Scanned image of the page. Keyboard directions: use + to zoom in, - to zoom out, arrow keys to pan inside the viewer.

Page Options

Download this Issue


Something wrong?

Something wrong with this page? Report problem.

Rights / Permissions

This collection, digitized in collaboration with the Michigan Daily and the Board for Student Publications, contains materials that are protected by copyright law. Access to these materials is provided for non-profit educational and research purposes. If you use an item from this collection, it is your responsibility to consider the work's copyright status and obtain any required permission.

September 30, 1947 - Image 4

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1947-09-30

Disclaimer: Computer generated plain text may have errors. Read more about this.




Fifty-Eighth Year
dted ty emanaged by students of the Uni-
versity of Mifchigan under the authority of the
Board in Control of Student Publications.
Editorial Staff
John Campbell ...................Managing Editor
Clyde Recht.......................City Editor
Stuart F nlayson ................Editorial Director
Eunice Mintz..................Associate Editor
Dick Kraus ..........................Sports Editor
Bob Lent.................Associate Sports Editor
Joyce Johnson..................Women's Editor
Betty Steward ..........Associate Women's Editor
Business Staff
Nancy Helmick ...................General Manager
Jeanne Swendeman......... Advertising Manager
Edwin Schneider................Finance Manager
Melvin Tick ..................Circulation Manager
Telephone 23-24-1
Member of The Associated Press
The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to
the use for re-publication of all new dispatches
credited to it or otherwise credited in this news-
paper. All rights of re-publication of all other
matters herein also reserved.
Entered at the Post Office at Ann Arbor, Mich-
igan, as second class mail matter.
Subscription b ,the regular school year by
carrier, $5.00, bz mail, 6.00.
Member, Assoc. Collegiate Press, 1947-48
Editorials published in The Michigan Daily
are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only.
Testing Program
gram to safeguard medical students from
the ravages of tuberculosis is a step of which
University authorities can well be proud.
In past years an alarming number of
medical students have contracted TB dur-
ing the final years of their academic train-
ing or during internship. It is ironical that
students who have devoted nearly a decade
to training which will enable them to safe-
guard the health of their fellow men should
themselves so often become the victims of
this dread disease. And the very nature of
their exacting training and work schedule
makes them easy prey to TB.
Now, however, the University has insti-
tuted a new system of tuberculin tests in
addition to frequent X-Ray testing in order
to detect early signs of TB among medical
students and internes. This program, which
has worked successfully in other medical
schools throughout the country, is expected
to greatly reduce the number of TB victims
at Michigan.
The University Health Service, Galens,
and other University authorities who have
made this program possible are to be con-
gratulated for this forward-looking move.
-Dick Maloy
.international Chess
IKE A MASTER chess strategist, the
Russian government has suggested the
complete withdrawal of U.S. and Red troops
from Korea in 1948, to get out of a hot
situation and yet follow her master plan for
world envelopment.
In chess a "check" calls for a move that

will immediately relieve the pressure of the
opposing force and yet fall in with the theory
of attack that the player is employing --
a strategic retreat forward.
Russia's leaders have done just that:
They have tried to block UN considera-
tion of the Korean situation which is cer-
tainly explosive.
And they are anticipating the readiness of
Communist elements within Korea to take
over the new independent government that
will be formed.
An estimated 200,000 well-trained, armed
soldiers stand behind Communists in North-
ern (the Russian half) Korea.
Nakedness is the best adjective to use in
describing Korea; she has -been stripped of
her mechanical resources and her economy
has been riddled by years of war and oc-
The Red chess strategist realizes that the
Korean pawn position will be taken by the
strongest chess piece on the board - Com-
munist strangulation!
All efforts to solve the Korean situation
have ended in stalemate. For two years the
American-Soviet Joint Commission on Korea
has not been able to agree on how to go
about setting up a unified Korea. Secretary
Marshall then submitted the case to the
UN as a last resort.
The U.S. and United Nations must find
a way to block the Russian chess strategist
-for the Russians are the world's greatest
,hss 'laers !

