incest and the terrible penance of
seventeen years of suffering prerequisite to
God's pardon of the sinner, demands from
a modern reader the heroic renunciation of
his willingness to disbelieve. But although
the Middle High German version came from
the French, both versions emanate from a.
deeply-felt, magnificently sincere desire to
extol the praise of the living God.
Miracle formed part of the conscious-
ness of medieval man. The world loomed
before and around and above; the day
revealed the irrational, the unknowable,
and the night suggested the existence of
things even more mysterious, and man
himself stood midway between the most
mighty and the most humble. How per-
fectly conceivable then, that a man might
have sexual relations with his sister,
father a son who would grow to manhood
in exile, and that the son would return to
his mother's kingdom after his father's
death, marry his mother unknowingly,
and finally be chosen Pope, "King over all
the manifold needs of the globe!"
Hamlet's admonition to Horatio about the
multiplicity of things on Heaven and Earth
looks backward to this age of faith, and ex-
presses a medieval attitude.

Thomas Mann's adaptation of the legend
brilliantly vivifies it. The -scholar and the
novelist work together to produce a highly
readable account of the Gregory who rises
to the glorious eminence of holy sinner.
The book worthily continues in the great
tradition of Mann's previous works, al-
though, necessarily, it avoids any attempt
to duplicate the intellectual insights of The
Magic Mountain or Doctor Faustus or, again,
Mann's still incredible achievement in the
Joseph books. "The spirit of story-telling
is a communicative spirit," writes the Irish
monk, Clemens, who tells the story of Greg-
ory, "gratified to lead his readers and listen-
ers everywhere, even into the solitude of the
characters spun out of his words and into
their prayers."
And Mann's newest work minimizes the
miracle in order to stress the possibility
of this particular story. If a reader may
carp, it would be at the rationalistic ele-
ment which dominates the twentieth cen-
tury version, at Mann's sophisticatedly
conscious effort to explain. The medieval
poets did not explain God's mercy, nor did
their auditors and readers assume there
existed a necessary explanation as to why
events happened as they did. ,
But Mann's story, taken for what it is, a
legend modernized and subtilized, is beyond
doubt one of the year's major publishing
events, and a genuine delight to readers who
enjoy the best.
--Harold Orel



At Hill Auditorium

. . .

A PROGRAM which easily attained mag-
nificence and constantly strove for per-
fection was presented by the combined Uni-
versity Choirs and Symphony Orchestra un-
der the direction of Maynard Klein last
From a programmatic standpoint, last
night's concert was the finest example of
workmanship Hill Auditorium has wit-
nessed all year. Credit for this, I assume,
should be placed wtih Mr. Klein. He has
a unique talent for arranging and select-
ing his ensemble groups with a discretion'
that results in a solidly unified program
with a constantly moving, varied effect.
Opening with a group of four 16th Cen-
tury choral selections-one with an accom-
panying brass ensemble, one with two dou-
ble quartets (the Tudor Singers) pitted
against the rest of the choir-the program
moved to a 20th century work for women's
voices with harp accompaniment. Two im-
portant late 19th Century works comprised
the latter half of the program. The Choir,
Instrumental Ensemble, and entire Orches-
tra plus one of two soloists participated here.

Frat Discrimination . .
To the Editor:
T IS APPARENT to me that The
Daily has no foundation what-
soever for becoming so excited ov-
er the actions of the IFC resolu-
tion withdrawing its condemna-
tion of bias in fraternities.
To expect fraternities to be any-
thing else but biased is to disre-
gard the very principle upon
which fraternities are established
-a principle of separation from
reality and escape from the obli-
gation to respect each other's in-1
dividual rights.
One cannot deny that the very}
reason that most students join
fraternities is to avoid other reli-
gions, races, or economic classes.
Fraternities are meant to be a
clique of equals - each member
equal in that he is a prejudiced,
materialistic sycophant who at-
tempts to find security from real-
ity by restricting himself to fellow
Now it appears to me that it is
a good thing to have fraternities
on campus which openly endorse
these principles, so that these es-
capists can be easily identified.
When one joins a fraternity, he is,
in effect, saying: "I recognize dis-
crimination as being a proper
thing. I don't want to have to as-
sociate with other groups. I'm all
against all these "subversive"
ideas of equal rights for all.
T o eliminate discrimination
clauses on the other hand, would
merely conceal the true purpose
of a fraternity. Just as I would
prefer to keep the Communists in
the open, so that the public can
keep watch over their activities, I
would similarly not outlaw dis-
crimination from fraternities be-
cause students then, will be fully
aware of the principles they en-
dorse when they pledge to a house.
-Bernard Backhaut
IFC Decision . .
To the Editor:
T H E Interfraternity Council
House Presidents Assembly, in
its meeting of last Wednesday,
gave its final decision on the dis-
criminatory problem. The motion
asserts that the IFC feels it the
private business of the individual
fraternities to deal with the bias
problem, and that it is not within
the scope of the IFC to deny re-
cognition of a fraternity with such
a clause. It offers to provide a
counselling service, as the best
possible way to aid those frater-
nities which express a desire to
remove their clauses.
If we dispense with the flowery
phraseology of this proposal, it
becomes evident that in essence
it says absolutely nothing. The
IFC has shown that it refuses to
realize that the days of shrugging
off the discrimination question
are long past. Furthermore it has
made it quite clear that it is either
incapable or undesirous of actu-
ally dealing with the problem. The
worthy gentlemen who drafted the
adopted proposal obviously over-
looked the fact that before out-
side agitation for the removal of
bias clauses began, the fraternities
had done absolutely nothing along
that line. It is difficult to believe

