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January 15, 1950 - Image 7

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Text
Publication:
Michigan Daily, 1950-01-15

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MID-CENTURY
SUPPLEMENT

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MID-CENTURY
SUPPLEMENT

Latest Deadline in the State
VOL. LX., No. 81 SUNDAY, JANUARY 15, 1950 ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN
University Looks ack on olorful

FOUR PAGES
ears

-f 1 -11

4>

* * *

* *

* s *

Years Show
*Great Strides
In Sciences
Changes Spread
To Entire Globe
By PAUh BRENTLINGER
From the horse and buggy to
the "futuramic," from the "talk-
ing machine" to television, from
"matter can neither be created
nor destroyed" to the atomic bomb
-the first half of the 20th cen-
tury has seen a striking series of
scientific contrasts.
No corner of the civilized world
has escaped the effects of the
scientific progress of the past 50
years. It seems safe to say that
in no other period of history have
such spectacular strides been
made.
A KEENLY FAR-SIGHTED cit-
izen of 1900 might have foreseen
some of this progress. Several
events of the late 19th century,
generally overlooked when they
occurred, were the beginning of
this century's epidemic of discov-
eries.
Automobiles had already been
invented but were no more com-
mon than palm trees in Ver-
umnt. Few people realized that
the horseless carriage and the
internal combustion engine
which it contained were going to
revolutionize living in the 20th
century world.
In 1895 Roentgen had discov-
ered X-rays, and in the following
year Becquerel discovered radio-
activity. In 1897 Sir J. J. Thomp-
son performed experiments which
led him to believe that atoms were
made up of certain tiny electrical
particles.
STILL, "Physicists at the turn
of the century believed they knew
all - of the fundamental laws of
physics. They thought that all
that remained to be done in the
field was to secure better meas-
urements of certain phenomena."
This. opinion of turn-of-the-
century physicists was expressed
by Prof. William A. Nierenberg
of the physics department.
As further discoveries were
made, physicists discarded this
rather naive concept. Their earli-
er position was weakened by
SPlanck's theory that energy was
emitted in definite units or "quan-
ta," by Einstein's theory of rela-
tivity (time and spare are related)
and Rutherford's splitting of the
Wiom, all of which occurred be-
sore 1920.
ARMED WITH such theoretical
advances, physicists produced a
long parade of amazing products,
such as radar, vacuum tubes, ra-
dioactive isotopes, electric eyes,
',ie cyclotron and the electron mi-
crosdope.
All of this culminated in the
ultimate release of atomic ener-
gy in the form of the famous
bomb, which produced a tre-
mendous amount of energy from
a breakdown of matter.
With all these advances, Prof.
Nierenberg describes the modern
physicist as a man who "feels that
he is still very ignorant of the
true composition of nature. He
knows that he is as yet only fum-.
bling in the dark."
Developments in the field of
nuclear physics have brought
about great progress in the neigh-
boring science of chemistry. Dur-
ing the first half of the current
century, chemists have correlated
chemical properties and periodic

relations with atomic structure,
all of which has broadened the
scope of their science.
THANKS TO CHEMISTRY, the
world of 1950 makes use of in-
numerable materials which were
completely unknown in 1900. The
wide varieties of plastics, nylon,
rayon, synthetic rubber, magnesi-
um taken from the sea and nitro-
gen products taken from the air
are only a few of the items which
make up the fabric of modern day
existence.
Increasing uke of the internal
combustion engine made neces-
sary imp orovements in the ref in-
ing of gasoline and other fuels
and lubricants. Chemists have
obliged by coming through with

Panel Discusses
Future College

0

Ever-increasing specialization and climbing enrollments have cre-
ated the greatest problems that universities will have to face in the
future, a group of faculty members and'students agreed.
Asked by The Daily to meet informally and discuss the future of
higher education and the particular role of the University, the ten-
member panel indicated liberal education and more broadly educa-
tional group activities as the student needs on which to concentrate.
Participants in the discussion were Dean Hayward Keniston and
Assistant Dean Charles H. Peake of the literary college, Professors D.
eM. Dennison of the physics de-
U ,' partment, J. P. Dawson of the Law
4 i r School, William Haber of the eco-
0 tnenomics department, Frank Hunt-

