THIT" .LVIL AL -LA
-_-.._ ._.. '- ,..e-e rr-arc- ++
Rigl and Laws
"T'S NOT AS BAD as it was a few years
ago. A little more money has come into
the south and people have other things to
do besides worry about the Negro."
"One of these days those people in Wash-
ington will learn that we are running this
part of the country and will mind their own
Two railroad ciployes urged into a
discussion of discrimination on trains
during the vacation came forth with the
The first quote came from a colored club
car attendant who had served for nineteen
years, most of it on the north-south run
of the railroad.
The second remark was made by the din-
ng car superintendent, a graduate of the
University of Chatanooga. It came in a
conversation about possible legislation
against discrimination on interstate rail-
road travel. (On all trains south of Cin-
cinnati, Negroes are not allowed in cars with
whites, and a special little partitioned part
of the dining car is reserved for them.)
The quotes show just what kind of
Editorials published in The Michigan Daily
are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only.
NIGHT EDITOR: PHIL DAWSON
progress has been made in the fight
against discrimination in the last fifteen
years. The ever=so-gradual lessening of
some of the more vicious forms of dis=
crimination has taken place, but the
southerners' violent objection to any kind
of progressive legislation has not helped
The ever-recurring arguments against the
so called anti-discrimination laws have been
based on these two propositions: That dis-
crimination will gradually wear itself out
and that any attempt at legislation would
only cause more resentment and slow up the
slow progress toward equality.
The best answer to this argument can be
found in the report of the Presidents Com-
mittee on Civil Rights which said that anti-
discrimination laws may do as much to end
discrimination as the end of discrimina-
tion would do to bring on anti-discrimina-
It all comes down to the fact that you
can not have a right unless there is a
law to protect that right. So as far as the
law is now concerned there is no way that
a Negro can enforce his right of equality
while traveling between states.
The Constitution gives to Congress the
power to regulate interstate commerce. It
would be a good idea if the Eighty-First
Congress would wake up to its potentialities
and give a push to the "slow" methods the
South in the the field of racial equality.
C ENT MOVIES
At th, , ,or do much, but worthy of mention is
Ethel Barrymore's still-great power, and
THE PARAILNE CASE, with Gregory the outrageous indolence of Charles
Peck, Louis Jourdan, Valli, Charles Laugh- Laughton.
ton, Ann Todd, Ethel Barrymore, and Although it's not as good as you might
Charles Coburn. anticipate, it is, generally speaking, .fairly
HEmhigh class stuff.
'THE PARADINE CAS-" which might -Bob White.
be subtitled "A Day in Court," is very
unusual, indeed. a
Or, to say Lhe 'rne thin in another * * *
way, it's a Hitchcock irture. RED RIVER, with Montgomery Clift, John
The plot, such as it is, is woven around Wayne and Walter Brennan.
a modern English murder trial; it's com-
plicated by an abundance of vast, un- HOWARD HAWK'S great epic, Red River,
spoken passions hurtling between those has hit town, and the shooting has be-
Although there is something extremely The most intriguing man in Hollywood
subtle about the whole two-hour affair, we rides about the plains of Texas, shoots
didn't have time to sit through the picture (but not ruthlessly) and looks twice as
twice to see what it is. good as his Life cover photograph. To add
Unlike most Hitchcock epics, it's pretty to the delight of western fans, there also
generally conducive to the fidgits. There is are present a fine collection of character
absolutely no physical action involved. The actors such as Noah licery, Jr.
camera simply flies-like an airplane-over The main point of the picture seems to
and under and around the stagna ed actors. be the pushing, pulling and stampeding of
Furthermore, at least half of the story is a herd of cattle to the markets of the
set in a courtroom. North (Missouri or Kansas as the winds
On the plus-side:: the photography is prevail). As an added attraction are three
subtle and artistic, all actors are capable or four rather downtrodden looking Indians,
and well-cast, and the general effect is not at all the Stamp of Sitting Bull.
one of much potential power. The State has really hit a double gold
Gregory Peck proves beyond doubt that mine, with the companion piece - a
he's an actor of real stature - no mere "Merrie Melody"-is the vehicle wherein
bobby-sox swoon boy. Valli can be conserv- is found Sylvester, the Scaredy Cat. Syl-
atively described as enchanting in appear- vester must be seen to be appreciated.
ance -and Louis Jourdan-although a little If you time your exit carefully, you may
stiff here-shows promise of developing into be able to miss the short by Borrah Mine-
an outstanding Menace. vitch and his Harmonica Rascals.
