THE MICHIGAN DAILY
WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 13, 1946
PAGE FOUR WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 13, 1946
Atomic Energy Commission,
ME duties of the new Atomic Energy Com-
mission, headed by former TVA chief David
E. Lilienthal, have been announced. They can
be divided into three main classes: those designed
strictly for defensive precautions against irre-
sponsible exploitation and foreign aggression;
offensive preparations against potential enemies;
and powers intended to further the peacetime
uses of atomic power.
The first class of duties includes the exclusive
ownership and operation of (a) all facilities for
making atomic energy-producing, except such
private plants as it may license, and (b) all such
raw material which it considers capable of re-
leasing "substantial quantities" of atomic en-
ergy-as well as patents for making or using
it, giving compensation for all now in private
ownership. The conduct of its own research and
prospecting for new sources, licensing indepen-
dent research and manufacture of atomic energy-
using devices, and control of the dissemination
of secret information also come under this
head. The only criticism relating to any of these
far-reaching powers has been made by some nu-
clear physicists and other scientists, concerning
the extreme penalty-death-which is provided
for publication of material the Commission con-
siders secret. 2 Many believe this will have a crip-
pling effect on atomic research, since scientists
will be unwilling innocently to subject themselves
to the danger of prosecution under this section.
However, it would seem that some workable solu-
tion could be found as actual problems arise.
Not all contingencies can possibly be provided
for beforehand in any law. In this case freedom
of scientific research must be balanced with con-
siderations of ultimate public safety.
The second group of powers consists of the
manufacture of atomic bombs and conduct of
military research. Of course, this can be viewed
as offensive defense, but it is definitely of an
offensive color. The continuance of atomic war-
fare research cannot be questioned-it is only a
reasonable security measure which any country
would be derelict in the present state of world
politics not to pursue. However, the manufacture
of atomic bombs is another matter, if it means
that they are still-being made. This may not be
so, but the facts should be made known. Our
war's-end stockpile is causing enough foreign
concern and distrust as it is, without such feel-
ings being unnecessarily aggravated. It ill suits
us' to leave ourselves open to the charge of
"blackmail" put forward by the Russians re-
cently. There must be-an atmosphere of friend-
liness and mutual trust if any international so-
lution of the atomic control problem is to be
found. And it cannot be questioned that the ef-
ficient functioning of our Atomic Energy Com-
mission will be of little value o us unless such
a world is reached.
Distribution of atomic material for research
and medical use, and issuance of reports on in-
dustrial and commercial developments in this
field make up the third category of the Commis-
sion's powers to promote peacetime uses of
atomic energy. The first transfer of fissionable
material for medicinal purposes occurred sev-
eral weeks ago. its importance in this field will
JN A Daily editorial Sunday, Louis P. Lochner,
Associated Press foreign correspondenct in
Germany for 22 years and reporter at the Nuern-
berg Trial, was criticized concerning a state-
ment on the legal basis for the trial.
The editorial stated that "Nothing could be
more far fetched than Mr. Lochner's statement
here Thursday to the effect that the so-called
Kellogg-Briand Pact served as a basis of the
war crimes trials."
First of all, Mr. Lochner was not expressing his
own opinion on this point. He was explaining
the stand taken by the International Military
Tribunal in regard to several counts in the in-
dictment of Nazi war criminals.
Secondly, the fact remains that the Kellogg-
Briand Pact (the Pact of Paris) has definitely
been cited by Justice Robert H. Jackson as a
basis for the trial in his Report to the President
on the Trial of War Criminals in June, 1945. In
a statement on the legal position of the United
States, Justice Jackson said:
"The reestablishment of the principle of un-
justifiable war is traceable in many steps.
