T~l -MIHIAN MAY
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Lx4iguu an Ia'o
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Stuart Finayson ............Editorial Director
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Lida Dailes ..................Associate Editor
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oyce Johnson ................Women's Editor
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Member, Assoc. Collegiate Press, 194748
Editorials published in The Michigan Daily
are written by members of The Daily stafff
and represent the views of the writers only.
NIGHT EDITOR: NAOMI STERN
WE HOPE Congressmen have heard of the
simple plan for European aid proposed
by a seven-year-old, as reported recently in
a metropolitan newspaper.
The plan of operation was offered when
q her mother, after exhausting all the usual
cliches on the value of eating an entire din-
ner, resorted to the straw that would break
any Congressman's back, "Think of all the
starving children in Europe!"
To which our young economist succinctly
replied, "Send it to them."
HE SHOWDOWN on the Palestine parti-
tion has not yet come through at present
writing. Mulling over the problem general-
ly, we are reminded of the cartoon in one
of the Chicago papers recently which pic-
tured the ghost of a GI speaking to a Euro-
pean child, captioned "Why didn't they con-
sult me about whom was to be given the
trip to the States?"
IWhat's on WaxJ
BACK IN THE SPOTLIGHT after a couple
of years of semi-retirement Anita O'Day
heads this week's singles with a sensational
recording of "What is This Thing Called
Love?" on Signature. Past mistress of the
art of bending and twisting notes, Miss
O'Day achieves a nice effect on this side,
starting at race-horse tempo and sliding
gracefully into medium at mid-phrase. Some
brilliant scat singing is also included by
this versatile performer. The reverse, "Boot-
whip" is too self-consciously hip to be effec-
tive. A minor little thing credited to Roy
Eldridge, it isn't a perfect vehicle for Anita's
talents. Studio band-backing is good.
Victor has been steadily expanding its
jazz catalogue of late, which comes as a wel-
come surprise. A neat example of the trend
is Lucky Thompson's "Boppin' the Blues."
Surrounded by several well-known musicians
who make their home on the West Coast,
Lucky's tenor is somewhat over-shadowed
by Neil Hefti's Gillespie-inflected trumpet
solo and Benny Carter's usual facile alto-
Arork. Dodo Marmarosa's opening chorus
shows off the young pianist's startling tech-
nique. The* other side, "Just One More
Chance," is Lucky all the way on which he
sounds like an intriguing cross between Ben'
Webster and Coleman Hawkins. An Elling-
ton-like mood is created by keeping the sev-
eral horns, accompanying the soloist, muted
Keynote recently issued an album includ-
ing several left-over sides from previous
sessions and entitled it "Tenor Jazz." The
sides are loaded with talent, but nothing
much comes of their collective efforts with
but one sparkling exception. The exception
is called "Wicks Kicks" and it features the
Ted Nash Quintet. Strictly a pick-up group,
it plays with a cohesive quality that is sadly
lacking in lesser groups that work together
regularly. The fetching riff is presented in
the opening and closing unison choruses
with solos by Ted Nash on tenor and Joe
By IRVlN( .AFF
WASHINGTON--The decision of Robert
Hannegan to quit as Postmaster Gener-
al in order to head a syndicate which owns
the St. Louis Cardinals brought, I suppose,
mild amusement to most people. The resig-
nation of a Cabinet official.to become boss
of a baseball team has an element of the
kind of humor which sprin=s only from na-
tive American soil.
But there is more than humor in it.
When you look at the lannegan resigna-
tion against the backdrop of a long string
of other resignations of high-echelon gov-
ernment officials to go into private busi-
ness, you find an instructive commentary
on a certain set of values we Americans
have inherited from an earlier period.
These are the values of a dynamic in-
dividualism rooted in the days of the ex-
panding frontier, the days of vigorous for;-
ing ahead to build railroads xross the
country and to constr ct a mighty industri-
al plant. They arc t'iu values implicit in ihe
attitude that to allow the most unrestrained
exercise of individual economic initiative
is one of the -highest of social goods, and that
that government i, best which governs
The fruit on the trees of private enter-
prise has always been more attractive to
Americans than the fruits in achievement
in public service. Young Americans have
been traditionally unenthusiastic about
government careers, as contrasted, for ex-
ample, with the high premium placed on
government service in England.