None of the other people involved say -Bev Dippel.
Clamp on Ideas
GNE OF THE most basic and necesary
functions of a democracy is to provide
for "freedom of thought." This has .been
done in our Constitution by the First
Amendment which prohibits the government
from making any laws restricting the ex-
pression of ideas and beliefs.
Most Americans have realized the nec-
essity of this limit upon government. Thus
popular opinion has thwarted all attempts
to ban even such an unpopular philosophy
as Communism. Recently public protest
was adequate to stop passage of the Mundt
Bill which was directed to this end,
But the government is undaunted by the
will of the people. iiis now attempting
through the guise of a "criminal trial" what
they failed to accomplish through direct
legislation. The trial of the 12 Communist
leaders is clearly an attempt to outlaw the
Communist Party and exclude Communism
from the free arena of ideas.
These men have been charged under
the Smith Act of 190 with "conspiring"
to "advocate and teach" the overthrow of
the governmrznt Not ene overt act directed
toward this end is charged, There is not,
as even the New York Times has falla-
ciously stated, a charge that they have
even conspired to ovrthrofs the govern-
ment. The only thing .the indictments
concern themselves with is the constitu-
tional right of advocacy.
The indictments, then, on their very face
announce their own constitutional infringe-
ments. Due process demands that the courts
refuse to proceed with such a trial. Demo-
cratic consciousness demands that the cit-
izens protest this encroachment by the gov-
ernment on the sovereign right to be the
sole judges of idteats.
It is naive to think that freedom of speech
can be (lenied to Ihose who hold unpopular
beliefs and still function as a freedom. Once
the government succeeds in asserting its
control over one type of idea there is little
to prevent it from assuming authority over
The trial of ths 12 is the trial of 12 times
12 million Americans. Its existence signifies
that the government has the right to ques-
tion idea.. I shoutld not be allowed to pro-
I'D RATHER BE RIGHT:
By SAMUEL GRAFTON
THE UNITED STATES has backed down
on Indonesia. After a wonderful start
in pressing the case against the Dutch, we
1i, tlci , 1aI y acquiescing in the
Dutch refusal to cease fire belore conquering
all of Java. We have done this by the hu-
miliating maneuver of requesting a Security
Council postponeme nt on the case until Jan-
uary 6. We have charged like Galahad and
retreated like Falstaff.
By doing so, we have allowed the Soviet
Union to buy for a penny the right to
speak as the coyscience of mankind. This
is one of the great bargains of history. Let
our diplomats win a few more such vie-
tories for us over Communism, and we
We have made it possible for Russia to
heap maledictions upon the West, of a sort
which all of Asia will approve, whether it
hates Communism or loves it. Austrialia un-
derstood the issue. It protested what we did.
But we stood in our corner, mumbling some-
thing about being optimistic, and about how
the Security Council was, after all, imposing
"a feeling of restraint" on the Dutch-in
spite of the clear fact that the Council is
imposing no restraints whatever. It was as
if all the air had gone out of a balloon.
Quite clearly, we have decided to stick
with the West. Or, at least, we have de-
cided we cannot afford to be too rough
with one of the members of the Western
Alliance, on which we depend for protec-
tion against Russia.