that they are naive enough to be-
lieve that their fraternities will
now take any real action without
prodding of some kind.
The IFC, via Acacia fraternity,
asserts that coercive legislation
against fraternities is "not within
the scope" of the IFC. This
amounts to an admission that the
IFC, as an enforcing body, is com-
pletely impotent. In that event,
it is perhaps for the better that it
admits its incompetence, thus
leaving the field clear for a com-
petent campus legislative body to
take some constructive action,
The IFC has had its chance for
more than two years, and has
shown that it either wants to do
nothing, or can do nothing. Let
us hope that someone can and
-Harold Hood, '5
Ath*etic View .. .
To the Editor:1
the University as a place "con-
cerned with the improvement of
the mind" seems to me to be a
rather limited view of that Uni-
versity. The University is and
should be devoted as much to the
development of character as to
the "improvement of the mind,"
and although it has become trite
to say so. it is nevertheless true
that athletics is a means of devel-
oping character. In that respect,
President Hatcher's observation
that "football, as all extra-curri-
cular activities at Michigan, is
part of the learning process" im-
plies, to my mind, a much more
progressive and more valid con-
ception of the function of a Uni-
I would, however, agree with de-
emphasis to this extent: the NC-
AA should establish effective con-
trols to prevent those schools who
are paying their athletes exorbi-
tant salaries (and as I understand
it, the University is not one of
those schools) from continuing
that practice. .
With regard to the practice of
giving athletic scholarships, how-
ever, I fail to see any harmful ef-
fects (and by "scholarships" I
mean legitimate financial support,
unpadded by any elaborate "ex-
penses" account, which may be
used only in payment of some of
the costs of going to school.) The
University annually gives many
scholarships on the basis of spe-'
cial talents, and if they are going
to award scholarships for musical
ability, and for debating ability,
etc., why not for athletic ability?
Athletic scholarships, like , all
scholarships, give some students
an opportunity to obtain an edu-
cation they could not otherwise
Charges are repeatedly made
that "many athletes come to the
University only to play, and forget
their academic obligations." And
yet, no specific cases can be cited
where an athlete has failed to
maintain the standards required
for extra-curricular activity and
still is permitted to play . ..
Some abuses have developed
with regard to intercollegiate ath-
letics and legislation is necessary
to eliminate those abuses. But that
legislation should be reasonable;

freedom" can be strongly

(Continued from Page 2)
Canterbury club: Canterbury House
Tea, 4 p.m., and Evening Prayer at 5:15
Michigan Dames. Christmas square
dance, Women's Athletic Building,
9 to 12 midnight. Caller, Mr. Law-
rence Cunning. Toys brought to
the dance will be donated to the Wel-
fare Society who will distribute them
to needy children. Tickets available at
the door.
Motion Pictures, auspices of the Uni-
versity Museums. "Alaska Reservoir of
Resources," "You'll take the High
Road," and "Men Wanted." '7:30 p.m.,
Fri., Dec. 14, Kellogg Auditorium.
Newman .Club. Annual Christmas Par-
ty, 8-12 p.m., Newman Clubroom, Wil-
liam and Thompson Sts. All Catholic
students and their friends are invited,
and are asked to bring an inexpensive
exchange present. Entertainment and
Hillel. Friday Night Services, 7:45
p.m., Upper Room, Lane Hall; conducted
by Zeta Beta Tau. Social Hour follows.
JGP. Meeting of the central commit-
tee, 4 p.m., League.
Gilbert and Sullivan Society:
Tryouts for the Spring Show will be
Sat., Dec. 15, 1-5 p.m. and Sun., Dec. 16,
1-6 and 7-11 p.m. at the League. There
will be no rehearsals until next semes-
ter. If you are interested and did not
attend the Wednesday meeting, phone
Miss Lois Gauger, 23225.
Joint House Presidents will meet in
Club 600, South Quad, 4 p.m. All house
presidents of University residence halls
are urged to attend.
IZFA. Executive Board Meeting, 3:30
p.m., Room 3A, Union.
SL International Relations Commit-
tee: Meeting, 3:30 p.m. SL Building.
All interested are urged to attend.
Wesleyan Guild: Meet at the church
at 8 p.m. for a carol sing and Christ-
mas tree decorating party.
Coming Events
Graduating Outing Club: Meet at the
rear of the Rackham Building, Sun.,
Dec. 16, 2 p.m. Bowling or games,
weather permitting. Hiking.
Hillel Supper Club. Sun., Dec. 16,
5:30 to 7 p.m., SAM house, 800 Lincoln.
Kosher delicatessen (fee charged).
Westminster Guild: Tree-trimming
party, Sat., Dec. 15, 1:30 p.m., First
Presbyterian Church.
Pi Lambda Theta, Women's honorary
education society. Fall initiation on
Sat., Dec. 15, 3:30 p.m., Rackham Build-
ing. Following the initiation Mrs.
George Muhlig will present a program
of accordian music.
School of Music Student Council.
Meeting, Sat., Dec. 15, 11 a.m., 404