One of the most significant is the Kellogg-
Briand Pact of 1928, by which Germany, Italy
and Japan, in common with ourselves and
practically all nations of the world, renounced
war as an instrument of national policy,
bound themselves to seek the settlement of dis-
putes only by pacific means, and condemned
recourse to war for the solution of international
It has been pointed out by many that a strong-
er basis for the trials could have been used;
Mr. Lochner himself advocated the use of Nazi
law to try the criminals.
However, the fact remains that no nation
has ever repudiated the Pact of Paris and
that the International Military Tribunal has
named violation of this agreement as one of
the bases on which it indicted, tried and con-
victed 11 Nazi war criminals. These facts can-
not be classed as "far fetched."
It is not a question of whether or not viola-
tion of the Kellogg-Briand Pact forms a strong,
weak, valid or invalid basis for the charges-
this has been debated by experts in interna-
tional law ever since the trial's inception-the
undeniable fact remains that it is a basis.
-Phyllis L. Kaye
What Russia Could Do
ITWILL probably be within the capacity of
'Pimi, +tn omvrrun the Middle East. against
continuously increase. The potential value of
this new type of energy in commerce and in-
dustry cannot be overestimated, though there
has been some argument as to how soon this will
The most widely expressed popular concern
regarding the Commission has been that it be
staffed by the most competent men available.
President Truman's choice of Mr. Lilienthal
was particularly fortunate, for his manage-
ment of the controversial TVA in the fact of
very strong partisan political and economic
pressures has won him the highest respect and
admiration of even some critics of such gov-
ernment projects. With a staff of such a
caliber, we can all be confident that the pub-
lic interest will be served to the full.
It might seem a bit incongruous for this coun-
try, coincident with the complete relaxation of
stringent war-time controls, to be setting up an
agency possessing such absolute authority in its
field, were not the unparalleled and castastrophic
potentialities of atomic warfare so generally
realized as compelling its existence in order to
provide some assurance for the survival of our
people. That attacks on the board's powers have
been relatively few shows the extent of universal
acceptance of its necessity. However, the demo-
cratic prerogative, the duty of close scrutiny of
its actions must continually be exercised by
every thinking citizen.
£Ceteri o dM, cfjto,.
Answer to Potter
To the Editor:
I SHOULD like first to compliment the "Reds"
who plan the Daily editorial columns for their
unbolshevik-like conduct in presenting opposing
views on last Tuesday's election.
The ideas expressed by Mr. Robert Potter de-
serve attention and comment. Agreed that the
divergent forces that make up the Democrats
are presently divided and devoid of political
life, does it not follow that the Republicans, cog-
nizant of this, did not bring forth any positive
program but were content to be carried into
office on an anti basis.
The writer's redundant use of such trite to the
point of exhaustion phrases as "free enterprise,"
"individual liberty" and "American Way" fall
upon the ears of, small businessmen who know
how free and unfettered is competition with
A & P, U. S. Steel, GM, Swift, Armour and Cuda-
hy and the like. These platitudes fall upon the
ears of workers who know how much "individual
liberty" they need to stand in bread lines. There
has not been the cry "I deserve a living and
someone is going to give it to me," but rather,
"I deserve a chance to make a decent living."
The author shows a keen sense of humor when
he makes repeated reference to the "young, vig-
orous movement" and "re-invigorated Republi-
can party." Now the concept of young, bright
men replacing a group of tired, confused and
grafting oldsters is a traditional one and oft
times used by the party out of power. How, how-
ever, does it apply here. Who's vigorous, 62 year
old Arthur Vandenberg? Who's been re-invig-
orated, reactionary Robert Taft? Who's young,
the next speaker of the house, that babe in
swattling, clothes, Joe Martin? He's 62. Or does
Potter refer to still powerful Herbie Hoover,
born August 10, 1874. How old does that make
him? Could Potter be referring to that young
muscle-flexer, new National GOP chairman, J.
Carroll Reece, 57?
Now just who does Potter think he's kidding?