Sports in
50 Years
By PRES HOLMES
(Sports Co-Editor)
Every half-century the trend
seems to be to look back over the
past five decades and cite the per-
tinent events, and so here goes
with a few from the world of
sports.
The Western Conference had al-
ready been formed by the turn of
the century, and the appointed
legislators were legislating thick
and fast telling athletes what
they could and what they could
not do.
IN 1901 they voted to drop the
bicycle event from Conference
track meets. What a blow that
was!!! In 1908 Michigan with-
drew from the Conference in pro-
test against certain "retroactive
provisions" enacted by the Con-
ference. Tsk, Tsk.
1910 witnessed the first ten-
nis match, and the following
year indoor track and swim-
ming made their debut, not at
the same place, of course. In
1915 they voted to discontinue
baseball, Abner Doubleday ob-
viously hadn't made a hit with
the BigTen. The following year
they reversed their decision,
however, regaining faith in the
great American game.
Michigan relented in 1917 and
joined the Conference again.
Whoopee! 1922 was a landmark
in basketball. A meeting was held,
and a committee appointed, to
work out procedure for "improve-
ment of crowd behavior at bas-
ketball games." The 29th annual
meeting of this committee is being
held in Yost Field House this year.
WRESTLING, fencing, and gym-
nastics all received official sanc-
tion in 1925. This brought the
total of varsity sports to an even
dozen, and there have been no
additions in the last quarter cen-
tury. (Earl Riskey's paddleball
has yet to receive the deserved
recognition).
In 1946 the University of Chi-
cago dropped out of the Con-
ference due to inability "to pro-
vide reasonable equality of com-
petition," and last year Michi-
gan State College was voted in
to fill the hole. "Ours is not to
reason why ... "
This about sums up the im-
portant stuff, but I've got a little
room left so I might mention that
in this half century Michigan has
been champ or co-champ 17 times
in football, five in basketball, 18
in baseball, 20 in outdoor track,
15 in indoor track, 16 in swim-
ming, two in wrestling, 11 in golf,
and seven in tennis, for a total
of 112 blue ribbons; which makes
Michigan high man on the Con-
ference totem pole.

ley of the English department,
Theodore Newcomb of the sociol-
ogy department, Charles I. Stev-
enson of the philosophy depart-
ment, and students Malcolm Ra-
phael, Grad., and Philip Dawson,
'50.
* * *
ATTEMPTING FIRST to deter-
mine what trends in American so-
ciety will have a significant ef-.
feet on education, the group feltl
that a more productive economy
will allow more people to continue
their education longer, and that
greater emphasis on specialization
will make more education neces-
sary.
Discussion of the adjustment
of education to changed social
conditions brought forth the ob-
servation that many students
experience difficulty now in the
transition from" the academic
world to a job. Extra-curricular
experience can be of value in
this connection, Dean Keniston
commented.
The fact that. many students
who, graduate from the University
are unable to step immediately in-
to a white-collar job seemed to
the group to indicate that the
bachelor's degree is no longer a
mark of the 'intellectual aristo-
cracy'. The rise of specialization
has also assisted the disintegration
of the old liberal arts course.
* * *
ONE OF THE main difficulties'
is mere size, which destroys the
educational value of many student
groups and emphasizes the imper-
sonality of the modern university.
"To get satisfactory education
in a large University," one of the
group remarked, "we must pay
more attention to the natural
groupings of students within the
University." There is room for
more groups which cut across
departmental lines and function
on the basis of. common inte -
ests, like the .JIpter-Arts Union.
IT WAS FELT that there is a
great dangerain the "watering-
down" of education that may come
with increased size-quantity ra-
ther than quality.
The suggestion was made that
two kinds of education should be
undertaken-one largely vocation-
al and professional, and one lib-
eral-because not everyone can
;rofit from the latter.
In this light, it appeared fool-
ish to most of the group to al-
low the various colleges of the
state to compete in offering one
kind of education. The Institu-
tions should become specialized
among themselves, it was felt.
This would make necessary an
educational policies commission
for the whole state to examine
the educational, political and eco-
nomic problems. The group agreed
that the University, as the largest
and best - equipped institution,
ought to take the educational
leadership that naturally falls to
it in planning for the next decades.

-Courtesy Ann Arbor News
CHANGING CAMPUS-The twentieth century has brought striking changes to the University as
shown by these two pictures of the northwest corner of campus taken at S. State St. and N. Univer-
sity Ave. The old Law School in the top picture, after two rennovations, has become the present
Haven Hall. University Hall has yielded its place of glory to an insignificant position behind Angell
Hall.. Changes extended even to a re-routing of the Diagonal, bordered then by a white fence, now
by hedges.
20 TH CENT URY BIG TWO:
U.S., Russia Become Great

