100%

Scanned image of the page. Keyboard directions: use + to zoom in, - to zoom out, arrow keys to pan inside the viewer.

Page Options

Download this Issue

Share

Something wrong?

Something wrong with this page? Report problem.

Rights / Permissions

This collection, digitized in collaboration with the Michigan Daily and the Board for Student Publications, contains materials that are protected by copyright law. Access to these materials is provided for non-profit educational and research purposes. If you use an item from this collection, it is your responsibility to consider the work's copyright status and obtain any required permission.

November 30, 1950 - Image 4

Resource type:
Text
Publication:
Michigan Daily, 1950-11-30

Disclaimer: Computer generated plain text may have errors. Read more about this.


PAGE FOUR'

THE MICHIGAN DAILY

TMMSDAY, NOVEMBER a8r 1958:

*

Ak

PAGE FOUR Tfl'URSDAY, WOVEMBER 30, 1050

The Time is Now

p{TIME is NOW.
Fond dreams of lasting peace to which
the democratic nations of the world have
desperately clung have been swept aside
in a clash of arms and a flood of blood on
the Korean front.
Two hundred thousand Chinese Reds, in
a spectacular counter-offensive have crush-
ed what a few days ago was joyously hailed
as "the last big UN push." MacArthur's pro-
mise that U.S. troops will be home by Christ-
mas will go unfullfilled. They will remain
in North Korea struggling against the Red
hordes which outnumber them two to one.
In Washington, there is talk of using the
atomic bomb. In Europe, great concern over
the Red Chinese victories has been express-
ed by democratic statesman. In the UN
chambers at Lake Success, accusations and
counter-accusations fill the air with sparks
which are likely to ignite a highly explosive
world atmosphere.
These recent, startling developments in-
dicate that the time for full war-time mo-
Editorials published in The Michigan Daily
are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only.
NIGHT EDITOR: CHUCK ELLIOTT'
DRAMA__
CAESAR AND CLEOPATRA by George
Bernard Shaw, Produced by the Speech
Department.
The cryptic pen of G. B. S. was the win-
ner in the opening performance of the
Speech Department's second major pro-
duction last night. Despite spotty acting
which, improved as the evening wore on,
Shaw's universal wit, his unsurpassable
jabs at marriage, women, diplomacy, and
his sermon on the chain reaction of veng-
eance survived with only minor bruises.
What the production needs is life and
an understanding of Shaw's attitude. The
lines are there but too often the actors
are not. The crisp irony so necessary is
lacking. Rather, many of the lines are
spoken as if from a semi-conscious state.
Without pausing for the obvious laughter
the actors continue reading and deprive
the audience of many of Shaw's retorts.
The character portrayals, which are
painted quite viyidly by Shaw, could be im-
proved. Caesar, the wise, the shrewd, the
tolerant, is always present, but the noble
Caesar is not. True Shaw made the General
as human as the drugstore clerk, but not
so humble or self-indulgent that.the mag-
nificent speech on violence which as hand-
led flawlessly became a complee:Teversa
of form.
Cleopatra did achieve the transition be-
tween the naive, untutored girl to a schem-
ing queen, but in the early scenes she is
difficult to accept as an immature maiden.
Rufio was not given the full depth of the
rugged veteran soldier. His rebukes to Cae-
sar carry more venom and malice than is
written into the play. And too many of his
lines are lost in poor enunciation and muf-
fled speech.
The unpronouncable malevolent Fta-
teeta was played with a well-aimed gleam
in her eyes. But for the waving right
arm of Apollodorus his obnoxious charact-
er might be more easily acceptable. Brit-
tanus, equipped with Shaw's ever caustic
satire on England, came through ade-
quately with many of the best lines.
In passing credit is due to the scenic de.
signer, George Crepeau, whose colorful sets
made up for the well worn and faded but
practical costumes. As a whole the evening
was far from a bust, but the unnecessary
dullness could be profitably eliminated from
future performances. Shaw deserves kinder
treatment, what with him not dead these
two months.

