I "I'll - 11 omm"
THE MICHIGAN DAILY
SUNDAY, NOVEMBER 4, 1951
By JOSEPH ALSOP
W ASHINGTON - In the Washington in-
(fluence game, the ace is the President
of the United States. If you can play the
ace, you win all the stakes on the table,
which are likely to be a lot bigger than the
penny ante R.F.C. loans we have lately
heard so much about. And in the whole his-
tory of the Truman administration, the-ace
was most spectacularly played in the case
of Pan American and American Overseas
The case revolved around Pan Ameri-
can's desire to purchase American Over-
seas, with its valuable trans-Atlantic
routes. The ase was considered long and
nfervently by the Civil Aeronautics Board,
amid many such indications of political
pressure as revisions of Justice Depart-
ment documents in Pan American's favor.
In the end, in the spring of 1950, a ma-
jority of the C.A.B. headed by the then-
chairman, Joseph O'Connell, found against
Pan American. The majority opinion at-
tacked Pan American's plan as grossly mon-
opolistic. A minority opinion, granting Pan
American all it asked, was entered by .A.B.
Vice-Chairman Oswald Ryan, whose ereap-
pointment to the board had been secured
the year before by Pan American's Wash-
ington counsel, Louis A. Johnson.
U rNDER CUSTOMARY procedure, the ma-
jority opinion was then passed on to the
Budget Bureau, for coordination with other
interested departments before submission to
the President. The C.A.B. majority was
strongly supported by State and Post Of-
fice. The permanent staff of Commerce
followed suit, but was over-ruled by the
secretary, Charles Sawyer. Justice, where
the staff had also been over-ruled, and De-
fense, then headed by none other than Louis
Johnson, were officially neutral. But Under-
Secretary of Defense Stephen Early joined
Secretary of Commerce Sawyer in pleading
the cause of Pan American at the White
Even so, the first serious sign of trouble
ahead came when C.A.B. Chairman O'Con-
nell called on the President's special as-
sistant, Dr. John R. Steelman. Steelman
made a long speech against the C.A.B. de-
cision. He argued that a finding against
Pan American would "embarrass the Pres-
ident," because Steelman's ex-colleague
in the White House, Clark Clifford, had
just become counsel for Pan American' s
big rival, Trans-World Airlines.
Actually, Clifford had taken no part what-
ever in the case in hand, But Pan American
had none the less not been alone in getting
up its full head of political steam for this
case. American Airlines, the parent company
of American Overseas Airways, was extreme-
ly anxious to sell its trans-Atlantic sub
sidiary to Pan American for the handsome
price offered. In such figures as Amon
Carter and Silliman Evans, American Air-
lines had its own valuable political cham-
pions, and in the President's secretary, Matt
Connelly, American had a useful friend in
the White House. It Is haM to tell just
Editorials piublished in The Michigan Daily
are written by meners of The Daily staff
and reresent the views of the writers only.
BARNES CONNABLE: Night Editor
whose head of politicalsteam played the
largest part in the interesting events which
ON JUNE 12, 1950, CAB Chairman O'Con-
nell also went to see the President. He
explained that the big Pan American case
was out of the way, andthat he wished to go
into private practice. The President urged
him to stay on, saying he could "rely" on
him. O'Connell said he would not resign
until the President had located a suitable
O'Connell was pleased but not surprised
therefore, on the afternoon of June 29,
when the decision in the Pan American
case was at length returned to the Civil
Aeronautics Board from the White House.
The decision bore the President's signa-
ture of approval, with an approving letter
from the President to boot. The delighted
C.A.B. majority decided to hold the deci-
sion for release to the press until the next
morning, so that sufficient numbers of
copies could be mimeographed. Meanwhile,
as he later confessed to his C.A.B. col-
leagues, Oswald Ryan, who had supported
Pan American, hastily passed the ugly
news by telephone to Dr. Steelman.