The latest crop of resignations is fully in
line with that tradition in this country. To
mention just a few cases, there has been
the decision of Undersecretary of State Dean
Acheson to go into private law practice,
the acceptance of Chairman Denny of the
Federal Communications Commission of a
lush job with NBC, and the return of Assis-
tant Secretary of State Will Benton to pri-
vate business. A number of the officials
who resigned recently have been motivated
admittedly by the feeling that a $10,000 a
year government salary is not sufficient.
The values which brought on these re-
signations may have served well when
America was in its youth, when the big
job was to grow, to build, to push back in-
dustrial horizons ever farther. But now
the problem has shifted. The important
task now is to keep the vast economic
machine we have built from getting out
of hand, not only for our own welfare,
but also to meet our new obligations as a
nation of the very first importance in
furthering the well-being of the world.
It is, in short, the task of government.
And the tragic thing about the growing list
of resignations is that we have been caught
in the position of world leadership with an
archaic set of values which makes men look
down on government service as a career
less desirable than that of private business.
1100KS IN kIld'I 4IFW:
@ h I ierl
"" -- " - " " -- - -- - '-- - - - "- R I r" -- - - - --- . . -. -.. . .--s--s-- -- -. .. . ...
THE MIDDLE OF TIE JOURNEY. Lio-
nel Trilling. New York: The Viking Press.
1947. 310 pages.
rfo SAY that this is a book for and about
"liberals would over-simplify the au-
thor's purpose and the book's meaning, for
it is not a simple book. One cannot, how-
ever, over-state its value and importance
to the reader of contemporary literature
who is also seriously, if not anxiously, con-
cerned with the state of the world today
in terms of political philosophy and the
confusions with which the modern mind is
The temptation to over-simplification,
however strong, must be resisted because,
while the central character of the book,
John Laskell, calls himself a "liberal" and
is confronted with crises which are funda-
mentally ideological, the resolution of his
mental conflict is by no means clear-cut
and definite. The issues involved are too
complex, too clouded by the exigencies of
,day-to-day living and by the pressures
of strong and intimate personal relation-
ships and too charged with emotional over-
tones, to afford a complete disentanglement
and analysis within the bounds of what is
primarily a work of fiction.
It is, in fact, to the strongly philosophical
tenor of the book that the reader who is
looking simply for "good fiction" may ob-
ject. Because of a somewhat oblique style,
its aesthetic qualities may be said to have
been neglected in favor of its "message," but
the line is a fine one.
The external details of the plot may be
outlined briefly: John Laskell, recovering
from a serious illness during which death ap-
peared as fascinating, even pleasurable, visits
his dearest friends, young Arthur and Nancy
Croom, at their Connecticut country home,
troubled both by his own peculiar state of
mind and by the puzzling actions and words
of a third friend, Gifford Maxim.
Laskell is the central character in that
the story is projected through his conscious-
ness, but it is the apostate, Gifford Maxim,
who really holds the center of the stage,
continuously the object of curiosity and con-
Maxim, subtle and masked but of a strong
and dominating personality, is placed in
juxtaposition to the intense, fiery Nancy and
the stubborn intelligent Arthur. The great
and important fact about Maxim is that he
has broken with The Party, thereby disil-
lusioning the other three principal charact-
ers, who, striving for "ideas on which to
build their lives," are confronted with the
possible failure of liberalism as a practical
Through Maxim, the reader perceives the
real tragedy underlying their disenchant-
ment. Unable to face the cruel fact of death,
their earnest and sincere idealism is doomed
to failure because they are confronted with
the possibility that the revolutionaries, in
whom they had trusted to do "the dirty
work," may desert the cause, just as Maxim
He, realizing that revolution is not the
answer because it neglects Man while striv-
ing for the welfare of mankind, is travelling
to the other end of the pendulum's swing,
finding the only possible answer in the other
extreme - religion. And here there is an
even deeper tragedy, lying in the fact that
man's striving for truth takes its form in
extremes, rather than in natural and slow,
but ever progressive, development.
Only Laskell, more perceptive and less
intense than the young Crooms, begins to
understand the situation:
"The idealism of Nancy and Arthur,
which, raised to a higher degree, had once
been the idealism of Maxim himself, had
served for some years now the people who
demanded ideas on which to build their
lives. It had presented the world as in
movement and drama, had offered the pos-
sibility of heroism or martyrdom, made
available the gift of commitment and virtue
to those who chose to grasp it. But 'Laskell
saw that the intellectual power had gone
from that system of idealism, and much of
its power of drama had gone. The time was
getting ripe for a competing system. And
it would be brought by the swing of the
pendulum, not by the motion of growth.