But what sort of protection against Russia
is this, which we buy at the sprice of enor-
mous defeats? What sort of safety do we
purchase, at the cost of disintegration of
As a matter of fact, it turned out exactly
that way on the Security Council resolu-
tion ordering Israel to withdraw mobile
troops from the Negev. Sometimes the logic
of circumstances overrides even the aberra-
tions of diplomacy. On the Negev resolution,
we and tImhe Russians abstained together,
making "'m;rae bedl(w5," the reporters
said. We and the russians agreed here, not
for love of ,cah other, but because in this
case the facts were a little too sharp for
even the most resourceful of fact-overlook-
ers to overlook.
The Negev resolution was pushed by
the British, whose record of sympathy for
the Arab invaders of Israel it will take
at least two or three new Magna Chartas
to wipe out. In gental, the Ncgev resolu-
tion was forced through by the same
"middle group" in the Security Council,
neither Russian nor Anireican, which
has, in effect, condoned the Dutch rape
Quite clearly, we have almost as deep an
unsolved ideological dispute with our fellow
members of the Western Alliance as we
have with the Russians. It is suicidal for us
to undertake a blanket arrangement of sup-
port and friendship for these western na-
tions without first coming to a satisfactory
agreement with them as to where they stand
i\7 C' -*
'NeOT'A Dtihiji oneiii
r }1 y-~ J
j 14 1
6" DAILY OFFICIAL 'BULLETIN
(Continued from Page 2) Program: "Mushrooms a n d
Mushroom Habitats of the West-
Chemistry Coloftju n: 4:15 erij tiiitcd States," by Alexander
p.n. Wed., Ja n5, 1300 Chemistry i. Smith, Associate Professor of
Bldg. Dr. Beth Cook will speak o Botln and Botanist in the Uni-
"Alternation in Properties nd versity Herbarium.
Polarity of Alkyl Chaines." "Recent Development Work at
-------_I the Naval Tank," by Charles W.
Chemistry Seminar: 7:30 p.m., Spooner, Jr. Assistant Professor
Tues., @,Jan. 4, 1300 Chemistry of Mechanical and Marine Engi-
Bldg. Mr. Richard Golub will neering.
speak on "The Chemistry of Mari--
juana." Michigan Actuarial Club: 4:10
p.m., in 17 Rackham Building.
Mathematics Cohlojuitui: 4 Prof. C. H. Fischer will discuss
MATTER OF FACT:
Letters to the Editor ...
p.m., Tues., Jan. 4. 3201 Angelll
Hall. Dr. Shizuo Kakutani of the
Institute for Advanced Study,
Princeton, will-speak on Brownian1
Directed Teaching, Qualifying
Examination: All students expect-
ing to do directed teaching in thef
spring term are required to pass a
qualifying examination in the
subject in which they expect to
teach. This exanination, for all
fields othe thn ."L wrill 1)
held on Satturd;y, Jan. 8, at 8:30
a.m. Students will meet in the au-
ditorium of the University High
School. The examination will+
consume about four hours' time;
promptness is therefore essential.
Please bring bluebooks.
Students who expect to do their1
directed teaching in science (bi-
ology, chemistry, physics, general
science? will take the examina-
tion at 1 p.m., Sat., Jan. 8, 1011
University High School.
Notice to Students Planning to
do Directed Teaching: Students
expecting to do directed teaching,
for the secondary-school certifi-
cate in the spring term, are rte-
quested to secure assignments in
Rm. 2442, University Elementary
School, Thurs., Jan. 13, according
to the following schedule:
Social Studies, 9:30-10:30
Science and Mathematics,
All foreign languages, 11:30- 12
All others, and any having con-
flicts at scheduled hours, and any
having conflicts at scheduled
hours, 2-3 or by appointment. I
It is suggested that all students
who have not yet made applica-
tion for the teachers' certficiate
in the School of Education office
do so before reporting for their as-#
Notice of Change of Time: Af-
ter January 1, all School of Music
concerts and recitals will begin at
8 p.m., instead of 8:30, as inlhe
past. Afternoon programs will be-
given at 4:15, unless otherwise in-
Student Recital: Helene Jarvis
pianist, will present a program in
partial fulfillment of the require-
ments for the degree of Master of
Music at 8 p.m., Wed., Jan. 5,
Rackham Assembly Hall. A pupil
of Joseph Brinkman, Miss Jarvis
will play Franck's Prelude, Chor-
ale and Fugue, Gviffes' Sonata,
and Brahms' Variations and
Fugue on a Theme of Handel. The
public is invited.