After that, things began to happen. On
the morning of June 30, the President's sec-
retary and Steelman's ally, Matt Connelly,
called C.A.B. Chairman O'Connell to request
that the release of the decision be held up.
Half an hour later, he telephoned again, to
ask that the President's approving letter be
returned to the White House. And a few
minutes after that, he telephoned a third
time, to request O'Connell to send back the
decision itself, with its residential signa-
THESE EXTRAORDINARY proceedings
were shortly explained, when Oswald Ry-
an put in an appearance at the C.A.B. of-
fices, and confessed that he had been meet-
ing at the White House with the President,
Steelman and Connelly. Almost on Ryan's
heels, came a brand newv Presidential letter,
enclosing the Pan American case decision
with the President's signature rather clum-
sily removed with ink eraser.
In the new letter, the President directed
the C.A.B. to approve Pan American's pur-
chase of American Overseas. He tossed a
dry cracker to T.W.A. by letting Pan
American's rival fly into London. But
he also directed the C.A.B. to let Pan
American fly into Paris and Rome, which
had never previously been suggested by
anyone at all. For Pan American, this was
gigantic victory snatched from the very
jaws of total defeat.
O'Connell thereupon sent the President an
angry letter asking why he, as C.A.B. Chair-
man, had not been consulted. The President
wrote back that he had indeed sought to
consult Chairman O'Connell, but that he
had been unable to locate him on that fate-
ful morning. This seemed very odd indeed,
in view of Matt Connelly's three conversa-
tions with O'Connell while Oswald Ryan and
the President were actually closeted together.
O'Connell wrote back, pointing out the od-
dity. The President then summarily accept.
ed O'Connell's resignation. And American
Airlines got its price for its overseas branch,
which had been certificated to insure Atlan-
tic competition, while Pan American got all
that it wanted and more than it had asked.
(Copyright, 1951, New York Herald Tribune, Inc.)
TODAY A CAMPAIGN will begin on cam-
pus that will give each of us a chance to
contribute to the promotion of world peace
in the years to come.
The World Service Student Fund main-
tains a program of aid from students to
students throughout the world. The funds
collected go into the hands of the WSSF
international organization, collaborating
with UNESCO, to help students in the na-
tions of the world obtain food, clothing,
living quarters, medical supplies, textbooks
and anything else that will facilitate their
living and studying.
This direct aid to the youth of the world
is vital to world peace and therefore vital
to us for two main reasons:
1. Giving material help to students in
such "borderline" countries as Pakistan,
Burma, India, Lebanon and Egypt will do
more to establish good will than all the prop-
aganda. we and the Russians can send. This
has been demonstrated by the many grate-
ful letters of appreciation WSSF officials in
Ann Arbor have received from students all
over the world.
These youthful students with whomswe
are trying to establish bonds of friendship
and understanding now, will be world lead-
ers, along with us, the students of America,
within a very few years.
2. If we can further the education of
the peoples of the world, we can help to
relieve the ignorance that is one of the
leading causes of wars. It is the ignorant,
illiterate people who accept the promises
and follow the lead of totalitarian aggres-
For our sake as well as for those we are
aiding, let's joingthe students in more than
800 American colleges and Universities in
aiding the students of the world. Let's con-
tribute generously to the World Student
Service Fund. -Alan Luckoff
LAST FEBRUARY, this writer request-
ed editorially that the city investigate
possibilities of erecting stop ~igns at three
Ann Arbor corners.
The corners were Maynard and Wil-
liam, Tappan and Monroe, and Jefferson
and Thompson. At the moment, the cross-
ings are Just as wide open as they ever
Yesterday morning there was a wreck
on the first named corner. If you are
interested, the details are printed on the
front page of today's paper. They show
rather clearly that the accident was due
to confusion about the right of way.
It's safe to say that the accident might
have been prevented had stop signs been
placed there. They probably will be, now.