Further entrenched by its negative triumph the
Republican old guard with its show pieces of
youth, dominated Dewey and watched Warren
will have no part of true youth and progress. Ob
vious it is that not the age of a president mat-
ters but the age of the men around him. Witness
the young men of the New Deal. We elect not
only a president but a government. These Re-
publican children of the 19th century will run
the party and the nation. Can you not picture
them saying to their younger and governmentally
newer associates: "We did the long sleep" under
Roosevelt. It is now our turn to be top dog."
Witness their suppression of the one new force
in the party, Harold Stassen and his group in-
cluding Bartley Grum and Russell Davenport.
Supporters of the ex-governor were not even al-
lowed to put their candidate's name in nomina-
tion at the Chicago convention two years ago.
Stassen was denied a voice in the selection of
the GOP national chairman last spring, only
strict conformists being heard.
No, Potter, it's the same old tune sung to dif-
ferent but synonomous lyrics, and "Happy Days
Aren't Here Again."
-Robert Greene, '49 L
Below the Bel(
To the Editor:
E. E. Ellis' pre-election smear attack on Sen.
Vandenberg has been eloquently answered by
the voters of Michigan.
The editors of The Daily, and Mr. Ellis may
console themselves, however, in the knowledge
that by waiting until election eve to swing their
below the belt punch, they have acted in the
finest and best New Deal tradition.
-Lewis W. Combest, '49 Law
MAN TO MAN:
Credit to Truman
By HAROLD L. TCKES
PRESIDENT TRUMAN is entitled to great
credit for an Atomic Energy Commission
composed of civilians. It is assumed that Lewis
L. Strauss, who apparently owes his appointment
to Secretary Forrestal and who was a Rear Ad-
miral in the Naval Reserve, is at heart a civilian.
However, it isn't wise to be so uncritical of the
Commission's personalities as some of the news-
papers have shown a disposition to be.
It would have been better if there had been a
less romantic acclaim of Mr. Lilienthal. Mr. Lil-
ienthal thinks so highly of himself that it is
not well for him to take over the important du-
ties that have been assigned to him with any idea
of his own indispensability. Mr. Lilienthal has
been quoted as saying that he accepted his new
post "with deep humility." Bunk! Mr. Lilienthal
is not capable of "deep humility" except when
he contehplates the reflection in a mirror of
Mr. Lilienthal himself. His statement that he
had "accepted" this job should be analyzed.
This implies that he means that the job was
pressed upon him by the President and that he
"accepted" it out of a high sense of duty. Non-
sense! The fact is that Mr. Lilienthal ardently
pursued his maiden and impetuously wooed her
with a single-minded purpose that would not
take "no" for an answer.
The announcement of the members of the
Atomic Energy Commission was made of a Mon-
day. It happens that this commission will have
to operate almost exclusively in the field of in-
ternational affairs. Yet, strangely enough, Sec-
retary of State Byrnes did not know who were
to be appointed until the preceding Saturday
night while Mr. Bernard M. Baruch, who had
been representing America on the Atomic Een-
ergy Commission, had a scant forty minutes' no-
tice. Even then Mr. Byrnes' advice was not
asked. He was merely told of the appointment
of Mr. Lilienthal which may have been pleasing
to Mr. Henry A. Wallace, but certainly not to
It is important for the country to know that
Secretary Byrnes did not suggest the "hum-
ble" Mr. Lilienthal for this job. From Paris
le had strongly recommended to the President
the appointment of Senator Robert M. LaFol-
lette, Jr., as chairman. This had been sup-
ported by Senator Arthur H. Vandenberg and
was renewed upon the return from the Paris
Conference of Secretary Byrnes and Sena-
Mr. Lilienthal is a man of ability and great
energy, the latter quality being particularly in
evidence when his political ambitions are in-
volved. Now ambitions, when kept under proper
restraint, are a good thing. But Mr. Lilienthal's
public career demonstrates that, in the pursuit
of an ambition, he will cut corners and will even
build a fire behind his superior, the President.