-Leonard Greenbaum

bilization, for all-out preparation for a World
War III that is already here, is now.
There is no more time for complacency
or reluctance. The fantastic notion that the
present struggle is merely a United Nations
police action and not a full-scale war is
all too prevalent today.
The time IS now. This is the time for
complete conversion of the nation's economy
to the war effort. Positive, full action rather
than stumbling, indecisive steps must be
taken. The free world cannot afford to wait
or "Let George Do It." Complete prepara-
tions to move with determination against
Russian Communism, Chinese Communism,
Korean Communism, American Communism
--aggressive or subversive Communism in
any form-must be made now.
This is the time for a U.S. armed force
of 12,000,000 or more men and women. This
is the time for every democratic citizen to
rise up and show his willingness to crush
the aggressive forces in the world.
There is no time left for bickering and
accusing. The aggressor is known, his in-
tentions are obvious. He has refused to ne-
gotiate with logic or reason. While he boy-
cotts, raves and rants in the council cham-
bers he smuggly plans more acts of out-
right aggression. His strategy is to argue,
complain, accuse and confuse while insti-
dating far-reaching military moves of which
he denies all knowledge.
The time is now. He has played his game
long enough. It is time to shift temporarily
our attention from attempted conciliation
in the Council chambers to the UN army
which can, if adequately bolstered by UN
member nations, decisively settle the pre-
sent Korean situation and stand ready to
put down aggression elsewhere in the world.
The time is NOW. The war is actually be-
gun, and if human freedom and human dig-
nity are to be saved, there must be complete
mobilization while there is yet time.
-Bob Vaughn

Christmas
Spirit
THE YULETIDE season with its bright.
colored lights and clean white snow is
with us. And with it comes the usual cynics
denouncing those with the "once-a-year"
Christmas spirit. These cynics feel that this
warm feeling of friendship which emerges
at Christmas time should be with us every-
day. They say that if such a spirit prevailed
at all times, war and suffering could be elim-
inated.
These press-agents of daily good will,
however, are quite blind to this very same
spirit. They are, in reality, claiming to
be righteous examples of charity and in
this way they show their lack of humility.
They fail to see that the Christmas spirit
with its brotherhood of man is everywhere,
everyday.
The UN flag waves because of it. CARE
packages and the Red Cross represent it all
over the globe. The March of Dimes reflect
it by saving the stricken. The University's
Fresh Air Camp helps the needy and fur-
thers its meaning. This Christmas spirit is
shown in the Thanksgiving dinners given
for foreign students. The Displaced Persons
program lives because of it.
It is true that gift-giving and Christmas
are synonymous with good cheer. Happi-
ness and this brotherhood of man do seem
to be more prevalent during the Advent
season. lit is also true that more of this
charitable attitude would reduce tensions
and hatred. Greater strides towards world-
wide understanding could be made if sus-
picion were replaced with the trust which
the Christmas spirit manifests.
But the Christmas spirit is not so seasonal
as the cynics would have us think. For in a
sense, it is always with us.
-Mary Letsis

INTERPRETING THE NEWS:
China in Korea
,By J. M. ROBERTS, JR.
AP Foreign Affairs Analyst
THE BELIEF THAT Communist China is acting primarily at the
instigation of Soviet Russia in the Korean affair has been
strengthened by her most recent propaganda broadcasts and her at-
titude toward the United Nations.
It begins to appear more and more that Peiping has intervened
for the purpose of keeping America's war effort centered on Korea
to the detriment of the European Rearmament Program.
This is not to minimize the importance of China's interest in the
Yalu river hydroelectric system, nor the important of the American
failure to reassure her about its ultimate control before, instead of
after, the intervention. Reassurances on continued power service
might have cut part of the foundation out from under the Chinese
case if made sufficiently early.
The Chinese, however, are making no great issue of this, which
could be their way of approaching an objective deviously,
The reply to the United Nations, points to a reluctant and belated
Chinese entry into the Korean war at the behest of Soviet Russia.
The Chinese are willing to discuss before the Security Council,
which in every other respect they maintain is illegal, their charges
against the United States regarding Formosa. But they refuse to ans-
wer General MacArthur's Korean intervention charge against them
unless the whole field is thrown open for discussion-which is exactly
what the Russians sought to obtain and which the council voted down.
Nobody could act so much like the Russians except the -Russians
themselves. That Peiping's whole course of action is being directed
from Moscow seems certain.
At any rate, it appears certain now that the Peiping delegation
is here under the direct coaching of Moscow, for a propaganda field
day in the UN while their troops continue to prolong the war in Korea,
perpetuating a situation which could lead to a general war.

i

tetteA4TO THE EDITOR
The Daily welcomes communications from its readers on matters of
general interest, and will publish all letters which are signed by the writer
and in good taste. Letters exceeding 300 words in length, defamatory or
libelous letters, and letters which for any reason are not in good taste will
be condensed edited or withheld from publication at the discretion of the
editors.