Political Paralysis


Letters to the Editor...


the train windows the sun-warmed, al-
ways various Italian countryside, green and
gold and silvery olive with the crops that
climb to the very hilltops, unrolls before the
eye. Within the car, a large Italian family
lunches with cries of pleasure on bread, a
little cheap wine and a slab of cheese-a
luxury meal for all but the very rich in
Italy. Yet the traveler, moving onward from
one center of world crisis to another, can
think only of a single question: "have we in
the United States lost all the qualities that
made us great?"
In connection with this question, some
things stick in the mind like burrs. There
is, for example, the history of Premier de
Gasperi's appeal to President Truman.
About a month ago, this unpretentious,
rather solemn man, who has survived with-
out despair through two wars and the dark
Fascist years between, began to despair at
last. De Gasperi's government, boldly free
of, Communists, (at the suggestion of the
State Department), had been squarely based
on the hope of American aid. No aid was
forthcoming. The end of Italy's resources
was clearly in sight in a few weeks. Ac-
cordingly, de Gasperi addressed to the White
House a personal appeal, speaking as one
head of state to another, and laying before
the President all the grim facts. The ap-
peal was presented by Ambassador Tarchi-
ani, who was referred to the State Depart-
At the State Department, Tarchiani
met with kindly sympathy and the sug-
gestion that he ask Secretary of the Trea-
sury John Snyder for aid. Of course, as
any one vaguely familiar with Washington
would certainly have anticipated, Tarchi-
ani found Snyder frozen into the voluble
but obstinate immobility which is cus-
tomary at the treasury.
Or there is the episode of the visiting
Congressional delegation which invaded
Rome under the brilliant leadership of Rep-
resentative John Taber. One of Taber's col-
leagues, after hearing that the onset of
starvation might drive the Italian people in-
to Communism, remarked weightily that
"what they need here is guns not bread."
Representative Taber was not so realistic
as to propose a general massacre of the in-
conveniently hungry poor. His solution, of-
fered at the top of his voice as usual to a
member of the Italian Cabinet, was that
the de Gasperi government borrow some
money from the New York banks.
As his proposal indicates, Representative
Taber at least has the excuse of never
having quite learned that this is the
twentieth century. Secretary of Agri-
culture Clinton Anderson has no such ex-
cuse. Yet Anderson has just complacent-
ly informed a world hungry for eight
years and now in actual danger of some-
thing approaching general famine, that
the rich and well fed United States will
have to reduce food exports in this time
of greatest need.
If Secretary Anderson could see beyond
the next election, he would tell the American

people something a trifle more complicat-
ed. He would say: "We can of course re-
duce food exports in the hope of lowering
the home price level. It may well work. But
before we do so, every one in the country
should realize that the lowest price will be
the hideous catastrophe of another war, and
that quite possibly the very death of freedom
in the world will be included in our little
bill from fate."
Not dollars alone, so carefully guarded by
that watch-hippopotamus of the Treasury,
Representative Taber, are involved in the
present crisis. Food is also desperately im-
portant. Most Italians are even now living
on a meal and a half a day, of which the
full meal consists of the half pound bread
This bread ration is now in danger of
being cut, not merely because the Italian
government cannot pay for wheat, but
also because Secretary Anderson will not
make wheat available. Very briefly, the
Italian bread grain deficit until next
spring's harvest amounts to about 2,800,-
000 tons. Of this, at least two million tons
must come from the United States. Thus
far Secretary Anderson has insisted that
Italy can have only about half her mini-
mum needs of wheat. If Anderson does
not change his mind, next spring is likely
to see a Communist regime installed at
Rome. And the food shortage equally
threatens France, western Germany and
the United Kingdom.
Nor are bread and dollars the end of the
story, either. The well authenticated re-
ports of Soviet and satellite forces massing
in the Balkans indicate that the hand of
the United States is also about to be called
in Greece. In the American hand are three
out of four aces-the only Soviet ace is the
power to act. On the table on the American
side are three-quarters of the chips-it is
in that proportion that the resources of the
United States exceed the resources of the
Soviet Union. Shall we lose the hand and
the game from sheer political paralysis? Or
have we still got the stuff of the Americans
of the past, who not seldom bet their bot-
tom dollars on what seemed like busted
flushes, and came out of the game with a
continent to leave to us, their more fortunate
.(Copyright 1947, New York Herald Tribune)
The Third Whistle
L AKE SUCCESS-The Emergency Com-
mittee of Atomic Scientists, some of the
wisest and most public spirited men of this
generation, refers to the present as "the last
hour before midnight."
I prefer to say that the Peace Boat is
whistling for the third and last time and
the question is whether the major nations
will move fast enough to get aboard.
Emphatically, this does not mean that war
is in the offing. It signifies that the peoples
of the earth (or their tyrants) are facing
decisions that ultimately lead to war or
peace. Once taken, these decisions become
almost irreversible. The path is chosen,
the will to pursue it hardens and nothing
but an earthquake can provoke a fresh
The American people hate to be told
this-it takes their mind off tonight's
date and the World Series. Too many
newspaper editors yield to readers' reluc-
tance and therefore reduce the dreadful
picture of coming world catastrophe to a
bare sketch. History, unhappily, has nev-
er waited for newsmen.
The appalling atmosphere at the UN As-
sembly is not a result of general dyspepsia
resulting from overfeeding by hungry dele-
gates. It is an accurate reflection of the
outside world. When Andrei Y. Vishinsky
put on a good imitation of the late Adolf
Hitler back at the Sport Palast in Berlin,