Mr. Lilienthal's associates, who seem to be
better than average, ought to undertake their
duties with a firm determination to be really
functioning members of the Commission. If
they do not, they will find Chairman Lilienthal
dominating and submerging them.
The members of the Atomic Eenergy Commis-
siorn will find Mr. Lilienthal entirely willing to
arrogate to himself all of their powers and re-
sponsibilities. If they permit it, he will dominate
the show. He will find it difficult, after so many
years of successful intrigue and control of the
TVA Board, to exercise a proper self-restraint
that will recognize the position and dignity of
his associates. If Mr. Lilienthal should attempt
to dominate the Commission, as he did the TVA
Board, he should be put in his proper place and
(Copyright, 1946, N.Y. Post Syndicate)
LAST week foreign students representing vari-
ous national groups on campus formed the
International Students Committee for the pur-
pose of presenting their cultures to the student
body more effectively.
President Ruthven told the University Press
Club convention, also last week, that "The op-
portunity to mingle and become acquainted with
people from other parts of the United States
and the world is an important educational value."
Discussing the 'kind of students to be ac-
cepted," by the University, President Ruthven
said that 35 per cent of the student body should
be composed of people from outside Michigan,
including five per cent from foreign countries.
There are now approximately 400 foreign stu-
dents attending the University. These students
make up about 2 per cent of the student body.
Assuming that the above policy is put into opera-
tion, the foreign student group on the campus
could be expected to double in size.
An organization of foreign students on the
campus could be an important instrument for
fostering understanding between foreign and
American student groups. Particularly if the for-
eign student group on the campus can be ex-
pected to increase, a well-organized International
Students Committee could be effective in inte-
grating foreign students into the student body.
Efforts of a world organization for interna-
tional understanding cannot be expected to suc-
ceed without the support of individuals of dif-
ferent nations who understand each other. The
opportunity is here for developing understand-
ing between nations on a' small scale. Any or-
ganization which can bring students of different
nationalities closer together will perform a
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"Baw-w-w-w ! !"
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
(Continued from Page 3)
Nelson as speakers will be presented.
The public is invited.
Kappa, Michigan Chapter of Delta
Phi Epsilon, First Professional For-
eign Service Fraternity, invites all
students interested in foreign service
or trade to attend a smoker at the
Union tonight at 7:30. There will be
an informal discussion of these top-
ics pertinent to the present world
Alpha Kappa Psi, professional bus-
iness fraternity, will have a group
picture taken for the 'Ensian at the
League at 9:30 tonight. All members
please be present.
Xi Chapter of Delta Sigma Pi, pro-
fessional Business Administration
fraternity, will meet at 7:30 tonight
in Rm. 304, Union.
University Chapter of AVC meet-
ing at 7:30 tonight, Michigan Union,
Dr. Charles H. Peake will speak
informally on the AVC and veter-
The University Chapter of AVC
will sponsor a Record Hop at the
League Ballroom from 2:00 to 5:00
today. All persons are cordially in-
Student Branch of the American
Pharmaceutical Association will meet
at 7:30 tonight in the E. Conference
Room, Rackham Buldg. A discussion
on the relative merits of a chain
type Pharmacy as opposed to a pri-
vate enterprise will compose the pro-
A.I.M.E. meeting for election of
officers at 4:00 today in Rm. 3201
E. Engineering. All undergraduate
and graduate METS invited.
The Romance Language Journal
Club will meet at 4:15 today at
the Clemens Library. Dr. Ran-
dolph G. Adams will give an illus-
trated lecture on "The French Pe-
riod in Michigan as depicted and re-
vealed in the graphic arts." A short
reception for graduate students will
Debaters: There will be an impor-
tant meeting at 7:30 tonight in Rm.
225 Angell Hall.
The Michiganensian picture of the
Sociead Hispanica will be taken at
8:30 tonight in the League. (See bul-
letin board in lobby.) All members
please be present.