P--

ON THE
Washington Merry-Go Round
WITH DREW PEARSON

II'-

BRITISH and French skepticism over Gen-
eral MacArthur and his risking of an all-
out war with China has focused attention
on some of the friction, long hushed up, be-
tween Washington and Tokyo. This friction
was one reason for the President's sudden
flight to Wake Island.
The President, of course, has never ad-
mitted publicly that there was any difficulty
with' MacArthur. Furthermore, MacArthur
has 'been almost obsequious in conferring
with Washington, and only once or twice has
he been curt or abrupt. Once, however, on
or about Oct. 12, when instructed not to
bomb bases on Chinese soil, he sent back a
very rough cable loaded with bitterness.
"My troops are being bombed and strafed
by planes based on the north side of the
Yalu River," is an accurate paraphrase of
MacArthur's message. "What do you pro-
pose I do about it?"
MacArthur never got an answer to this
query.
The problem involved in this and other
messages was exactly that which has bother-
ed the British, French and our other U.N.
allies-namely, how to win in Korea with-
out dragging China into an all-out war. To
have bombed Chinese bases across the Yalu
River meant such a war-which was why
MacArthur never got an answer to his mes-
sage.
* * *
CHINA WARNED IN SEPTEMBER
FIRST TIME the question of war with
China came up was when the U.S. am-
bassador in India, Loy Henderson, was ad-
vised by Prime Minister Nehru that China
would definitely enter the Korean war if
U.N. forces crossed the 38th Parallel. Neh-
ru's information came from his ambassador
in Peiping, Sardar Panniker.
The warning was ignored, however, be-
cause the State Department considered Am-
bassador Panniker a stooge for the Chinese
Communists and believed that the message
was a bluff. Instead, Ambassador Hender-
son was instructed to find out through the
Indian government what the Chinese inten-
tions were and how we might avoid war
with them.
These negotiations produced nothing, but
they took time. They also caused difference
no. 1 with MacArthur. For MacArthur was
chafing at the bit over failure to receive
definite authorization to cross the 38th par-
allel.
As a compromise, Washington, on Oct. 1,
okayed the use of South Korean troops only
north of the 38th parallel; and later, on
Oct. 4, the UN passed a resolution giving
the green light to the full use of MacArt-
hur's army.
* * *
40-MILE NEUTRALITY ZONE
HOWEVER, the State Department, fore-
seeing trouble when the UN army ap-
proached the Yalu River and the big power
dams which supply electricity to most of
Manchuria, worked out a plan whereby Mac-
Arthur was to 'halt his troops in th- moun-
tains of Korea, about 40 miles from
the Manchurian border. This was one of
the matters agreed upon by MacArthur and
Truman during the Wake Island conference.

intervention led to a false understanding of
the entire Korean picture.
Difference no. 2 arose from this situation.
MacArthur believed his own reports so im-
plicitly that he asked Washington's per-
mission to send South Korean troops into
the so-called neutrality zone on more or
less military police duty, and on the basis
that no Red troops of any importance were
in the area. Then when the South Koreans
got into trouble with the enemy, he asked
Washington's permission to send American
troops into the neutrality zone to rescue
them.
This was how the 40-mile buffer zone
agreed upon at Wake Island evaporated. It
is always the policy of the joint chiefs of
staff to abide by the judgment of the field
commander, and in each case they deferred
to MacArthur's judgment. In each case, al-
so, MacArthur was careful to ask permis-
sion from Washington before he advanced
into a restricted area.
As a result, MacArthur permitted light
U.S. columns to strike north toward the
Manchurian border on Oct. 25. These col-
umns included the 1st cavalry, 24th in-
fantry and marine units. The tactic was to
reach the border swiftly in order to permit
a quick announcement that the war was
over.
(Copyright, 1950, by the Bell Syndicate, Inc.)
[CURIRENT MOVIES
At The Michigan.. .
NO WAY OUT, with Richard Widmark,
Sidney Poitier, Stephen McNally, and
Linda Darnell
ENOUGH HAS BEEN written concerning
"No Way Out" to make it unnecessary
to recount the plot here more than super-
ficially. It is the story of a psychopathic
"nigger-hater" who believes that a negrc
doctor has killed his brother, and by way
of revenge, instigates a race riot and at-
tempts to murder the doctor.
As a piece of social criticism No Way
Out hits hard and fast, perhaps a little
too hard and a little too fast. For the
entire film moves on a single level; it
examines race prejudice in its every form
and shape, prejudice in white men, pre-
judice in black, prejudice undercover,
out in the open, under the microscope,
prejudice in the resigned tolerance of a
harrassed doctor, prejudice in the unrea-
soning hatred of a psychopathic killer.
It is unfortunate that No Way Out has
come, not as the first, but as the last of a
series of "race" films. It is a good job, but
the effect is more than a little like pouring
more water into a well-filled sponge.
As "cinema" (ivory tower variety)
there is little to criticize. Writer-director
Joseph L. Manciewicz has lived up to all
his advance notices. The dialogue is
crisp and sharp, he leans over backwards
not to pull his punches; the photography
is supurb. The picture deals in shocks.