The city may be justified if wishing for
good proof before they spend money, but
this particular proof seems a bit grisly.
There are other intersections in Ann
Arbor which are just as dangerous. It still
isn't too late for a little prevention.
It Seems to Menk
By DON NUECHTERLEIN
IN ONE RESPECT the Korean war has been
of great value to this country because we
have discovered, while there still is time,
that our global strategy needs overhauling.
Not so many months ago, before Korea,
the public was hearing fantastic claims of
what the Air Force could do to Russia in
case of war. There were claims from some
top brass that our planes could bomb Rus-
sia into submission within thirty to sixty
days. All the emphasis was on strategic
bombing, almost none on air support for
ground troops. Some of the Air Force peo-
ple were of the impression that we no
longer needed much army or navy. Air
power could do the job itself.
Then came Korea, and despite the inces-
sant claims of success of bombing missions,
supplies to communist armies have never
been halted. When the bombing was too
much during the day, Communist convoys
moved by night. The bombers did ruin all
the North Korean cities, but this does not
seem to have hampered the fighting ability
'of Communist troops.
But the bitterest lesson of the war has
unfolded in the past few months as a
result of increasing enemy air action.
B-29 bombers have proved highly vulner-
able to MIG jets, despite overwhelming
fighter protection. There is now a growing
feeling among top planners that the con-
ventional bomber, and this includes the
much-heralded B-36, is obsolete for mod-
ern aerial warfare.
If our bombers are not able to fly a few
hundred miles to the Yalu river without be-
ing shot up, what reason is there to believe
that they could carry an atom bomb to
Moscow or even to Manchuria?
A second lesson we have learned is that
the atom bomb might not be the absolute
weapon we previously had thought.
One Korean veteran who witnessed the
last atom explosion in Nevada stated that
he didn't think the bomb would prove effec-
tive in Korea because of dispersal tactics
used by Communist troops and because of
the rugged terrain.
Fortunately, we have developed atomic
weapons which can be used on the battle-
field-in support of troops, and it is hoped
that the tactical use of atomic power will
soon be achieved. But because cif the limi-
tations of our bombers and limitations on
the uge nf th atomic bomb. we may draw
The Week's News
.. 0IN RETROSPECT . . .
/ette TO THE EDITOR
The Daily welcomes communications from its readers on matters of
general interest, and will publish all letters which are signed by the writer
and in good taste. Letters exceeding 300 words in length, defamatory or
libelous letters, and letters which for any reason are not in good taste will
be condensed, edited or withheld from publication at the discretion of the
...and Karras takes the ". . . of course it ain't
balofleft tackle . . ." television, but..."
THE FIGHTING ILLINI yesterday gave the Wolverines a .repeat
,performance of their 7-0 victory of last year as they moved one
step closer to Sunny California and the Rose Bowl.
They just switched the; setting from snow-blanketed Ann Ar-
bor, 1950, to snow-blanketed Champaign, 1951. But Michigan rooters
cried, "Remember last year."
Here in Ann Arbor, students had to be content with listening to
the game over the radio, because of the NCAA television blackout.
SL VICTORY-At 2 p.m. today, the doors of the General Library
will swing open for the first time on Sunday in six long months.
The University acted in response to pressure from the campus and
the Student Legislature. "This constitutes a recognition of SL's
ability to represent student opinion," jubilant .SL President Len Wilcox
ON TRIAL--Curious old women crowded into Ann Arbor's court-
house this week to absorb the brutal details of a mallet-killing. Three
youths face a first degree m."der charge in the Sept. 16 death of
Nurse Pauline E. Campbell. The trio listened glumly as their confes-
sions were read to an elderly jury by prosecutor Douglas Reading. As
the trial recessed yesterday noon, the state had only one more witness
to put on the stand.
BOO-Young witches and hobgoblins roamed unmolested through
the city's dark streets one night last week yelling something about
tricks and treats. One business-minded lad dressed in Halloween garb
was reported to have made quite a haul in a door-to-door canvas of
a men's dorm.