The Roger Williams Guild will
have as guest of honor at the Mid-
Week Fellowship Miss Lexie Ferrell,
former Danforth Fellow now em-
ployed by the Northern Baptist Con-
vention. From 4 to 6 o'clock at the
All varsity letter-winners: There
will be a meeting of the "M" Club
tonight at 7:15 in the Michigan Un-
ion(see bulletin board for room num-
ber). All letter-winners on campus
are cordially invited.
Michigan Chapter AAUP - The
next meeting will be Thursday, Nov.
114, when Prof. Marvin L. Niehuss,
Vice-President of the University, will
speak on legislative issues of impor-
tance to the University. This is an
open meeting to which all members
of the faculty are cordially invited.
Join Union Cafeteria line at 6:15 (or
earlier) and take trays to the Facul-
ty Club lunchroom.
Institute of Public Administration
students: There will be a social sem-
inar at 8:00 p.m., Thurs., Nov. 14,
in the E. Conference Room, Rack-
ham Bldg. Mr. William F. Doyle,
manager of the Michigan Chain
Stores Bureau, will be the speaker.
Your attendance is requested.
Research 'Club meeting at 8:00 p.
in., Wed., Nov. 20, in the Rackham
James K. Pollock, "The Laenderrat
-An Aspect of the American Oc-
cupation of Germany," and Prof.
Laurence C. Stuart, "Geographical
Comments on the Herpetological
Fauna of AetaVera Paz, Guatemala."
The Geological Journal Club will
meet in Rm. 3055, Natural Science
Bldg., at noon Fri., Nov. 15. Under
the auspices of the Department of
Mineralogy, Dr. Tom F. W. Barth,
Professor of Geochemistry at the
University of Chicago, formerly Di-
rector, Mineralogical Institute, Oslo,
Norway, will talk on "Unorthodox
Meditations on Metamorphism." Tea
will be served; ,bring your own sand-
Economics Club meeting at 8:00 p.
in., Mon., Nov. 18, in the Rackham
Amphitheatre. "Recent Develop-
ments in Taxation in Michigan" by
Prof. Robert S. Ford. Staff members
Department of Economics and School
of Business and Graduate students
Sigma Gamma Epsilon (Profes-
sional Geology Fraternity) will meet
from 12:00 noon to 1:00 p.m., Thurs.,
Nov. 14, in Rm. 3055 Natural Science
Bldg. Bring your own sandwiches,
The Regular Thursday Evening
Concert sponsored by the Graduate
School will include Beethoven's
Quartet in C Major, Franck's Sym-
phonic Variations, Brahms' Varia-
tions on a Theme of Haydn, and
Schubert's Symphony in B fiat Ma-
jor. All graduates are cordially in-
The Modern Poetry Club will meet
Thursday in Rm. 323, Union, at 7:15
p.m. Dr. Greenhut will lead a dis-
cussion of two of Shakespeare's son-
nets and Andrew Marvell's "To his
The Sociedad Hispanica will hold
a meeting Thurs., Nov. 14, at 8:00
p.m. in the International Center. All
members are cordially invited to at-
tend and bring friends interested in
joining the club. Refreshments.
The Kappa Nu Fraternity will
meet Thursday evening at 7:30 in
Rm. 321 of the Union.
Rehearsal of the Gilbert and Sul-
livan Society Thursday evening at
7:00 in the League. All members are
requested to attend.
The Graduate Outing Club is spon-
soring a class in square-dancing
Thurs., Nov. 14, at 8:00 p.m. in the
Women's Athletic Bldg. All inter-
ested are invited. A small fee wil
B'nai B'rith Hillel 'Foundation i
sponsoring an Inter-Faith Supperna
Sun., Nov. 17, at 5:30 at the Founda-
tion. The topic for discussion wil
I'D RATHER BE RIGHT:
Of f the Nose
By SAMUEL GRAFTON
There are at least two polls which
did not hit it quite on the nose in pre-
dicting the outcome of last week's
election in New York State. The Gal-
lup Pll camne perhaps within a toler-
able margin for error in indicating
that Mr. Dewey would receive 61
per cent of the State vote; he actually
drew only 56.9 per cent. The New
York Daily News straw vote forecast
that Dewey would have 66.1 per cent,
a finding more than nine points off.