Maxim was riding the pendulum."
Once the reader has agreed to make the
effort required in understanding and appre-
ciating this book, he will find its author's
technique not incomprehensible. Mr. Trill-
ing, already noted for his scholarly works
in English literature, (he is also a member
of the Columbia University faculty) has hit
at the heart of modern man's dilemma while
making a definite contribution to contem-
porary literature in the way of a brilliant
and provoking first novel. That there will
be an even more than usually eager antici-
pation of his second novel goes without
Bromfield, Louis-Colorado. New York,
Davidson, David-The Steeper Cliff.
New York, Random House, 1947.
Lin YuTang-The Gay Genius: The Life and
Times of Su Tungpo. New York, John
Lippman, Walter-The Cold War.
New York, Harper, 1947.
Mott, Frank Luther-Golden Multitudes.
New York, Macmillan, 1947.
Spencer, Cornelia-The Missionary.
New York, John Day, 1947.
McHugh, Vincent-The Victory.
New York, Random House, 1947.
Roberts, Cecil-And So to America.
New York, Doubleday, 1947.
New York, Dial Press, 1947.
Sitwell, Osbert-Great Morning!
Boston, Atlantic, Little, 1947.
Strode, Hudson-Now in Mexico.
New York, Harcourt, 1947.
Trilling, Lionel-The Muiddle of the Journey.
New York, Viking, 1947.
The statistical reports of the National La-
bor Relations Board continue to afford an
interesting index to the effects of the Taft-
Hartley Act. Of the 351 complaints of unfair
labor practices filed in October, hardly one
iFourth were filed by employers ag'ainst
unions. Of the 58 collective bargaining elec-
tions conducted, union representation was
voted in 42.
-Christian Science Monitor
MATTER OF FACT:
TB: S4TEWART AxLsfl'
W ASHINGTON-The non -Coi-
munist provision of the Taft-
Hartley Law has already caused
an immense hurly burly through-
out the labor movement, and mi-
graine headaches for the members
of the National Labor Relations
Board. The board leaped one
hurdle when it ruled that the of-
ficers of the national labor or-
ganizations need not sign the law's
non-Communist affidavits. But it
is now evident that despite this
ruling, more hurly burly in the
labor movement and more head-
aches for the labor board are in
The strange legal maze, which
the legislators unwittingly cre-
ated in their attempt to cut the
Communists in the labor move-
ment down to size, is typified by
the pending case between the
Remington Rand Corporation
and the United Electrical Work-
ers. This case may have an im-
portant impact on the whole
pattern of labor-management
The Remington Rand Company
has asked the N.L.R.B.to hold an
election in its plants to determine
what union represents the major-
ity of its ten thousand workers.
These workers are now organized
in the electrical workers' union.
But the United Electrical Workers
is not only the third biggest un-
ion in the C.I.O. It is also the
largest Communist-dominated un-
ion in the country. Largely be-
cause if they did so most of them
would be clapped into jail on per-
jury charges, the officers of the
U.E.W. have refused to sign the
Taft-Hartley Law's non-Commun-
There seems little doubt that
the Congress intended that any
union whose officers refused to
sign the affidavits could have
no place on the ballot in an
N.L.R.B. election. Thus if the
N.L.R.B. orders an election in
the Remington Rand plants, and
if the U.E.W. is denied a place
on the ballot, the resulting elec-
tion will obviously be strictly on
the Balkan pattern.
In this curious Balkan-type
election, two things could hap-
pen. A rival union could take ad-
vantage of the situation by suc-
cessfully horning in. This is pos-
sible in the Remington Rand case.
The Independent International
Association of Machinists has long
been hungrily eyeing the electri-
cal workers' bailiwick. Since the
electrical workers would not be on
the ballot, the machinists would
have an enormous tactical advan-
tage. The machinists might be the
legal victors, even with a minority
of the workers actually support-
If the machinists won with what
might actually be no more than a
small minority of the workers
backing them, very bad trouble
between the two factions of work-
ers could certainly be expected.