Science Research Club: 7:30+
p.m., Rackham Amphitheatre.
By STEWART ALSOP
WASHINGTON-If the matter were not
so very serious, the reaction of official
Washington to President Truman's remarks
in Kansas City would have been vaguely
amusing. Truman's startling statement that
"certain Soviet leaders are exceedingly anx-
ious to have an unierstanding with us" was
published on Tuesday morning. Immediately
all sorts of high officials were disturbed by
the suspicion that something of the utmost
importance had occurred--perhaps an ultra-
secret feeler direct from the Kremlin to the
White House-and that they had been left
in ignorance of what had happened.
Consequently, a kid of mutual dredg-
ing operation has automatically been set
in motion amon ; the State Department,
the Central Intelligence Agency, and the
eDefense De, aretment's intelligence divi-
sions. lhe oject has been to find the
answer to the question everyone has been
asking: what in heaven's name lay behind
the President's sensational assertion ?
Molotov was cieseribed as holding the con-
viction that the United States was heading
straight into a major and catastrophic eco-
nomic depression, which he believed was
certain to begin very soon, probably before
the end of 1949. Therefore he believed, ac-
cording to the report sent to Truman, that
the heaviot possible pressure should be
maintained on" the non-Soviet world so
that the Soviet Union would be in a position
immediately and decisively to expand into
the power vacuum left by the economic par-
alysis of the United States.
Moreover, according to the intelligence
report, Molotov took the position that con-
tinued Soviet pressure would itself have
the effect of delaying the American de-
pression, besides involving the risk of a
reserve. Thus although Varga has been de-
moted, he has not been liquidated.
But the real point is that there was noth-
ing in this report to suggest that any faction
in the Kremlin was eager for a real under-
standing with this country.
It is conceivable (especially if one re-
calls the famous episode of the Wallace
speech) that Truman read the report
hastily, and misunderstood it, and that
his remark was an impulsive and unre-
hearsed consequence of this misunder-
standing. But it seems a good deal more
probable that there really was no factual
basis at all for what Truman said.
It is also just possible, of course, that
some sort of feeler has actually arrived from
the Kremlin, and that it has been kept
secret even from Truman's top advisers.
But in any case, the episode is hardly reas-
suring. It is generally agreed that Truman,
especially after George Marshall leaves his
post, intends to play a decisive role in shap-
ing American policy, And that is a very
serious business, in which there is no room
for impulsive remarks, especially remarks
based on a complete misunderstanding of
the real sources of Soviet conduct.
(Copyright, 1948, New York Herald Tribune, Inc.)
Undergraduate Physics Club:
Informal discussion, 7:30 p.m.,
Russian Tea Room, Michigan
Club Europa: Election meeting,,
8 p.m., International Center. En-
sian picture will be taken.
Wolverine Club: Meeting, 7:15
p.m., Michigan Union. All active
members must attend.
Polonia Club: Meeting, 7:30
p.m., International Center.
I.Z.F.H. Tuesday Night Study
Group, 7:45 p.m. 3-A, Michigan
Square Dance Group: 7 p.m.,
Christian Science Organization:
Testimonial meeting, 7:30 p.m.,
Upper Room, Lane Hall.
Co yinn Events
Tau Beta Pi: Meeting, 7 p.m.,
Thurs., Jan. 6, Michigan Union.
Election of officers,
Delta Sigma Pi, Professional
Business Fraternity: Business
meeting, 8 p.m., Wed., Jan. 5,
Pi Tau Sigma: Final meeting of
semester, 7:15 p.m., Wed., Jan. 5,
rn. 3-B, Michigan Union. Elec-
tion of officers.
Institute of Aeronautical Sci-
eces: Meeting, 7 p.m., Wed., Jan.