CeiingZer'
When the Mid-Century sup-
plement was in the planning
stage, letters were written to
six famous persons asking for
predictions about the next 50
years.
All were unanimous in their
opinion about the future. They
didn't have time to write about
it. However, James Thurber,
writer and cartoonist, came
through with the following:
-Sounds to me as if you had
laid yourself open to one of
the stuffiest symposia of all
time. You are going to get
some hazy andrthroaty stuff.
"My own crystal ball is clou-
dy and even if I had the time,
I wouldn't have the prescience
to help out. Women, of course,
will be stronger and more num-
erous and there will not be
many men around. The Dog
seems to be holding his own.
"I look for Western Confer-
ence stadia that will hold 500,-
000 persons. ,To build these,
we will have to take down the
buildings devoted to English
literature. Outside of this my
ceiling is zero."
Period Sees
.evolution
Of Religion
By. ROMA LIPSKY
During the last fifty years, the
history of religion in the United
States appears as a peaceful evo-
lution, with church membership
increasing approximately in pro-
portion to the general increase of
the population.
In Russia, on the other hand,
religion varied from the dominant
factor in the lives of the people
to an outlawed practice and then
back again to an acceptable but
frowned-upon activity.
At the turn of the century, ac-
tual Church membership figures
showed that approximately 72%
of the Russian population de-
affiliated with a particular de-
nomination, with roughly 57%. of
the population registered' as'
Greek Orthodox.
At the same time, United States
census figures show that 36% of
the people were church members.
INTERVIEWS with Protestant
ministers revealed that most of
them agreed that church mem-
bership was on the increase, with-
out any substantial change in doc-
trine in the last fifty years.
But the various Protestant
churches indicated a difference
of opinion on the amount of
extra-religious participation and
functions which the church
should carry out.
Little or no extra-religious ac-
tivity was reported by the Lu-
theran, and Christian Scientist
groups. Congregationalists, Meth-
odists, Episcopalian, Presbyterian
and Baptist groups engage in
church youth groups and other
non-religious activities centering
around the church. The Mormons,
Quakers and Uniterians engage in
a great amount of non-religious
activity.
* * *
THE CATHOLIC church reports
a large increase in membership
in the last fifty years, attributing
this mainly to much missionary
work, and to the growing import-
ance of the Catholic Youth Or-
ganization. Another significant
change has been the growth of

smaller parishes.
The most significant develop-
ment in* Judaism has been the
three-fold interpretation of the
religion, as expressed in the re-
form, conservative, and orthodox
temples, a Rabbi said.
An increase in the number of-
active Jews was attributed to
the war and the depression;
"any calamity to mankind will
result in an upsurge in religion,"
he said.
Statistics seem to bear out the
religious leaders' claims to in-
crease in membership. Recent cen-
sus figures show that church
membership has gone from 36 to
49 percent of population and pop-
ulation has almost doubled since
then.
T_-- . xrorar rnf rM an ,.ra imv_

Half -Century
Of Progress
Shown in '50
Education Better,
Enrollment Up
By JIM BROWN
The dawn of the 20th century
found the University of Michigan
on the brink of an era of expan-
sion and growth unparallelled in
its colorful 113-year history.
In the years from 1900 to 1950
the University has crystallized its
personality; it has developed from
a compact picturesque school of
3,500 students into a huge, sprawl-
ing institution providing facilities
for well over 20,000. Its buildings,
its students, its faculty, even its
philosophies have changed.
THE UNIVERSITY of 1900 was
but an embryo of the University
we know today. Under the guiding
hand of President James Burrill
Angell it was just beginning to ex-
press its independenece of the vil-
lage of Ann Arbor.
The State Street business sec-
tion was springing up; off cam-
pus churches were erected; the
Arcade post-office was establish-
ed; more students lived in close
proximity to the campus and
had little need to go downtown.
The University was becoming -
at least to the student - the-
contained world he knows today.
The campus of 1900 offered only
a vague indication of the Univer-
sity's future expansion. Most of
the buildings, many of which are
still standing, had already see
their day of glory.
* * *
THE OLD Romance Languages
building was serving as a museum.
Next door was the venerable Uni-
Versity Hail - the center of cam-
pus life - with its two aging
wings, Mason Sall and South Wing,
both-erected in the 1840's. Haven
Hall was occupied by the Law
School.
Swarming with chemists, the
present economics building was
still proud of its heritage as the
first building in America designed
as a laboratory. The President's
house was celebrating its 60th
birthday.
THE STUDEN'TS who roamed
these buildings portrayed an age
that has passed. Noisy, high-spir-
ited and aggressive, they dressed
in high collars, wild socks, turtle-
neck sweaters and zany coats that
looked four sizes too large.
Plagued constantlysby fear of
Student Council punishment for
some obscure offense and hu-
miliated by the compulsory bea-
nie, freshmen had a hard life.
But women had the greatest
difficulty of all. Augmenting their
"mud-catcher" floor length skirts
were the "rainy daisy" ankle-
length models conceived in 1900.
Newspapers chortled that girls
with trim ankles wore the outfit
even when there was not a cloud
in the sky."
IT WAS ALSO in this period
that a football craze swept the
University which will probably
never again be matched. With the
immortal Fielding H. Yost at the
helm, the Wolverines plowed
through ten straight games in
1901: Michigan 550 points, op-
ponents 0.
Yost's famous "point-a-minute"
teams brought a series of West-
ern Conference championships
to the University until 1906,

