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November 05, 1947 - Image 4

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The Michigan Daily, 1947-11-05

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FOUR

THE MICHIGAN DAILY

BILL MAULDIN

3iAriigan &
Fifty-Eighth Year
1 .

ON WORLD AFFAIRS:
Policy on Germany

WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 5, 1947
Letters to the Ed or.I

Edited and managed by students of the Uni-
Vrsity of Michigan under the authority of the
Board in Control of Student Publications.
Editorial Staff
SJohn Campbell................Managing Editor
[Clyde Becht .......................City Editor
Stuart Finlayson ................Editorial Director
Eunice Mintz ....................Associate Editor
Lida Dales.......................Associate Editor
Dick Kraus........................Sports Editor
Bob Lent...............Associate Sports Editor
Joyce Johnson.................. Women's Editor
Betty Steward..........Associate Women's Editor
Joan de Carvajal ..................Library Director
Business Staff
Nancy Heimick ...................General Manager
Jeanne Swendeman......... Advertising Manager
Edwin Schneider .................Finance Manager
Melvin Tick ..................Circulation Manager
Telephone 23-24-1
Member of The Associated Press
The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to
the use for re-publication of all news dispatches
credited to it or otherwise credited in this news-
paper. All rights of re-publication of all other
matters herein also reserved.
Entered at the Post Office at Ann Arbor, Mich-
Igan, as second class mail matter.
Subscription during the regular school year by
carrier, $5.00, by mail, $6.00.
Member, Assoc. Collegiate Press, 1947-48
editorials published in The Michigan Daily
are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only.
NIGHT EDITOR: NAOMI STERN
WSSF Drive Today
rfODAY the World Student Service Fund
appeals to every student on campus for
support in the work of rebuilding education
in foreign countries. This is an appeal that
should reach the heart of everyone that re-
ceives the benefits of the education system in
America. We here cannot count the bless-
ings of our universities, they are so numer-
ous, but students and professors in other
nations can easily tell you in a few-minutes
everything that they have at their disposal.
One point to be remembered about this
relief work is that the people we are aiding
are people just like you or me. They
would be attending colleges and universi-
ties right now if they hadn't been blown
off the map during the war. We might be
In the same position if the course of events
had brought the war to our shores.
The real hope for peace lies in the foun-
dation that can be built from the ruins that
now exist in so many parts of the world. A
firm foundation depends on education. This
is. where WSSF begins its work, and gives
American students the opportunity to give
their testimony of how much education
means to us.
American students spend $17,800,000 an-
nuall' for their fraternities and $38,700,000
for football. If we can afford this can we
not also afford to supply a few textbooks or
-medical supplies to foreign students who no
longer have fraternities or football?
WSSF is not asking a specific amount
from each student. Some can afford to
┬░give as much as $25 or more, others will
have to scrape to give less. But every stu-
dent on campus should be wearing an
orange tag signifying that they have given
as much as they possibly can to help
students and professors in wartorn coun-
tries.
Those who have seen the film "Seeds of
Destiny" have had a glimpse at the twisted
bodies of Europeans that have managed to
live through the war, and within those bodies
are twisted minds that must have the ad-
vantages that only education can offer. As
we rebuild cities and nations, so we must
rebuild the minds of men through education.
No amount is too small'or large enough to
give to WSSF. Students throughout the
world will know us by the amount we give
today and tomorrow for service to them.
The goal is $10,000 from the University of
Michigan students and it stands as a chal-

lenge for everyone to give generously.
-Bette Hamilton
M USIC
ANIEL ERICOURT, youngFrench pian-
ist, displayed a delicate touch and in-
cisive power in a very satisfying Choral
Union concert last night.
A well-constructed program, preserving a
nice balance between the artistic and the
showmanlike, was distinguished by Eri-
court's playing of Mozart and Debussy. Be-
ginning with a Mozart Sonata in C, the pro-
gram led through works by Merdelssohn and
Schumann to an early Prokofieff sonata-
an obvious tour de force. After intermission,
+i-, iaonist again fAllowed, the- radient from