5, Michigan Union Ballroom.
'Ensian Picture will be retaken.
Movie: "To Design for Living."
Election of officers.
Motion Pictures, auspices of the
Audio-Visual Education Center.
Biology and Zoology: Story of the
Bees, Seashore Oddities. 4:10 p.m.,
Wed., Jan. 5, Kellogg Auditorium.
American Institute of Electrical
Engineering and institute of Ra-
Jio Engineers: Field trip to Unit-
States Rubber Company in De-
roit,1 p.m., Wed., .Tan. 5. Meet-
lng place is the Engine Arch. Es-
tiiated time of return, 5 p.m.
Tickets are available in 2514 E.
Pershing Rifles: Meeting, 7 p.m.,
Thurs., Jan. 6, R.O.T.C. Rifle
United World Federalists Speak-
rs Bureau: Meeting, 7:30 p.m.,
Wed., Jan. 5, Michigan Union.
Last meeting of the semester.
Women of the University Facul-
ty: Tea, 4-6 p.m., Wed., Jan. 5,
Club room, Room D, Michigan
The Daily accords its readers the
privilege of submitting letters for
publication in this column. Subject
to space limitations, the general pol-
icy is to publish in the order in which
' they are received all letters bearing
the writer's signature and address.
Letters exceeding 300 words, repeti-
tious letters and letters of a defama-
tory character or such letters which
for any other reason are not in good
taste will not be published. The
editors reserve the privilege of con-
* * *
To the Editor:
CONGRATULATIONS to The
Daily for the fine reporting
with referene to the University's
provision of adequate lighting fa-
cilities in study halls and libraries.
One phase of the administration s
repair and maintenance cam-
paign, however, has been sadly
neglected; that is, the repair and
refinishing of furniture in those
same study hails and libraries.
The condition of chairs, espe-
cially the lower rungs, are par-
ticularly important to the female
segments of the student body that
do not wear ,saddle shoes. It is
said that nothing is quite so com-
forting to the female state of
mind as the ability to take off
the shoes and wiggle the toes. The
University certainly should not
want to discourage such a well-
founded practice by laying traps
for the unwary coed. Today my
wife, a student who seldom fails
to engage in such a comforting
practice whenever the opportunity
exists, picked up a large and an-
noying sprinter from the rung
of a'chair in the main leading
room of the main library. The
sole of hre left foot feels fine
now', thank you, and her socks
were not damaged.
We both advocate more ade-
quate preventive maintenance.
To the Editor:
THE UNIVERSITY Chapter of
the American Veterans Com-
mittee is happy to present the
Ann Arbor Community Chest with
a contribution of $200.00. We the
members of AVC both as Veterans
and as Citizens feel a definite re-
sponsibility to this community. Al-
though for many of us Ann Arbor
is not our permanent home, we
feel that good citizenship can not
be confined to any particular geo-
graphical limits; we seek to up-
hold the AVC motto, citizens first,
veterans second. We present this
donation with but one stipulation,
that this money will be allocated
only to those organizations which
do not discriminate on the basis
of race, creed or color.
We hope that the Community
Chest authorities will consider the
feasibility of including the Vet-
erans Readjustment Center in the
annual Community Chest Drive,
as those veterans are truly de-
serving of community support.
With this donation we wish to
pledge ourselves to continue to
fight for "A better America in a
more peaceful world."
-John H. Sloss,
To the Editor:
ATELY, I have seen consider-
' able discussion in The Daily
about the alleged injustice of or-
ganizations excluding certain
groups from membershiptherein
and the AVC attempting to expe
Communists from its membership
I fail to see where injustice exist
or how any person's freedom is in
any way restricted because he
cannot belong to a certain or-
It seems to me that any grour
in a democracy has a right tc
decide who shall be eligible for
membership. To deny this right
would be a breach of democratic
liberties and would render effec-
tive group action impossible by
anyone. After all, some groups dc
nave objectives they want to at-
tain, and they have a right to ex-
clude persons from their mem-
bership that will not contribute tc
It is said that a person should
be judged "on his own merits" re-
gardless of religion or political
'elief. But, after all, what are a
person's merits if not such things
as his basic beliefs.