Gale's Talk,
To the Editor:
I DO NOT BELIEVE that the
letter headed "Gale Talk," pub-
lished in your issue of Nov. 23,
should be allowed to pass without
some comment on its reverse-Mc-
Carthyism. I think that all non-
Korean UN troops should have
been halted at the 38th Parallel.
Therefore I do not agree with the
analysis of the Far Eastern situa-
tion attributed to Mr. Gale. I
feel; however, that his right to
make such statements must be
defended. To question the quali-
fications of a person to hold a
university position, administrative
or instructional, because of the
expression of an unpopular opin-
ion on a public issue seems to me
an illiberal, if not actually dan-
gerous attitude.
Many intelligent people are
pacifists. Others think we should
further explore possibilities of ne-
gotiating and cooperating with
the Communists. Still others be-
lieve in firmness, even to the point
of preventive war of the sort
which it is now said would have
ended the Hitler menace if em-
ployed, or even threatened, at the
time of the remilitarization of
the Rhineland in 1936. If all these
people are to be silenced with
cries of "coward," "Red," and
"Hitlerian," howcan the Univer-
sity fulfill its function of pro-
viding a free forum for the dis-
cussion of public issues? Can we
not give a fair hearing to expres-
sions of opinion differing from
our own, and then consider them
on their merits?
-Marshall Knappen.
Competition.
To the Editor:
o tempora! O mores! The de-
struction of learning is pro-
ceeding at a rapidly increasing
rate through the agency of the
very men who call themselves
"educators." An article on the
fifth page of last Saturday's
Daily took note of the proposal
that "almost all inter-school con-
\tests except athletic events be
ended," because they "often tend
to undermine the educational
value of a subject." What lunacy
is being perpetrated upon our
schools? Do not these "educators"
realize that competition is a func-
tional necessity for achievement
no less in learning than in na-
ture? The logical outcome of the
application of such nonsense as
the elimination of debating, ar-
tistic, musical and scholastic com-
petitions will be to produce a
superabundance of unlearned and
totally inexperienced dilettantes,
unable to face either productive or
intellectua? life, wherein a back-
ground of healthy competition is
the sine qua non of success.
No one should be too surprised
at the announcement of the "re-
volutionary stand," however, for
it is but the latest event in the
trend toward non-participation in
our cultural life. The proposal
that musical festivals be substi-
tuted for contests in music sounds
fine until one realizes that festi-
vals are conducted by a small
group of highly trained profes-
sionals for the benefit of a large
but non-participating audience,
while contests permit a large
number of students personally