By EDGAR ANSEL MOWRER
THERE ARE TWO American policies to-
ward Germany.
The official policy, incorporated in ex-
Secretary of State Jimmy Byrnes and Gen-
eral Lucius Clay in Berlin, placed the indus-
trial rehabilitation of Germany at the top
of the list. It would shape the Marshall Plan
for assisting Europe very largely around a
rehabilitated chunk of the former German
Reich.
The other, centering in the more able
heads of the State Department, feels that
security against Germany must come first
and that a partially rehabilitated Ger-
many can at most be a mere adjunct of a
rehabilitated western Europe.
Now, however, this transformation has
been lucidly and honestly revealed by ex-
Secretary of State Byrnes in his book,
"Speaking Frankly."
The basic stages were, roughly, as fol-
lows:
1. At Quebec in 1941, Roosevelt and
Churchill accepted the so-called Morgen-
thau Plan for the reduction of German
industry and the pastoralization of Ger-
It Seems to Me
By DON NUECHTERLEIN
ONE OF THE BIG question marks existing
in the present lineup of nations behind
the Molotov Plan as opposed to the Mar-
shall Plan is Czechoslovakia, whose import-
ance in the current struggle between the
East and West in Europe was borne out by
her sudden reversal toward the Marshall
Plan last July when the Soviet Union broke
off negotiations on the subject in Paris.
Many questions were subsequently raised
concerning this action, and during my brief
visit in Prague at the end of July, I re-
ceived answers to most of them.
In considering this question, one should
remember that Czechoslovakia was occu-
pied by Germany before war was declared
in 1939 and that she never collaborated
with Hitler as did Austria, Hungary and
Romania. For this reason, all foreign
troops were withdrawn from the country
shortly after the war's end and until the
present time her politics have not been
influenced by the presence -of a Soviet
army, as is the case with all her neigh-
bors. It should be realized, however, that
except for a small section of her Austrian
and German border, which is patrolled by
American troops, Czechoslovakia is com-
pletely surrounded by the Soviet army.
This fact, I believe, was the basis for the
government's rejection of the Marshall
Plan, despite the fact that both the gov-
ernment and the people sincerely wished
to cooperate with other European nations
in the reconstruction of a war-torn con-
tinent.
While in Prague I found a feeling of dis-
appointment existing among most of the
people with whom I talked, many of whom
were quite frank in their opinion that the
government was being influenced too much
by the Soviet Union. This feeling was not
unfounded for prior to the Paris Confer-
ence on the Marshall Plan the Czech gov-
ernment had expressed its wholehearted sup-
port of the idea and the country fully ex-
pected their delegate in Paris to line the
country up alongside those favoring the
plan. Other events, however, changed the
entire picture.
After Foreign Minister Molotov walked
out of the Paris Conference, Jan Masaryk,
Czech foreign minister and son of the
republic's great leader after 1918, was in-
vited to Moscow by Marshall Stalin for a
conference. Upon his return from this
meeting, Mr. Masaryk announced to his
people that the country was withdrawing
her support of the Marshall Plan. What
conclusion could the people draw other

than that Stalin had told Masaryk in no
uncertain terms to turn thumbs down on
the plan or suffer the consequences. With
Red army troops on all sides, it was no
problem for Mr. Masaryk to figure out
what the consequences might be.
The Czechs pride themselves on being
neutral in the midst of this great European
struggle for power, Ind a people which
has not let itself be swayed to the East or
the West. Bohemia was liberated by both
the Americans and Russians and here espe-
cially the people feel they understand the
political and economic ideologies of both
sides. The Czechs greatly resent any outside
influence attempting to force policies on
them, and the government's reversal on the
Marshall Plan was, most people felt, not the
will of the people but the influence of Russia.
Contrary to common belief, Czecho-
slovakia is influenced but not controlled
by the Communists. Only about one third
of the government consists of Commu-
nists while the other two thirds is com-
posed of socialists and other parties to
the right of Communism, a situation sim-
ilar to that of France except that no So-
viet army surrounds France. The situation
insideC zechnslnvakia is nne of indenen-