** *. *
Legion of Decency.,.
To the Editor:
I TOO am a champion of free-
dom, Mr. Samra, and so I
agree that the minority should be
able to prevent the majority from;
seeing any movie it chooses to.
But Mr. Samra youhave not suc-
ceeded in convincing me tCat the
minority, The Catholic Legion of
Decency, has prevented anyone
but the members of its own group
from seeing the movies it con-
demns as immoral. Assumptions
and hearsay are very poor evi-
dence to offer in any proof. In
your editorial "Catholic Censor-
ship" Elia Kazan was only "told"
that picketing had occurred in
Philadelphia. The movie studio
only "feared" that "A Streetcar
Named Desire" would be picketed.
The picketing that did occur in
one case was done by the Catholic
War Veterans, an organization
quite apart from the Legion of De-
cency, and not representative of
the entire population of Catholics.
Therefore only the organization,
and not the whole Catholic minor-
ity, may be condemned for pre-
venting the majority from seeing
a film. Mr. Sama goes on to say
that after picketing by the Catho-
lics the New York License Com-
missioner "promptly" o r d e r e d
"The Miracle" banned. There have
been many instances of the Le-
gion banning a film and the New
York Commissioner allowing it to
be shown. A casual relationship is
assumed to exist in this case with-
out any justification. Just be-
cause the two bannings are con-
tiguous in time, is no reason to
believe that the Legion influenced
the License Commissioner.
As Mr. Samra says : 'The
Church has every right to classify
films according to its judgment
and in regard for the moral wel-
fare of its adherents." Catholics,
I believe, are the only people in-
fluenced by the Catholic Legion
of Decency, If the movie indus-
try, in a mad grab for money, sees
fit to change a film because a
minority will not see. it then they
are the censors of the majority,
not the Catholic Legion of De-
imposed doctrine of Lysenco Gene-
But this freedom of action mus
have its limitations.
One of these limitations con
cerns the physical safety and per
sonal rights of citizens of a de
mocracy. Communications shoul
not be allowed to seriously endan-
ger these values. Another limita-
tion is less easily designated. Ex
pressions advocating conduct conh
trary to standards of personal be
havior (such as stealing) which ar
commonly held by a great tajorit
of therpeople should not be al
But there is no valid reason -
limit freedom of communicatio
simply because the feelings, of one
group may be hurt.
There is no right to limit com
munication simply because th
idea being expressed is in opposi
tion to the present opinions of th
And there is certainly no righ
to suppress expression merely be
cause less than a majority wan
to suppress it.
It may be perfectly valid for
group of citizens to pledge them
selves to avoid certain outlets a
expression of which they'- disa
prove. But if we profess that free
doms have value, we ought not t
casually interfere with comuni
cations which provide the basis o
any rational freedom.
-Al Blumrosen 153L
Rebels, Suh .,.
To the Editor:
THE CIVIL War is over. T
Confederacy is dead. Yet t
Stars and Bars, the symbol of sl
very and disunity is being revive
Have the valient heroes of th
Grand Army of the Republic die
in vain? Are we who live in
country remade whole by thes
brave men to allow their sacri-
fices to be debased? Do these im
mature individuals who displaj
the Confederate flag expecthus loys
al Unionists to allow their insidi.
ous campaign to go unchecked?
Of course the answer to4 a
those questions is "No!" There.
fore, I should like to form an
hoc committee to discourage th
foisting of slavery, rebellion, an(
the Stars and Bas upon the fre
and united American people. Ho1
do I go about it?
To the Editor:
G L A Z I E R: A man who work
G L A C I E R: A river of ice
PLEASE GET away and keep
away from the spelling Glazieu
W*y for that road across the river
It is now and has always beer
Just after the downtown papel
begins to get it right is no tine foi
you to be-n to get it wrong.