In such a case, the Wallace
Progressives, for instance, would
nave to accept for membershi;
whoever came along and request-
ed it. Suppose 100 Republicans
took advantage of thic, joined the
organization and directed its ac-
tion to their purpose. Imagine
Fifty-N nth Year
the howl that would go up. Would
such action be justice? Some peo-
ple might laughingly think so, but
nevertheless, regardless of what
one thinks of the Progressives,
they do have a right to their or-
ganization and so does the AVC.
If the AVC does not want Com-
munists determining its policies;
then good enough. Let the Com-
munists form their own group if
they can and try to attain their
ideals in that manner.
-Stanley F. Dole.
'To the Editor:
HE VAST majority of 'Amer-
icans are hostile to fascism.
Yet, between the sandwich-signs
which scream 100 per cent Amer-
icanism, walks the skeleton of
fascism. Under the guise of pro-
tecting the people from evil and
alien thoughts, the Justice Dept.
seeks to outlaw the Communist
Party. The first move has been
the indictment of the National
Board of that Party.
These indictmerts plainly state
that advocacy of an idea is now
punishable. No longer is a crim-
inal act the criterion by which
the courts may judge a person.
In his first Inaugural Address,
Abraham Lincoln said: "This
country with its institutions be-
longs to the people who inhabit
it. Whenever they shall grow
weary of the existing government,
they can exercise their constitu-
tional right of amending it or
their revolutionary right to dis-
member or overthrow it." Abra-
ham Lincoln stands indicted.
Thomas Jefferson, in a letter
to James Madison said: "I hold
it that a little rebellion now and
then is a good thing .. .' He too
The Declaration of Independ-
ence states ". . . that whenever
any form of government becomes
destructive to these ends it is the
right of the people to alter or
abolish it, and to institute new
government," Must this docu-
ment, too, be scrapped?
These examples should be suf-
ficient to show that, even were
the indictments correct, which
they are not, they still are based
upon an act, which in effect,
repeals the First Amendment of
the Constitution of the United
We hold that guilt by associa-
tion is unlawful. We reject the
notion that any court exists which
has the right to sanction or enjoin
any political thought! This is the
skeleton of fascism that must be
destroyed. Write to the President
and the Attorney-General urging
an immediate withdrawal of these
indictments. This is not a case
of abrogating the civil rights of
12 men, but rather a case of 12
times 12 million.
-Robert E. Lawrence,
Edited and managed by students of
the University of Michigan under the
authority of the Board in Control of
Harriett Friedman ...Managing Editor
Dick Maloy ...... .....City Editor
Naomi Stern.........Editorial Director
Aliegra Pasqualetti ... aAssociate Editor
Arthur Higbee ........Associate Editor
Murray Grant.........Sports Editor
Bud Weidenthal ..Associate Sports Ed,
Bev Bussey ...... Sports Feature Writer
Audrey Buttery ......Women's Editor
Bess Hayes ................Librarian,
Richard Halt .......Business Manager
Jean Leonard ....Advertising Manager
William Culman .....Finance Manager
Cole Christian ....Circulation Manager
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of all news dispatches credited to it or
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All rights of republication of all other
matters herein are also reserved.
Entered at the Post Office at Ann
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Subscription during the regular
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FIFTY YEARS AGO TODAY:
Returning students were greeted by a
new dome on University Hall. The dome,
replacing the old roof, had been in con-
struction since the previous September.
The Seward's Office announced that 3,039
students had been enrolled in the University
Come in the house, Jackie. The boys
mother will make us some hot coffee.
While I explain our little problem-
You see, Barnaby has a new sled, but hel
can't use it-Say, how do you do this?
IV-,., : .. ., 1. . .
T hat's my trouble-Achoo! All outside work.
And how I hate cold weather! And SNOW-
;e rn-lThf' wn--FrI