and intimately to engage in crea-;
tive effort. The further stifling of'
the creative urge by the prohibi-
tion of intellectual and artistic_
contests can hardly be called a
"real educational gain." It is to
be hoped that the Grand Rapidsa
conference will reject the recom-
mendations.1
-Forrest R. Pitts, Grad.
* s *]
Representative. .
To the Editor:
IN REGARDS to Mr. Marx's
statements about the lack of
truly representative students on
the SAC, I would like to make one
correction.9
The President of the League,
along with the Chairman of the
Women's Judiciary, is also chosen,
by the Board of Representatives,,
a board composed of the presi-
dents and representatives of all
organized women's houses on
campus. This board also electsa
the executive board of the League,
which includes the Vice-President,
Secretary, Treasurer, Chairman of
Women's Judiciary and Chairman
of Interviewing-plus interviewingj
and nominating committee.
This interviewing and nominat-
ing committee, elected by the stu-
dents, screens candidates for exe-
cutive board positions in the,
League. The Board of Representa-
tives then votes, by secret ballot,
on the future members of the exe-;
cutive board. Thus the students,
through the representation of
their house presidents, elect their
League officers each year.
The next time Mr. Marx writes
an editorial, I'd advise him to1
get the correct information before+
doing so.
-Jennie Quirk, President
Women's League.
Butch . .
To the Editor:
CAN THE implications of Davis
Crippens' story "Police Nab
Two Student Bookies," be true?
In yesterday's Daily he writes that
two student bookies have been ar-
rested: "The two are Robert
'Butch' McGuire, '53 A&D, and
Lee Setomer, Grad."
May we inquire where Mr. Mc-
Guire received the moniker
"Butch", Either he is a child
prodigy of Chicago or Kansas
City ganglands, or The Daily has
adjudged McGuire guilty before
a fair trial. In either case I pro-
test.
May I ask whether "Scarface"
O'Harrigan and "Tweedle-Eyes"
Mulligan are also in attendance
at our Athens of the West?
-Robert Speckhard, Grad.
* c* *

I-

DAILY OFFICIALBULLETIN-1

i

(Continued from page 2) t
Astronomical Colloquium: Fri.,t
Dec. 1, 4:15 p.m., at the Observa-
tory. Speaker, Dr. D. B. McLaugh-
lin, Professor of Astronomy. Sub-
ject, "Nova Lacertae 1950 andl
Nova Geminorum 1912."
Concerts
Faculty Concert: Helen Titus,
Pianist, will be heard at 8:30 p.m.,]
Mon., Dec. 4, Lydia Mendelssohn7
Theater. Program: Mozart's Ron-7
do in A minor, Schubert's Sonata
in D major, Op. 53, Ravel's Gas-
pard de la nuit, and a group of]
works entitled "Nostalgic Waltz-
es," by Ross Lee Finney, professori
of composition in the school of.
Music. The public is invited.
The Arts Chorale: Maynard
Klein, Conductor, will present a4
program at 8:30 p.m., Sat., Dec. 2,
Hill Auditorium. The program will
include motets, madrigals and;
partsongs, and will be open to the
general public.
University Symphony Orchestra,1
Wayne Dunlap, Conductor, will
present a concert at 8:30 Thurs-
day evening, Nov. 30, Hill Audi-
'torium. The program will open
with Glinka's Overture to "Rus-
sian and Ludmilla," fo~lowed by
$rahms' Concerto for Violin and
Violoncello in A major, Op. 102,
with Unto Erkkila and Jerome Je-
linek as soloists. Following inter-
mission the orchestra will play
the complete ballet, Daphnis and
Chloe by Ravel. The public is in-
vited.
Events Today
Canterbury Club: 10:15 a.m.,
Holy Communion.
Craft Group: Lane Hall, 7:30
p.m. All interested students wel-
come. Craft materials available at
cost.
Phi Lambda Upsilon, Honorary
or the other. History has shown
that the costliest error of the
Second World War was that of
maintaining faith in Soviet in-
tegrity. When the allies were con-
centrating on winning the war,
their co-belligerent, the USSR,
was launching an underhanded
campaign of political war which
was far surpassing in boldness
than that exhibited by her mili-
tary forces in combat. At the
present time, her efforts to turn
our world communist, are result-