many over the opposition of the American
War and State Departments.
2. Shortly thereafter, the two statesmen
repudiated pastoralization but breaking the
German industrial stranglehold on Europe
remained basic and was accepted by Tru-
man, Attlee and Stalin at Potsdam in 1945.,
There it was agreed that Germany was to
be watched, educated, policed as a whole
by the combined efforts of the U.S., the
U.S.S.R., Britain and later, France.
3. Soviet trickery and refusal to cooper-
ate offered certain Americans, who did
not want to see Germany broght too low,
an opportunity to revise basic American
policy.
At Stuttgart, in Sept. 1946, Secretary
Byrnes expressed the new policy in a full-
dress speech which I have reason to believe
was written M'n part by General Clay. This
speech aimed (a) at reassuring the Ger-
mans by the promise that, except for the
Saar territory,'their country would not be
further amputated (he even questioned the
veiled Polish annexations in the east); and
(b) at reassuring Germany's neighbors
against further German aggression even
though Germany was rehabilitated.
This speech cleared the way for the
April, 1947 conference in Moscow which
failed completely. As a result-subject to
a last attempt to be made at London this
month-Germany will probably remain
divided.
Meanwhile the Americans and British
united their respective zones of occupation
in Germany and-against the opposition of
France, Belgium and the Netherlands-
raised the level of German industrial pro-
duction and handed over coal production
to German industrialists who had worked for
Hitler.
The alleged motives for this revolution-
ary departure from the Potsdam Agree-
ment were several, all more or less plaus-
ible.
Mr. Byrnes goes so far as to suggest that
if the Soviets refuse, the United States
should undertake through the United Na-
tions to throw them out by force.
With the official American policy thus
revealed as one of possible war against the
Soviet Union in defense of the integrity of
a country that Americans were fighting
thirty months ago, it is small wonder that
the western European democracies hardened
their opposition. Wiser heads in the United
States began to realize that in the name of
,rehabilitating Germany, General Clay and
his friends might well be isolating the United
States and Britain.
(Copyright 1947, Press Alliance, Inc.)
T ragicLoss
JOHN G. WINANT, former United State
ambassador to the Court of St. James,
took his own life Monday evening.
Exactly two weeks earlier he stood before
delegates to the New York Herald Tribune
Forum-his cheeks flushed, his expression
grave-and haltingly and with weakness de-
livered what was to be his last public ad-
dress. His words that evening were simple
and direct, eminently fitting as the keynote
address to a Forum which had set out to
consider the question, "Modern Man: Slave
or sovereign?"
Mr. Winant, a flyer in the First World
War, served three terms as New Hamp-
shire's governor, campaigned tirelessly
during the depression years for work-
men's compensation and pension meas-
ures, and later was instrumental in the
enactment and extension of social security
legislation. In 1941 he became United
States ambassador to Britain, calmly and
effectively carrying out his immense re-
sponsibilities, and in 1946 resigned that
post to join the United Nations Economic
and Social Council.

As a statesman, Winant earned the re-
spect and gratitude of a nation. But his
sense of responsibility to his fellow men ever
remained unsatisfied. It was Winant the
humanitarian who walked the war-demol-
ished streets of London anonymously ex-
tending help to those direct victims of bomb-
ing.
Even after his recent retirement, Winant
could not rest. That he keenly felt the
demands of peace, as he had those of
war, was demonstrated in his last address:
"I'd like to put a question to you. Are you
doing as much for peace as you did for
this country and civilization in the days - of
war? I'm not.
"And yet," he continued, "I believe
that if we don't treat peace as seriously as
we did war we'll never enjoy it-perma-
nent peace on earth."
It is indeed tragic that John G. Winant,
so obviously handicapped by failing health
and deeply hurt by the uncertainty of the
peace as he delivered his last address, has
deprived his country and the world of the
vision and spirit of a truly great statesman.
-Robert C. White.

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DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN__I