he was not adventuring in private theatri-
cals. He was merely demonstrating how far
the Soviet Union is embarked on the career
of Nazi Germany.
Russia's satellites yap on command from
the ringmaster.
Britain's representatives have revealed
the double-mindness that curses the Brit-
ish Labor Party. Hector McNeill, for the
Foreign Office, answers Vishinsky in deep
fine notes of British freedom that bring a
glow to unsubjected hearts. Then British
Colonial Secretary Arthur Creech Jones
gets up and double-tongues in a manner
that proves that in London the spirit of
appeasement--the spirit that abandoned
the Spanish Republic and accepted Mu-
nich-is anything but dead.
Thus - by elimination - we reach the
United States. This is the American Assem-
bly. Ours is the leadership-if we know how
to take it. We alone have the appeal and
the might to lead the world toward that
peace and abundance which intelligent men
know is possible.
(Copyright 1947, Press Alliance, Inc.)


; .
\ ~
'' , x
G+ Nue a. al f..e:n ir <,+., . Q-$D
.... rleC yVb4

"One more dirty trick outta you an' I'm gonna sell you to a dude

N EW MEXICO-When a horse
gets old, tired, winded, lame,
or dim in the eyes after a long
and useful life-or if he has prov-
en himself incurably stupid or
lazy-he can look forward to one
of three ends in most parts of the
Southwest. If he is very lucky,
and has a master who can afford
not to squeeze the last ounce of
usefulness and profit out of his
livestock, he is turned out to pas-
ture or range for retirement,
where he can graze leisurely, in-
dulge in vices, if he is capable of
having any, and enjoy his' mem-
ories of same.
If his master's economic status
is such that he can't afford, to
support a leisure class among
his animals, the horse may be
sold to such an establishment as
a fox farm, where he is quickly
and painlessly put to death, cut
up, and fed to small beasts who
know how to convert horsemeat,
through various chemical pro-
cesses in their digestive systems,
into lustrous fur which later turns
up in Fifth Avenue shops.
But if the horse is an extreme-
ly unlucky nag, he is condemned
to a special horse hell which exists
in the land of perpetual sunshine.

He is sold to a dude ranch or rid-
ing stable, where he is rented to
tourists by the hour, usually at a
price which daily doubles the
stable's original investment in
him. He is mounted by a 300-
pound lady who makes a pretzel
out of his spine, by a wild kid
who loves western movies and
thinks all horses move at a con-
venient gallop or by a man who
is travelling around the West
on a budget and believes the only
way to get his money's worth is
by trying to run the legs off the
horse. Sometimes the beast is for-
tunate enough to draw an ex-
perienced rider like the eastern
gentleman described yesterday,
who is moved to pity and gets off
and helps support his mount.
This is not really a humane
problem, and I do not wish to up-
set the ASPCA. It is very difficult
to run a horse to death if he is
incapable of moving very fast,
and it takes more than a 300-
pounder to put a permanent kink
in an equine spinal column. But
it is a very poor practice from
a public relations standpoint, be-
cause it is not converting many
ornamental riders of the eastern
variety to the western style, which
is the only real way to ride a