Religious Survey


(Contiunued from Page 1)

"WE BELIEVE that Christ founded the
Church as a means of salvation for men,"
Father McPhillips said. Further, man must
not abuse his power of free-will by violating
the Ten Commandments - this constitutes
Mortal sin, the most serious kind, re-
sults in complete rejection, which means
that the soul goes to Hell. Venial (lesser)
sin causes the soul to travel to a state of
Purgatory, which, of all the four classifi-.
cations, is the only one that is temporary.
A soul in Purgatory must eventually get
to Heaven, Father McPhillips emphasized
-it is only a matter of time. Prayers, in-
dulgences, and special deeds and cere-
monies may be employed by people re-
maining on earth to speed the removal of
a soul from Purgatory to Heaven.
Limbo is the portion of the afterworid
reserved for the souls of men who were un-

panoply of robes and regalia. And the priest
in the midst of a battlefield conducts a
Mass: the barest minimum of an altar,
perhaps struck up on the tailgate of a jeep,
The ceremonies are still the same, and have
the same effect and meaning," he explained.
The saints, he went on, are simply per-
sons of extraordinary worth whose souls
have gone to Heaven. They were ex-
emplary humans while on earth, and now
that they have achieved perfect union
with God, they may be prayed to in an
intercessionary fashion.
The Catholic concept of the Universe is a
fairly objective one. The fact that it was
one of the first religions to be reconciled
with Darwinism during the last century in-
dicates its relative agreement with modern
scientific viewpoints. "There cannot be a
conflict between science and Catholicism-
we are simply dealing in different terms,"
Father McPhillips declared. "Such matters
as evolution and natural selection, while
they do not, of course, play an essential part

Sixty-Second Year
Edited and managed by students of
the University of Michigan under the
authority of the Board of Control of
Student Publications.
Editorial Staff
Chuck Elliott .........Managing Editor
Bob Keith................City Editor
Leonard Greenbaum, Editorial Director
Vern Emerson........Feature Editor
Rich Thomas ..........Associate Editor
Ron Watts ....,.....Associate Editor
Bob Vaughn ... ......Associate Editor
Ted Papes .......... Sports Editor
George Flint ...Associate Sports Editor
Jim Parker ...Associate Sports Editor
Jan James ........... Women's Editor
Jo Ketelhut, Associate Women's Editor
Business Staff
Bob Miller.........Business Manager
Gene Kuthy. Assoc. Business Manager
Charles Cuson ... Advertising Manager
Sally Fish..........Finance Manager
Stu Ward ........ Circulation Manager
Telephone 23-24-1
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matters herein are also reserved.
Entered at the Post Office at Ann
Arbor. Michigan. as second-class mail
Subscription during regular school
year: by carrier, $6.00; by mal, $7.00.



can hear the
night's program

it isn't often the campus
superior selections last


Digging into the rich store of 16th Cen-
tury choral works, Klein has come up with
compositions representing four giants of the
period: the Venetian Gabrielli, the model
choral composer Palestrina and his Spanish
contemporary Vittoria, and the man who
bridged the Gothic and Renaissance periods,
Jusquin de Pres. Of the later works, the
Bruckner Mass is well worth listening to
and the Verdi Te Deum is thrilling to hear
in live performance directed by one who
fully exploits its dramatic possibilities.
Performance-wise, the Palestrina Magni-
ficat and certain sections of the Bruckner
and Verdi works were strained because of
the singers' unfamiliarity with them. But
ensemble work was always satisfying, and



Just because of an accidental
physical resemblance to the top

'd also like
to see your

M'boy, your Fairy Godfather
is dismayed that our first


We can't let his erroneous
reports on our world get



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