(Continued from Page 3)
equation for lineargmechanical.
systems with damping.
Biological Chemistry Seminar:
Fri., Nov. 7, 4 p.m., Rm. 319, W.
Medical Bldg. Subject: "The Am-
ino Acid Content of Biological
Fluids and Tissues." All interest-
ed are invited.
Seminar in Engineering Mechan-
ics:
The Engineering Mechanics De-
partment is sponsoring a series of
discussions on applied mechanics.
Next seminar, 4 p.m., Wed., Nov. 5,
Rm. 311, W. Engineering Bldg.
Prof. Van den Broek will present,
"The Ductile Equilibrium Column
Formula."
Seminar on Stochastic Proc-
esses: Wed., Nov. 5, 7:15 p.m., Rm.
3001 Angell Hall. Prof. C. L. Dolph
will speak on Generalized Har-
monic Analysis.
Astronomical C-lloquium, No-
vember 7, 1947, 4:00 p.m., Ob-
servatory.
Speaker: Dr. Keith Pierce. Ti-
tle: Photographic and Photoelec-
tric Determination of Line Pro-
files.
Exhibition
"Natural History Studies at the
Edwin S. George Reserve, Uni-
versity of Michigan," through
December, Museums Bldg. Ro-
tunda.
Events Today
Radio Progran:
2:30-2:45 p.m., WKAR (870
Kc.), English Series.
2:45-2:55 p.m., WKAR (870
Kc.), University of Michigan
Chorus.
4:00-4:15 p.m., WPAG (1050
Kc.), Modern Painting Series-
Henry Matisse-Dr. Carl D. Shep-
pard.
Two-day Conference, "Toward
World Understanding" with which
the Eighteenth Annual Parent Ed-
ucation Institute has been amal-
gamated, opens at 9:15 a.m., Wed.,
Nov. 5, Rackham Lecture Hall.
Program includes addresses by
such nationally known persons as
Eduard C. Lindeman, Emily Taft
Douglas, Mark Starr, Ernest M.
Ligon, Ralph A. Sawyer and
James K. Pollock and ten group
discussions to be led by Starr, Lig-
on, Harry A. Overstreet and dis-
tinguished members of the Uni-
versity faculties. The Conference
is sponsored by the University Ex-
tension Service and the American
Association of University Women,
Michigan Congress of Parents and
Teachers, League of Women Vot-
ers, Women's Action Committee
for Lasting Peace, Foreign Policy
Association and World Study
Council.
Members of the University staff
listed in the University Directory
and their spouses may attend the
Conference without payment of
fees but will have to register at
the desk in the lobby to receive the
badge which gives admittance to
the sessions. This applies also to
University students.
Reception for Mile Helene Bar-
land. The Cercle Francais and the

Department of Romance Langu-
ages will give a reception, immed-
iately after her lecture today
for Mlle Helene Barland, of the
French Cultural Mission to the
United States. The reception will
be held in the West Conference
Room, Rackham Bldg. All regu-
lar members of the Club are cor-
dially invited.
U. of M. Section of the Ameri-
can Chemical Society: Meeting,
4:15 p.m., Rm. 151, Chem-
istry Bldg. Dr. Lothar Meyer of
the Institute for the Study of
Metals, University of Chicago, will
speak on "The Properties of He-
lium II." The public is invited.
Pi Tau Pi Sigma, National.
Signal Corp. Honorary Frater-
nity: Meeting, 303 W. Engineering
Annex at 1700 hours.
Alpha Kappa Delta: Initiation
meeting, 7:30 p.m. at the home of
Dr. A. E. Wood, 3 Harvard Place.
Speaker: Dr. A. M. Lee, Chairman
of Sociology Department, Wayne
University. Subject: "Race Ten-
sions in Detroit."
Sigma Gamma Epsilon: Meet-
ing, 12 noon, Rm. 3056, Natural
Science Bldg. Mr. John Branch
will speak on "The Areal Geology
of Wichita and Greeley Counties,
Kansas."
Delta Sigma Pi, professional
Business Administration frater-
nity: Business meeting, 7:30
p.m., Rm. 110, Tappan Hall.
Pledges meet in the same room at
7 p.m.
Wolverine Club: Meeting, 7 p.m.,
Michigan Union. Attendance will
be taken. Group picture for En-
sian will be taken and plans for
the R-B Ball will be discussed.
Student Branch of the Society
of Automotive Engineers: Meeting,
7:30 p.m., Rm. 304, Michigan Un-
ion. Prof. W. E. Lay of the De-
partment of Mechanical Engineer-
ing, will speak on the subject,
"How to Sit," in which he will dis-
cuss the problems of riding com-
fort in motor vehicles. All engi-
neers are cordially invited.
West Quad Radio Club W8ZSQ:
Meeting, 7:30 p.m., Club room,
Williams House, 5th floor. Busi-
ness: further work on the rotary
beam tower.
A.S.M.E.: Open meeting, 7:30
p.m. , Rm. 311 W. Engineering
Bldg. Mr. W. L. Cisler, Chief
Engr. of Power Plants, De
troit Edison Co., will speak on the
subject, "Looking Ahead," in
which he will discuss the advan-
tages of an engineering education.
Modern Poetry Club: 8
p.m., Rm. 3217, Angell Hall. The
discussion of Rilke's poetry will
continue.
U. of M. Flying Club: Open
meeting, 7:30 p.m., Rm. 1042, E.
Engineering Bldg. Members are
requested to attend.
Scabbard and Blade: Meeting,
7:30 p.m., Rm. 100, ROTC HDQS.
Sociedad Hispanica: Meet in
Rm. 305, Michigan Union,
8 p.m. All members are urged to be