But if the majority of the workers
voted for "no unidn" with the real
purpose of protecting the U.E.W.
from its rival organization, labor-
management relations would au-
tomatically revert to the law of
the jungle. Both' sides could de-
pend on their economic strength
alone to protect their interests.
Certainly this is not what the
framers of the Taft-Hartley Law
intended. That is why there is
considerable sentiment on the la-
bor board that the law should be
so interpreted as to allow a union
a place on the ballot even if its
officers fail to sign the non-Com-
munist affidavits. In certain cases
such a. ruling would actually pro-
tect the interests of employers.
It would prevent jurisdictional
strikes between rival unions, one
of which had not signed the affi-
davits and thus, for the Labor
Board's purposes, did not legally
exist. But this interpretation of
the law would require much finag-
ling with the clear Congressional
intent, and N.L.R.B. counsel Rob-
ert Denham is known to oppose it.
The basic issue-whether the
non-Communist clause of the
new labor act is constitutional
-will eventually be decided by
the Supreme Court. No one
knows, of course, how that body
will decide. But it can certain-
ly be argued that the wording
of the law, which requires a un-
ion officer to swear that he
"does not believe in" Commun-
ist doctrines, skirts perilously
close to thought-control, and
thus threatens the Bill of Rights.
At any rate, one thing seems
clear already. That is that to at-
tempt to wipe out Communist
strength in the labor unions by
legislation is a doubtful, experi-
ment. As Walter Reuther's smash-
ing victory in the auto workers
has demonstrated, it is better to
rely on the plain good sense of the
rank and file of American labor.
(Copyright, 1947, New York,
Herald Tribune, Inc.)
(Continued from Page 3) 1
University Community Center,
Mon., Dec. 1, 8-10 p.m., Faculty
Tues., Dec. 2, 8-10 p.m., Wives
Club presents Prof. E. H. Gault,
who will speak on "Day to Day1
Wed., Dec. 3, 12 noon, Deadline
for entrance of material for Art
Exhibition; 8-10 p.m., Creative
Writers Group; 8-10 p.m., Natur-
al Dance Group.
Thurs., Dec. 4, 8-10 p.m., Art
Exhibition Opening Tea, sponsored
by the Art Group.
Mon., Dec. 1, 6:45 p.m., Bowling
League - Willow Village Bowling
Alley; 7:30 p.m., Badminton Club.
Tues., Dec. 2. 6:45 p.m., Basket-
ball League: 7:30 p.m., Fencing
Wed., Dec. 3, 8 p.m., Volleyball
Thurs., Dec. 4, 6:45 p.m., Bas-
Fri., Dec. 5, 8:30 p.m., Square
Sun., Dec. 7, 4:30 p.m., Coffee
University Lecture: "The Time-
Space Concept of the Work of Pi-
casso" (illustrated). Dr. Paul M.
Laporte, lecturer on Fine Arts. Oh-
vet College; auspices of the Mu-
seum of Art. 4:15 p.m., Wed., Dec.
3, Rackham Amphitheatre. The
public is invited.
University Lecture: Dr. Clifford
T. Morgan, Chairman, Depart-
ment of Psychology, Johns Hop-
kins University, will speak on the
subject, "Learning and the Brain,"
at 4:15 p.m., Thurs.. Dec. 4, Rack-
ham Amphitheatre; auspices of
the Department of Psychology.
The public is invited.
French Lecture: Prof. W. F. Pat-
terson of the Romance Lan-
guage Department, will lecture on
the subject, "Louis XIII," at 4:10
p.m., Tues., Dec. 2, Rm. D, Alum-
ni Memorial Hall; auspices of Le
Cercle Francais. Tickets for the se-
ries of lectures may be procured
at Rm. 112, Romance Language
Bldg., or at the door at the time
of lecture. The public is invited.
Political Science 52: Exam pre-
viously scheduled for Wed. will be
given Mon., Dec. 1 at 10 a.m.
Business Administration 173.
Property and Liability Insurance:
Midsemester examination, 2 p.m.,
Thursday, Dec. 4, Rm. 25, Angell
Chemistry 234: Students plan-
ning to elect physico-chemical
methods of analysis (instrumenta-
tion) spring term should leave
their name with Mr. J. A. Dean,
328 Chemistry Bldg. The instruc-
tor's permission is required as lab-
oratory space is limited.