At the Michigan ...
Grable and Dan Dailey.
MOTHER 'not only wore tights, but also
made several dozen other lavish cos-
tume changes, all in a futile attempt to liven
up a rather dull exhibition. Succeeding only
in debunking the Hollywood assumption that
a film's quality is in direct proportion to
its cost, 20th Century Fox's latest musical
extravaganza lays a rhythmical egg. Betty
Grable is attractive, but as an actress, she
makes a pretty good dancer. Nonetheless,
the Grable legs still merit a long, low whistle.
But her Thespian abilities are surpassed in
drabness only by the-if you'll pardon the
expression-plot, which, in line with estab-
lished Hollywood tradition, evokes nostalgic
memories of the howling era of vaudeville,
the handlebar mustache and the four-but-
ton double-breasted suit. Novel as it may
seem, the story concerns two stage troupers
who do an occasional song and dance, find
time to get married and raise children, and
live happily ever after. The story is, at
best, a poor excuse to keep the performers
occupied between numbers.
* ~* *
At the State .
THE WEB, with Ella Raines, William
Bendix and Edmund O'Brien.
THE WEB is a well-woven detective story,
bouyed by lively dialogue, decorated with
shadowy photography, and intensified .with
dramatic background music. This interest-
ing variation on the cops-and-robbers theme
begins modestly enough with a million dol-
lar phony bond deal, expands to include
several murders and ends with a colossal

(Continued from Page 4)
taining from the Chairman of the
Committee on Student Affairs, in
the Office of the Dean of Stu-
dents, a Certificate of Eligibility.
Participation before the opening
of the first semester must be ap-
proved as at any other time.
Before permitting any students
to participate in an extra-curricu-
lar activity (see definition of Par-
ticipation above), the chairman of
manager of such activity shall (a)
require each applicant to present
a certificate of eligibility, (b) sign
his initials on the back of such
certificate and (c) file with the
Chairman of the Committee on
Student Affairshthe names of all
those who have presented certifi-
cates of eligibility and a signed
statement to exclude all others
from participation. Blanks for the
chairmen's lists may be obtained
in the Office of Student Affairs.
Probation and Warning. Stu-
dents on probation or the warned
list are forbidden to participate in
any extra-curricular activity.
Eligibility, First Year. No fresh-
man in his first semester of resi-
dence may be granted a Certifi-
cate of Eligibility.
A freshman, during his second
semester of residence, may be
granted a Certificate of Eligibility
provided he has completed 15
hours or more of work with (1)
at least one mark of A or B and
with no mark of less than C, or
(2) at least 2%Aj times as many
honor points as hours and with no
mark of E. (A-4 points, B-3, C-2,
D-1, 1-0).
Any student in his first semes-
ter of residence holding rank
above that of freshman may be
granted a Certificate of Eligibil-
ity if he was admitted to the Uni-
versity in good standing.
Eligibility, General. In order to
receive a Certificate of Eligibility
a student must have earned at
least 11 hours of academic credit
in the preceding semester, or 6
hours of academic credit in the
preceding summer session, with
an average of at least C, and have
at least a C average for his entire
academic career.
Unreported grades and grades o
Unreported grades and gares of
X and I are to be interpreted as
E until removed in accordance
with University regulations. If in
the opinion of the Committee on
Student Affairs the X or I cannot
be removed promptly, the paren-
thetically reported grade may be
used in place of the X or I in
computing the average.
Students who are ineligible un-
der Rule V may participate only
after having received special per-
mission of the Committee on Stu-
dent Affairs.
Special Students. Special stu-
dents are prohibited from partici-