VITAL BLOOD-Wednesday and Thursday a steady stream of stu-
dents climbed the long walk of a large brown house at 1443 Washtenaw,
entered the living room and lay down on hospital cots to donate pints
of urgently needed blood for UN troops in Korea.
Two hundred and sixteen pints were collected at the Interfraternity
Council-sponsored donation center.
* * * *
WITH DREW PEARSON
DOUBTS ABOUT IKE
CONGRESSMAN Hugh Scott, Jr., Phila-
delphia Republican, ran into significant
grass-roots skepticism about Eisenhower's
willingness to run when he sounded out
leaders at the GOP regional meeting October
13 to 15 in Seattle.
While Scott worked one hotel corridor,
Dave Ingalls, Taft's manager, was drum-
ming up delegates in the other.
The West Coast leaders frankly told Scott:
"sure we want Ike, and the worst way. But
we've got to know whether he is running, and
the only way you'll convince us is to hear it
from him. We are not buying a pig in a
poke. We're afraid we'll open the bag next
June and find Tom Dewey in it, and people
out our way don't want Dewey again."
Scott, of course, was Dewey's chairman of
the Republican national committee and his
When Scott came back to Washington,
he talked to Senators Jim Duff of Penn-
sylvania and Frank Carlson of Kansas,
both outspoken Eisenhower boosters. Re-
sult is that both are working out means -of
getting Ike's intentions on the record.
NOTE-While it will be impossible for him
to say anything while he is still in uniform,
and while he cannot quit his important
North Atlantic Pact job until Spring, a
meeting of top Republicans-for-Eisenhower
is in the works which will virtually announce
NEWSMEN INQUIRED at the Pentagon
+he otheay no hna, o tnrv +ha+indi-
Herewith are some more not-so-phony
stories about amazing new developments in
1. Helicopter experts now have a machine
that can be folded in a crate eight feet long
by two feet high, stowed inside a submarine,
taken out on the high seas, and assembled
on the sub's deck in less than an hour. The
helicopter can then proceed on a scouting
mission, thus enlarging the sub's range by
hundreds of miles.
2. Another type helicopter is being de-
veloped which will be carried inside medium
tanks to serve as a scout for tank raids.
3. The small, flying birdman helicopter
which can be strapped on the back of a
soldier, has been made possible by jet
propulsion. The controls are carried on
the soldier's chest, and he can regulate
the speed up to 50 miles an hour with an
altitude of 5,000 feet. The helly can take
him straight up even when carrying the
added weight of a sub-machine gun or
demolition charges. Each soldier wears a
parachute in case of emergencies.
The above are some more "Pearson phon-
ies" the Navy may want to deny.
BEHIND THE NEAR EAST
IF THE ORIGIN of the Arab riots now
flaming in Egypt, Iran and the Near East
could be traced, the trail would probably lead
to a bearded man in a red and white fez who
boarded a plane in Paris in 1945 and fled to
He is the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem,
who was paid a cool quarter of a million
dollars by Hitler and $150,000 by Musso-
SORORITIES, TOO-As an IFC-SL committee began studyingt
bias clauses in fraternity constitutions, Student Legislator Dave Brown
charged that some sorority constitutions also harbored bias clauses.
Panhel president Bev Clarke said that as far as she knew, the women's
groups were clause-free. This jibed with information given to the1
Student Affairs Committee by ex-Panhel president Jane Topper last
semester. At week's end Brown's "definite proof" was still under
* * * *
National .. .
EXERCISE DESERT ROCK-More than a thousand scared sold-1
iers huddled nervously in holes dug in the sands of a Nevada desert
Thursday to receive the baptism of nuclear fire. The Atomic Energy
Commission, after experimenting with battleships and goats, began
testing radiation effects on humans. Three seconds after the blast
the doughboys were allowed to steal a peek at the violet cloud mush-
rooming above them.