Group Representation Seminar:
7:45 p.m., Mon., Dec. 1, Rm. 3010,
Orientation Seminar: 7 p.m.,
Mon., Dec. 1, Rm. 3001, Angell
Hall. Mr. M. L. Curtis will speak
on "The Hausdorff Paradox."
Physical and Inorganic Chem-
istry Seminar: 4:15 p.m., Mon.,
Dec. 1, Rm. 303, Chemistry Bldg.
Prof. E. F. Westrum, Jr. will speak
on "Chemistry of Neptunium."
The University Musical Society
will present the Don Cossack
Chorus, Serge Jaroff, conductor,
in the Second Annual Extra Con-
cert Series, Tues., Dec. 2, 8:30
p.m., Hill Auditorium. Conductor
Jaroff has built a program of folk
songs, religious music, and Rus-
sian soldier songs.
A limited number of tickets are
available at the offices of the Uni-
versity Musical Society in Burton
Tower, and will be on sale at the
Hill Auditorium box office on the
night of the concert after 7 p.m.
Faculty Concert: Gilbert Ross,
violinist, Oliver Edel, cellist, and
Joseph Brinkman, pianist, will
present a concert at 8:30 p.m.,
Sun., Dec. 7, Lydia Mendelssohn
Theatre. Program: Mozart's Trio
in E major, K. 542, Brahms' Trio
in C major, Op. 87, and Beethov-
en's Trio in D major, Op. 70, No. 1.
The public is cordially invited.
Letters to the Editora..
EDITOR'S NOTE: Because The Daily
prints every letter to the editor re-
ceived (which is signed, 300 words
or less in length, and In good taste)
we remind our readers that the views
expressed in letters are those of the
writers only. Letters of more than
300 words are shortened, printed or
omitted at the discretion of the edi-
To the Editor:
WRITE THIS LETTER as a
challenge to all hot jazz fans
on campus. This group is divided
into two segments - the modern
jazz adicts and the two beat men.
Much mouth noise has been made
by both groups as to the relative
merits and demerits of both jazz
forms. But what disturbs me is
the intolerance and lack of know-
ledge each shows about his "op-
ponent's" product. During record
sessions, the beboppers loudly
mimic the tailgating trombone and
the heavy drum beat, while the
dixielanders just as impolitely
squirm, make faces, and groan at
every seemingly sour note in a be-
bop solo. Let's stop this nonsense!
Here's my challenge - ,
This Sunday night (at 8 p.m. in
the League) the Hot Record Soci-
ety will present a lecture and re-
cord concert on Chicago jazz giv-
en by Phil Diamond - a noted col-
lector. If the beboppers will turn
out en masse and thus show an
honest effort to find out about
the other side's views, I will per-
sonally guarantee to bring down
the dixieland crowd to a concert
and lecture on bebop that the soci-
ety will present. How about it?
Hot Record Society
To the Editor:
THERE IS a Michigan statute
which declares it unlawful to
refuse, on account of color or na-
tural origin, any person in any
restaurant, hotel, barber shop, and
other places of public accommoda-
tion. A Daily survey last spring
revealed that 22 out of Ann Ar-
bor's 26 barber shops flatly re-
fused to serve Negroes, the law
notwithstanding. The two colored
shops, the Michigan ,Union, and
one white shop are the only places
where Negroes may receive serv-
The excuses advanced by the
barbers for such flagrant flouting
of the law range from: "Our cus-
tomers object," to "We can't cut
a Negro's hair because of differ-
ence in texture," and "Negroes
are dirty, therefore health laws
protect us from serving them."
Because many of the proprietors
would not be in business were it
not for the University, which in-
creases the Ann Arbor popula-
tion by some 20,000, the Board of
Regents was approached for aid
in ending such action which rele-
gates Negro students to a kind of
left-handed citizenship. No for-
mal action can be expected by the
Regents because of the establish-
ed policy of not interfering in
matters which do not directly con-
cern University affairs. However,
I have talked individually with
some of the members of the Board,
and they agree that some action
should be taken to end this shame-
This is not a matter for the
Inter-Racial Association only; it
is not something which merely
change exhibition of student work
from the College of Architecture
of the University of Illinois. Spon-
sored by the student branch of the
Architecture Building. Century
of Photography; from the Muse-
um of Modern Art. Through De-
"Natural History Studies at the
Erwin S. George Reserve, Uni-
versity of Michigan," Museums
Bldg. Rotunda. Through Decem-
Women's Glee Club Rehearsals:
Nov. 30, 9 a.m.; Dec. 1, 4 p.m.;
Dec. 2, 4 p.m. All members are re-
quested to attend.