pating in any extra-curricular ac-
ticity except by special permission
of the Committee on Student Af-
Extramural Activities. Students
who are ineligible to participate in
extralcurricular activities within
the University are prohibited from
taking part in other activities of
a similar nature, except by special
permission of the Committee on
Student Affairs.
Physical disability. Students ex-
cused from gymnasium work on
account of physical incapacity
are forbidden to take part in any
extra-curricular activity, except
by special permission of the Com-
mittee on Student Affairs. In or-
der to obtain such permission, a
student may in any case be re-
quired to present a written recom-
mendation from the University
Health Service.
General. Whenever in the opin-
ion of the Committee on Student
affairs, or in the opinion of the
Dean of the School or College in
which the student is enrolled, par-
ticipation in an extra-curricular
activity may be detrimental to his
college work, the committee may
decline to grant a student the
privilege of participation in such
Special Permission. Specitl per-
mission to participate in public ac-
tivities in exception may be to
these rules granted by the Com-
mittee on Student Affairs only
upon the positive recommenda-
tion of the Dean of the School or
College to which the student be-]
Discipline. Cases of violation of
these rules will be reported to the
proper disciplinary authority for
Officers, Chairmen and Man-
ages. Officers, chairmen and
managers of committees and proj-
ects who violate the Rules Gov-
erning Participation in extra- cur-
ricular activities may be directed
to appear before the Committee
on Student Affairs to explain their
Willow Run Village.
University Community Center
Thursday, Oct. 2, 8 p.m., The
new art groups: classes in life
drawing, still life, ceramics, tex-
tile painting.y
Freshman Health Lecture Final
Exammination: The final exami-
nation for the present series of
Health Lectures for Freshmen
men will be held at 4, 5, and 7:30
p.m., Wed., Oct. 1.
Please observe the following al-E
phabetical schedule.
A through K-N.S. Auditorium

EDITOR'S NOTE: Because The Daily
prints EVERY letter to the editor
(which is signed, 300 words or less
in length, and in good taste) we re-
mind our readers that the views ex-
pressed in letters are those of the
writers only. Letters of more thant
300 words are shortened, printed or
omitted at the discretion of the edi-
torial director.
To the Editor:1
AM A FOREIGN student at the
University and today it was myI
first chance to see the Americanx
football game. The very fact that
Indian football game is played in;
a way quite different from what1
I saw aroused my interest. In spite1
of the fact that the game was one1
sided I enjoyed it. I was thrilled
at occasions and who would not,
at the very sight of Mr. No. 42'
piercing the tackling of the op-'
posite team and crossing the final
But I question the name given
to the game. Why we say this
"football" game while we play
most of the time by holding the,
ball. To me the idea of football
game is associated with kicking
the ball and sounds logical too.
How to explain the contrast be-
tween the two games bearing the
same name. (I doubt if "Kings"
and American English is so dif-
-Darshan Singh.
* * *
ADA's Stand
To the Editor:
outlined the philosophy and pro-
gram of ADA. It is the purpose of
this letter to outline in greater de-
tail ADA's stand on domestic is-
, LABOR: We believe a free and
democratic labor movement is es-
sential to the effective function-
ing of democracy. We therefore
affirm the right of workers to or-
ganize and bargain collectively
through representatives of their
own choosing. Accordingly, we op-
pose legislation such as the Taft-
Hartley Bill which abridges the
right of labor to choose its own
leaders and to take democratic po-
litical action through its own or-
ganizations. We believe that it is
labor's responsibility to eliminate
jurisdictional disputes and aid
production efficiency. In essen-
tial industries both labor and
management have a special ob-
ligation to the public welfare to
settle disputes through collective
bargaining, but in no instance do
we favor governmental compulsion
in industrial relations. We support
the full employment program, an-
nual wage plans, higher minimum
wages and the extension of social
are against budget cuts that have
an inverse relationship to welfare
of the nation, such as those made
in the Bureau of Labor Statistics,
and tax collecting agencies. We
favor elimination of regressive ex-
cise and sales taxes which by
their nature place the burden on
lower income groups. We oppose
across-the-board income tax re-
ductions which accord special ad-
vantages to the high income
EDUCATION: We favor federal
aid to state education to equalize
educational opportunities for all
without regard for race, creed
or color. We oppose all limitations
of academic freedom and quota
restrictions on student admission
to any phase of education.
Though space prohibits more
than a few examples of ADA's do-
mestic policies, it should be made
clear that these policies repre-
sent ends in themselves and are
not part of some larger scheme to
bring a revolutionary social and
economic order to the Uhited

My next-letter will be concerned
with ADA's foreign policy.
Bernard L. Goodman,
Pres., Michigan ADA.
Fashion Ngte
To the Editor:
DEFINITION Fashion: The pre-
vailing conventional usage in
matters of dress, social forms, etc.
(Webster). Allow me to submit
several other definitions: (1) the
social pressure which causes the
susceptible individual to throw or
give away wearing apparel before
it is worn out, or as an alternate,
(2) the answer to the question,
L through +Q-Rm. 25, A.H.
R through Z-Rm. 1025, A.H.
Freshman Health Lectures for
It is a University requirement
that all entering freshmen take a
series of Health Lectures and to
pass an examination on the con-
tent of these lectures. Transfer
j students with freshman standing
are also required to take the
course unless they have had a
(Continued on Page 6)