Chemical Society: Short business
meeting, 4:30 p.m., Room 1300,
Chemistry Bldg.
It is urgent that all members at-
tend for the purpose of: (1) elec-
tion of National officers; (2) ap-
proval of a new chapter; (3) elec-
tion of a new local vice-president;
(4) certification of new initiates.
Beacon Association: Meeting,
7:45 p.m., League. Guest Speaker:
Dr. W. Stolper. Subject: "The
Marshall Plan and Rearmament:
Its Effect on Britain."
U. of M. Young Republican Club:
Meeting, 7:15 p.m., Union. Dis-
cussion with Young Democrats on
election results.
GraduateSchool Record Con-
cert canceled this week because
of the University Symphony Or-
chestra concert.
Zeta Phi Eta: Meeting, 5 p.m.,
Zeta ropm, Angell Hall.
Gilbert and Sullivan: Full chor-
us rehearsal, League, 4 p.m. Any-
one interested in working on the.
ticket committee come at 9 p.m.
International Center Weekly Tea
for foreign students and American
friends, 4:30-6 p.m.
U. of M. Women's Glee Club:
Rehearsal, 7:10 p.m.
U. of M. Marketing Club will
present Mr. E. V. Luss, Supt. oi
Selling, J. L. Hudson Company,
who will talk on "How the J. L.
(Continued on Page 6)
I_

k-

Looking Back

TEN YEARS AGO
UNIVERSITY FRESHMEN were wonder-
ing what had scared the sophomores
away from their traditional Black Friday
rivalry the night before. The frosh had
showed up in mass numbers to march along
State Street, but their rivals had con-
veniently disappeared from campus town,
thus putting a stop to the usual rah-rah
festivities before they had a chance to begin.
German Youth
A disquieting feature of the current par-
liamentary elections in Bavaria is the po-
litical apathy revealed among young Ger-
mans. As Jack Raymond reported in this
newspaper, many young people are cynically
distrustful of politics and politicians. Ap-
parently they feel helpless to influence the
course of events by political action.
This attitude is not surprising. Unlike their
older compatriots, these young men and
women have experienced little except Hitler-
ism and the horrors of war. Five years of

Rearmament ling in the deaths of thousands,
T the Editor ..none of which are Russians. She
To the Editor: truly deserves the title of PUBLIC
j HAVE JUST finished reading ENEMY NO. 1, and she should be
' Myron Sharpe's contribution recognized as such.
to The Daily which criticized Prof. Now that the Russians have set
Pollock's article on the rearma- up Germany in a similar manner
ment of Western Germany. In his as they did Korea, it seems likely
letter, Sharpe asks students to that American lives will once
think seriously of the proposition again be sacrificed to checkmate
of pitting brutal Nazi's against communist pawns. Because of
his beloved heroes, the Red Army, this, I wholeheartedly approve the
which he remembered were our creation of a West German army,
allies. I would like to point out composed of those very same fear-
that Russia did not choose the provoking S.S. men which Sharpe
U.S. as an ally, and that she would described, to do the fighting and
readily have allied herself with dying in place of American sol-
either capitalist or fascist as long diers.

Sixty-First Year
Edited and managed by students of
the University of Michigan under the
authority of the Board in Control of
Student Publications.
Editorial Staff
Jim Brown.............Managing Editor
Paul Brentlinger..........City Editor
Roma Lipsky........ Editorial Director
Dave Thomas............Feature Editor
Janet Watts..........Associate Editor
Nancy Bylan...........Associate Editor
James Gregory.......Associate Editor
Bill Conno lly.............Sports Editor
Bob Sandell. Associate Sports Editor
Bill Brenton.....Associate Sports Editor
Barbara Jans.........Women's Editor
Pat Brownson Associate Women's Editor
Business Staff
Bob Daniels...........Business Manager
Walter Shapero Assoc. Business Manager
Paul Schaible..Advertising Manager
Bob Mersereau.......Finance Manager
Carl Breitkreitz....Circulation Manager
Telephone 23-24-1
Member of The Associated Press
The Associated Press is exclusively
entitled to the use for republication
of all news dispatches credited to it or
otherwise credited to this newspaper.
All rights of republication of all other
mattersherein are also reserved.
Entered at the Post Office at Ann
Arbor. Michigan as second-class mail
matter.
Subscription during regular school
year: by carrier. $6.00; by mail, $7.00.

i

I

as it led to the destruction of one

---Stan Pitlick, '51E.

BARNABY

Ellen, our finances are
going to be awfully
tight this Christmas-

Your folks will have
to give the mailman
something. And the
'milkman. And the man

That big payment falls due
the first of the year. Then
the income tax comes along-

Mr. O'Malley, my Fairy Godfather,
is making out your Christmas list.
Would it be'right to give.a gift
( to the cop on our.beat without

L

Back to Top

© 2021 Regents of the University of Michigan