U. of M. Hot Record Society:
8 p.m., Michigan League Ball-
room. Program: Lecture and re-
cord concert. The public is invit-
I.Z.F.A.: Discussion on "The
Jewish Agency and the Political
Structure of Palestine." News di-
gestof the week, dancing, sing-
ing. Tues., 8 p.m., Hillel Founda-
tion. All invited.
Michigan Dames Interior De-
corating Group: 8 p.m., Mon., Dec.
(Coutinued on Page 7)
concerns Negro students. It should
be a topic of discussion in every
campus organization - something
every decent, fair minded student
could well afford to think over,
and decide his individual ap-
proach. Thcre are no political is-
sues involved. We are not inter-
ested in arguing the moral as-
pects. But the legislature of Mich-
igan has seen fit to protect certain
civil liberties by incorporating
them into the laws of the state.
We expect, just as any person who
believes in democracy expects, that
they will not be violated.
What can you do? Go in and
voice your protest when you pass
a barber shop (women can also
participate). Letters may be writ-
ten to the Barber's Association
The Union and other shops which
don't discriminate could be pat-
ronized exclusively. Perhaps The
Daily could get along without the
barber advertisements which, in
effect, are asking for white pat-
rons only. The IRA is working out
more elaborate plans for ending
this discrimination. We welcome
the aid of any individtlk or organ-
ization which is interested in at
least making Ann Arbor a better
place to live.
No, the millennium has not ar-
rived. We have no illusions to-
ward changing the social order
overnight. But we can think of
no better place to begin than
among 20,000 students, who have
not yet been imbued with the
specious notion that their well
being, and that of the nation, de-
pends upon the segregation and
exploitation of a minority group.
With those benefits which accrue
to patient, tolerant, souls in the
life after death, we are not con-
cerned. It is in our time that we
are seeking freedom from racial
bigotries and hatreds.
Former president, IRA
To the Editor:
HE TOWN HALL IDEA is one
of the fundamental tenets of
democracy. When IRA and cer-
tain of the clergy cease common
discussion in attempt at decision
over a critical issue, and attempt
force through law, then IRA casts
town hall to the winds and admits
of failure. By what naive rea-
soning does IRA believe that emo-
tion and understanding can be
legislated. By what reasoning do
they believe that the many white
people who do not understand
the problem will do so through
How comfortable will colored
people feel; will they patronize
regardless of law any place in
which they feel that white pro-
prietor and white patron do not
care for them? The only recourse
you have, IRA, for immediate re-
sults is to put up stock and open
an inter-racial barber shop of your
own" in town. We tried it in my
home town - the liberal college
town of Oberlin, Ohio - and the
barber shop though still in busi-
ness is not a success. If you have
the grit and ingenuity, IRA, may-
be you can do it. Count me in on.
the stock and steady business for
-H. Lee Wilson
To the Editor:
WITH THE PURPOSE of "trans-
lating an enhanced interest
in the problems facing the Ameri-
can people into fuller participation
by students in the processes and
mechanics of government,"' over
65 students have banded together
to form the Young Progressive
Citizens of Michigan. We feel,
however, that the vast majority of
the students on campus have a
stake in our projected program
and therefore invite all students,
especially those who have never
participated in student movements
to work with us and help further
We plan to study the adminis-
trative structure of national, lo-
cal, and state governments and to
establish, research and study
groups to survey local public opin-
ion and to study and disseminate
information on specific issues.
This, though it is a long range
program and extremely inclusive,
is necessary action that must be
taken by some student group. We
propose to do all this providing
we get the people to help us. For
the next week, until the student
legislature elections, we shall be
concerned with promoting methods
of getting out the vote on the
campus and publicizing to the full-
est extent the candidates' state-
ments and platform. In this we
shall be working with and through
the student legislature.
It is vital that students have an
interest in their campus govern-
ing body - without such a con-
cern they will certainly lack an
interest in their local and nation-
I al governments. We are aware at
all times that next Year is a n pele-
BARNABY . .