EDITOR'S NOTE: Because The Daily
prints every letter to the editor re-
ceived (which is signed, 300 words
or less in length, and in good taste)
we remind our readers that the views
expressed in letters are those of the
writers only. Letters of more than
300 words are shortened, printed or
omittedatthe discretion of the edi-
torial director.
" " r
Excellent Movie
To the Editor:
WE'D LIKE TO recommend an
excellent movie that is being
shown on campus today. It is one
that we believe all students should
see if they feel a responsibility
for their own futures. The movie,
"Seeds of Destiny," although it
is an Academy Award picture, has
been banned from public theatres
because it was thought to be too
realistic for the American public.
We Americans are too lily-white
to see a small child stare out at
us who is badly deformed from
malnutrition. But it seems to us
that if we are concerned with our
own destinies or the destiny of our
families, then the future leaders
of Europe are also our concern.
That's why we feel it is important
to see this film. What happens in
Europe now is our own responsi-
bility. Our futuredepends upon
them. It is short, only twenty min-
utes long, but it is worth taking
a little extra time to see.
-M. L. Robinson.
-B. L. Zwemer.
* * *
Committee Probe
To the Editor:
T HE EDITORIAL PAGE of F3at-
urday's Daily was "loded"
with criticism of the Houe Un-
American Activities Cornmittee,
calling it "un-American, "Com-
munistic," "unconstitutional," and
"indecent." To me, these labels
appear unfair for a zongressional
committee that is trying to wake
up the American people.
Is it wrong for. the government
to keep on eye (in Communism in
this country? 7f the government
doesn't, who Will? And where in
the United States could the Com-
munists do more damage than
through HollywooddCommunist
control of Hollywood would be a
better propaganda agency for
Moscow than an army of a mil-
lion 'ealous "red" missionaries
throughout the United States. This
comrittee is not infringing on the
civil, rights of Americans-it is
trying to protect those rights!
With Communism spreading as
rapidly as it is today, a check
is needed for the key positions of
this nation. This committee is not
condemning men on suspicion or
imprisoning men on hearsay-they
are simply asking them if the are
Communists! Are we so ashamed
of our country that we are afraid
to declare we are Americans?
Persons investigated by the Un-
-American Committee have nothing
to fear unless they are Commu-
nists. If they are, do we want to
protect them by shouting-"civil
rights"? It seems to me that too
many people are "taken in" by the
unfavorable glamor Hollywood is
throwing on this investigation. It's
about time the government puts
their finger on Stalin's agents in
this country. We would not be so
anxious to shout "civil rights" if
another war came -and the United

F RED WARING'S concert Satur-
day night was very enjoyable.
Fred Waring's contribution as
master of ceremonies was lively
and enjoyable, until he requested
selections from the audience.
A few sincere, democratic voices
urged that "Meadowland," a Rus-
sian marching song, be rendered.
Unexpectedly, this request seemed
the signal for a general denuncia-
tion= of the Russians by Mr. War-
ing, who felt that because the Rus-
sians did not play any of our
marching songs and were not will-
mng to come over to our way of
thinking, he would not play any of
theirs.
Those were the words, in effect,
of a man whose musical arrange-
ments were aesthetically enjoyed
by innumerable people, whose ar-
rangement of "Meadowland" is
loved, as art, by an equal num-
ber.
By t, in accord with current
prejudice and criticism against
tlhe Russian people and their gov-
ernment, Mr. Waring injected per-
sonal invectives to multiply dis-
trust and hate, which we con-
sidered not only detrimental to
harmonious international relation-
ships but a damnable discrimina-
tion against the world of art.
Art in its highest sense is creat-
ed for universal application and
appreciation. It knows no boun-
daries; it is the expression of an
aesthetic experience to be shared
with all men, regardless of race,
creed, color or political affiliation.
Shall we, on the basis of Mr.
Waring's inappropriate move, re-
fuse to accept music by Wagner or
an opera like "Madame Butterfly,"
Sbecause we object to their polit-
ical background, or because they
are tinted with some color that
unthinking men employ to incite
mob hysteria?
Paradoxically, he employed the
same suppressive methods that our
way of life so ardently opposes.
Concurrent with recent Congres-
sional investigations, such tactics:
infringe upon and abrogate the
right to a free association of ideas
in politics as well as in music.
Art and music must not be
fwedded with the cause of hate.
t Love and freedom of expression
r are the best mendicants for a
world sick with nationalistic and
bigoted disorders.
-William G. T. Yates, Jr.
-Wayne 0. Pangborn.
* * *