when student agitation over the
drastic changes in eligibility
rules resulted in withdrawal
from the conference. Relations
were not resumed until 1917.
All of the changes which were
occuring at -the University at the
turn of the century were not ex-
tra-curricular, however.
* * *
PERHAPS THE most notable
development was the introduction
of the present marking system.
For years students had been grad-
ed on a flunk or pass basis, a pro-
vision which, according to one his-
torian, "may have stimulated in-
terest in study and scholarship for
its own sake in the case of some
students, though in the absence
of any of the usual college honors

United States . .
By DON KOTITE
At the turn of the century the
United States stood merely as a
budding world power, in contrast
to the international spotlight it
shares with Russia now.
With William McKinley reelect-
ed as chief executive, the United
States in 1900 was confronted with
the problem of administering Cu-
ba, Porto Rico and the Phillipines,
acquired by treaty after the Span-
ish-American War of 1898.
FOLLOWING McKINLEY'S ac-
sassination late in 1901, Theodore
Roosevelt took over the presiden-
tial helm and distinguished him-
self in the "trust-busting" and
foreign mediation fields.
Democrats hollered loudly
"dollar diplomacy" when Wil-
liam Howard Taft, swept into
the presidency in 1908, secured
American, French, German and
British capitalist aid in the

building of China's Huquang
railroad.
As soon as Woodrow Wilson be-
came the 28th president, in 1913,
he made known his demands for
American neutrality and isolation
in view of an impending European
crisis.
* * *.
UNRESTRICTED German sub-
marine warfare soon began to pla-
gue American shipping. A formal
U.S. declaration of war on the
Central Powers became reality
Apr. 6.
In January, 1918, ten months
prior, to the .Armistice, Pres.
Wilson presented to the world
his 14 points for peace.
He succeeded, at the Paris Peace
Conference, in drawing'up a Lea-
gue and.Covenant, a crystallization
of long-debated suggestions for a
world confederation of States. But
the U.S. later rejected it.
* *
CALVIN COOLIDGE, president
in.1922 after Harding's death, ad-
(Continued on Page 4)

Russia . .
By DON McNEIL
As the 20th century opened,
Russia found herself ruled by a
man who was not prepared to
reign; a man under the influenceI
of religious cultists and dominated
by his wife. This was Czar Nich-
olas II, described by one historian
as "a potential drug store clerk."
The seeds of revolution were al-
ready sprouting when Nicholas
took the throne. It produced riots
in 1902 and an unsuccessful re-
volution during the Russian-Jap-
anese war of 1904.
REFORMS WERE instigated to
quell the dissenters but World
War I brought further unrest due
to military defeats. Riots, strikes
and the complete breakdown of
government in St. Petersburg gave
the revolutionaries their chance.
The revolutionaries forced Nich-
olas' resignation and set up of a
democratic government on March
15th, 1916.
(Continued on Page 4)

WORLD EVENTS MOLD ARTS:
Jazz, Realism Highlight Greative Past

By MARY STEIN people of those years include: the can Mercury), and soft-hard-I
The voice of the artist has been !
muckraking era, typified by Upton boiled Ernest Hemingway.
heard in the land, long and loud, Sinclair's "The Jungle"; Theodore The 20th century's main con-
for the past 50 years both in Dreiser's naturalistic novels (like tribution thus far to music-jazz!
Russia and America. the suppressed but finally pub- and folk-inspired tunes-was then
Powerful forces have been at lished "Sister Carrie"); the sen- made.
work to mold the creative work sational 1913 Armory exhibit of Came the depression, and writ-
of men in each country. In Russia, post-impressionistic art; the Im- ers were grappling with the bed-
the coming of the Soviet regime agist movement, led by Amy Low- rock realities of the times: among
hif fh o., iof -rt .,,i-, +,.man ell: rear Tee Master's "Shock- them the "vnung giant," Thomas'

Revolution found Russian artists
feverishly trying to catch up with
Western art, and even getting
a bit confused in their efforts at
cubism, impressionism, radialismi
and the like. The realists, long
dominant in Russian literature,
were battling it out with the ex-
ponents of symbolism.

Tolstoy, were caught up in the
ensuing tide of national pride.
BESIDES, MARXIST writers
like Fedeyev, Gladkov and Sholo-
khov were achieving success in
carrying out the governing pre-
cept of "Socialist Realism" in the
arts. Composers like Shostakovich
and Khachaturian wrote (if wa-
veringly at times) music acceta-

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