The explosion, loudest of the current series, was felt 225 miles
away in North Hollywood, Calif., where residents phoned police to
report an earthquake. No soldiers were reported injured. The AEC did
not reveal if the test was considered a success.
* * * *
STRICTLY MILITARY-Five-star General Dwight D. Eisenhower
flew into Washington yesterday to confer with Captain Harry S. Tru-
man, of Independence, Mo., on "purely military" matters. Capital
observers speculated whether the President would ask the politically
pregnant Ike if he is planning to give up his post as Supreme Allied
Commander in Europe.
* * * *
CLOSED PORT-Twenty days ago, AFL longshoreman walked off
the job in the world's largest port. At week's end they weren't back.
Only ship passengers and vital military cargo stirred the quiet of the
New York waterfront as losses from the record strike reached the
billion dollar mark.
* * * *
International . .
ROAD BLOCK-Right in the middle of the Korean peace road
sat battered Kaesong. The Allies have asked for control of the town,
which straddles the northern invasion route to Seoul, only 34 miles
away. The Communists aren't interested in giving it up. Accordingly,
both the talking and the fighting will continue this week.
The rest of the cease-fire line was generally agreed upon by a sub-
committee of the truce teams-a lazy s-shaped zone stretching across
the peninsula near the 38th parallel.
Meanwhile, cargo planes began flying anti-freeze and heavy cloth-
ing to the men on the front as the first light snows marked the start
of the second winter of the Korean war.
* * * *
REINFORCEMENTS-In the biggest air-lift since the Berlin
Blockade, an entire brigade of British troops flew into the troubled
Suez area to join 40,000 other Tommies.
Earlier in the week Britain cut off overland oil flow to Egypt.
The fiery Egyptian Nationalist, Minister of Interior Faouad Serag
El Din, said.the embargo might lead to open war.
Meanwhile, London hinted of an Anglo-Egyptian meeting in Paris
aimed at settling the controversy peacefully.
Censorship . . .
To the Editor:
THE DAILY'S letter column will
probably be filled the next few
days with writers delving into a
problem unique to democracy as
we know it: censorship.
The critical question in this field
for a democracy is, "Who is going
to tell the citizen what he can
see, read or hear?" In Germany
under Hitler and in Russia today
the answer is obvious. The telf im-
posed political rulers of the State
do all the deciding.
But in a democracy, the answer
is not so easy.
Establishment of a censor, who
is a human being after all, im-
plies that this person or persons
has the "right" set of standards,
to which everyone must conform.
When intelligent men can differ,
is it not rather presumptuous for
anyone to set himself up as guar-
dian of all? It also implies that
the people are not competent to
choose for themselves.
Practically speaking, censorship
can be dangerous. It implies con-
trol over communications which
can limit the facts available to the
people and thus twist common
sense decisions into grotesque pat-
terns. The power to control what
men can know is tantamount to
control over men. It has no place
in a government which is supposed
to function in the best interests of
In the field of ideas, it is felt
that greater advantage to mankind
derives from a free exchange than
could be had by any policy of
strangulation. Witness the Russian
scientist, handcuffed to the state
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To the Editor:
IF HOLLYWOOD can put its
ideas of good and bad across to
the public through freedom of
movies, why cannot tlp Catholic
Church use the method of peace-
ful boycott and condemnation in
an exercise of free speech and re-
ligion to do the same. And if we
win the customers to our way of
thinking, isn't that a victory for
our system of free enterprise?
"The Outlaw" really suffered
from the condemnation-even af-
ter it was cut-didn't it? And it
wasn't even a good movie-they
Come now, Mr. Samra, are we
really that strong? Bring back the
* * *
That bld speC
I ts nota spaC -tI
I 'i'l get off a report to the
astronomy'journals. I may
call it "O'Malley's Comet"-
Yes, I daresay that It doesn't look like a
should make your comet, Mr. O'Malley-
ineeetrread_ And, gosh! its