"Why can most manufacturers of
women's clothes trade in their
Cadillacs every year?"
As I gaze at the various and
sundry skirt lengths (and who
doesn't) to be seen on the cam-
pus, I can't help but think of
the puppeteers who pull the
strings which send most women
hot-footing it down to the near-
est dress-shop for their yearly
ration of (ugh!!) "fashions." The
string puller, however, is no more
to blame than the momentarily
deflated female (don't worry, Pop
or Hubby can earn, borrow, or
steal more) as she proudly ven-
tures forth in her newly acquired
finery, with spirits buoyant in
the realization that she is right
up to snuff.
Pardon the laugh, ladies, but
when are you going to realize that
you have been duped, betrayed,
sold up the river and back aagin?
To substantiate my claim, let me
show you the behind-the-scenes
origin of the current fashion
change, or a reasonable facsimile
President of dress manufactur-
ing establishment: "Boys, we're
not selling dresses fast enough
this year."
Vice-presidents, in unison:
"Yes! you're right."
Pres.: "We have to do some-
thing, quick! Hire twenty chorus
girls to walk up Fifth Avenue in
new style dresses tomorrow. Then
we can sit back and count the
money as it rolls in."
Vice-pres.: "But what kind of
new style dress do you mean?"
Pres.: "Why you nit-wits! It's
a good thing that I'm here to do
your thinking for you. Roll 'em
up in turkish towels or old rugs.
Anything we can get a lot of
cheaply. Say, I've got a better
idea. We haven't burned those
old dresses left from the Gay
Nineties yet, have we?"
Vice-pres., eagerly: "No sir!"
Pres.: "Well, we won't have
to burn 'em. Trot out twenty of
the loudest ones. I'll bet that
after we display them, we can sell
the whole flock."
Vice-pres.: "Why it's unbeliev-
Pres.: ""Nuts! Nothing is unbe-
lievable when dealing with styles."
Result: Long skirts.
There is a hopeful aspect of the
situation, however. Some women
have resisted the change and still
wear last year's wardrobe. 'o
them: orchids.
-Martin F. Bloom,
Book Exchange
Eo the Editor:
IT WOULD be unfortunate for
the majority of the student
body if the Student Book Ex-
change were to be discontinued
due to lack of space in the League.
It is almost superfluous, today,
to speak of the increased cost
of living which has presented a
serious problem for the majority
of the students. This problem has
been ameliorated to some extent
by the Book Exchange which has
afforded students an opportunity
to buy books at a reduced rate and
a medium for the sale of old
As it is, the Book Exchange has
been forced, through University
pressure, to narrow its scope of
aid to students, This pressure
resulted in the discontinuance for
sale of new articles such as pens,
pencils, sweaters, etc., which sold
for less than current retail prices.
Inasmuch as the Exchange is a
Student Legislature sponsored
project and has performed a real
service to students, the Legis-
lature should make a thorough in-
vestigation of the problem to find
some means of continuing the
-Eleanor Frein.
** *

Veterans' Rights
To the Editor:
(10,000 this fall) is aroused
and indignant over the neglect of
Congress concerning the veterans
legislation. We feel that this neg-
lect was purely political and com-
pletely unnecessary.
We have the backing of 10,000
student veterans in this area, and
we are working to unite all the
veterans of Texas and the nation
in this drive. Several Texas col-
leges have already started similar
Our objectives are:
1. To bring about the special
reconvention of Congress this fall
to remedy an unjust situation
which prohibits the veteran from
exercising his constitutioial right
of earning according to his abil-
ities. We want an elimnination of
the ceiling or, at least a substan-
tial lifting of it.
2. To put into law the pro-
posed cost of living raise so that
the veteran may continue his ed-
ucation without economic-handi-
What is, or what would be, the
reaction to such a move as this on
your campus? The COUGAR
spearheaded this movement here
in cooperation with student gov-



now 3F

(7 eT 7LI -------------- I

If Q'.-# -91 TL ) ..........


Back to Top

© 2022 Regents of the University of Michigan