Waring Concert
To the Editor:

.a .. ,..
- '

4

States was "sold out" internally,
would we?
If we are Americans, let us be
proud to admit it-to anyone. If
we are not, the United States is
no place for us!
-John Grzybowski.
, , ,*

present. Ensian picture will be
taken at 8 p.m.
Beginners conversation group,
Sociedad Hispanica: Meet at
7 p.m., Michigan Union.
Roger Williams Guild: Weekly
"chat," 4-5:30& p.m., Guild House.
Special guests: students from the
Speech Clinic.
Michigan Dames Book Group:
8 p.m., Kalamazoo Room, Michi-
gan League. Mrs. Miner Crary, of
Jackson, will discuss "On Judging
Books," by Francis Hackett.
Michigan Dames Clef Club
Chorus meets at 8 p.m. in the Ann
Arbor High School cafeteria. Mrs.
Grover Wirick is in charge.
Coming Events
George E. Bean, City Manager
of Pontiac, will address the Michi-
gan chapter of the American So-
ciety for Public Administration at
a social seminar at 8 p.m., Thurs.,
Nov. 6, West Conference Room,
Rackham Bldg. Students of public
administration are invited.
Theta Sigma Phi, honorary
journalism sorority: Mrs. Helen
Brady Mann, Society Editor of the
Ann Arbor News, will speak on,
"The Practical Problems of Socie-
ty Editing," at 7:30 p.m., Thurs.,
Nov. 6, Henderson Room, Michi-
gan League. All interested women
cordially invited.
International Center weekly tea
4:30-5:30 p.m., Thurs. Nov. 6.

Soviet 'Achievement
To the Editor:
HAVING TRANSFERRED from
a small, liberal college in New
England, I found the rather ex-
treme mental conduct of the local
"liberals with a vengeance" some-
what surprising. In hopes of keep-
ing them from cutting their own
throats with their enthusiasm, I
offer the following selection from
the New York Times, as presented
on the back cover of the current
"Book-of-the-Month Club News."
It is entitled "Soviet Russia's Most
Remarkable Achievement."
"When the full story of the Rus-
sian Communist Government can
be told, it may very well appear
that the most remarkable achieve-
ment of the regime, all things con-
sidered, was its propaganda and
censorship. Nothing quite like
these has ever been seen before;
they are new things under the,
sun which has seen political con-
stitutions without number and so-
cial experiments of every sort....
The point is made with great
emphasis by the late H. A. L. Fish-
er, liberal British historian with
a vision ranging over all European
civilization. In "A History of Eu-
rope," published shortly before
the outbreak of the Second World
War, he states the case in one
striking paragraph: "Yet there is
this novelty in the Soviet system.
A living religion is enforced by
the massed large-scale propaganda
of a scientific age, by machine
guns and airplanes, telephone and
telegraph, printing press and film,
broadcasting and the regimenta-
tion of all the arts. A hundred and
sixty million human, souls are by
a gigantic system of governmental
pressure hermetically sealed
against the invasion of unwelcome
truth. All previous experiments
in tyranny recorded in human an-
nals pale beside this colossal
achievement." The interesting
point here is that Soviet propa-
ganda and censorship are regarded
as an experiment in tyranny. For
thirty years there has been "great
argument about it and about" just
what kind of experiment the So-
viet system represepted. Broad-
minded liberals, who themselves
wouldn't care for Communism or
even socialism, have urged a tol-

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BARNABY:..

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