Why were both attempts at sounding
the voter so far over on the Dewey
side? it seems to me that one possi-
ble reason lies in the very nature of
the campaign; and I wonder whether
there weren't at least some voters
who were against Dewey but who were
rather afraid to say so, even under
conditions of privacy, in scientific
sampling and straw voting.
For there was a certain bullying
note in the campaign, not as con-
ducted by Mr. Dewey, but in the
hands of some of his journalistic sup-
porters and friends. The heavy argu-
ments that the other side was the
"red" side, that it was in some way
the un-American side, that Demo-
crats are only Communists who
shave, had in them, I think, a bit of
terror-creating quality. More than
one timid soul, after reading a few
acres of this stuff, might be a little
fearful about confessing, even in
private, thathe was linked with such
dreadful creatures and tendencies.
Definitely, the line taken by quite
a few speciialists in insult, was to pic-
ture the election, not as a contest
between rival groups of Americans
offering alternate programs on an
equal basis, but as a contest between
Americans of the first class and
Americans of the second class, a fight
between patriots on one hand, and
spokesmen for nameless heresies and
intolerable treasons on the other.
So much for the post-mortem; but
the real point is that this kind of
bullying pressure continues. Mr. Tru-
man is being advised,for example, by
several deep thinkers and common
scolds, that he ought now to join with
conservatives in his own party, with
men who think like Republicans, to
make an effective Democratic opposi-
tion in Congress. It is not customary
for the opposition to be a facsimile of
that which it opposes; and here,
again, we have that same feeling, that
liberalism is infra dig, that it is not
even on the allowable roster of isms,
that it is intellectually out of bounds,
queer, tainted stuff, and that a real
American's choice is between con-
servatism and conservatism.
That is the hex approach, no bet-
ter; mingled, as I say, with a kind of
bullying social pressure which would
like to set up the doctrine that anyone
who chooses the liberal course in
politics takes a station somewhere
between the man who eats peas with
his knife, and the man who would sell
out his country.
For liberals to yield to this non-
sense would be for them really to
betray this republic; for it would
mean that they would fail to exert
the pressure which brings about those
reasonable resultants of policy,
moderately satisfactory to all, which
alone make democratic life possible.
The great task of liberals today is to
divest themselves of those imaginary
torn pants and Jacobins' caps in
which conservatism has dressed them,
and to realize that they represent a
tendency which is both respectable
and historical and quite as old as the
(Copyright, 1946 N.Y. Post Syndicate)
FROM the outbreak of war in Eu-
rope until June 1946, retail prices
of goods and services used by mod-
erate-income families rose more rap-
idly in most large cities in the South
than the national average for large
cities in the United States.
-Monthly Labor Review
Edited and managed by students of the
University of Michigan under the author-
ity of the Board in Control of Student
Robert Goldman........Managing Editor
' Milton Freudenheim.....Editorial Director
Clayton Dickey.................City Editor
Mary Brush............Associate Editor
Ann Kutz.............Associate Editor
Paul Harsha:.............Associate Editor
Clark Baker..................Sports Editor
Des Howarth......Associate Sports Editor
Jack Martin......Associate Sports Editor
Joan Wilk.................Women's Editor
Lynne Ford......Associate Women's Editor
Robert E. Potter.......Business Manager
Evelyn Mills... Associate Business Manager
Janet Cor... . Associate Business Manager
Member of The Associated Press
The Associated Press is exclusively en-
-titled to the use for re-publication of all
1 news dispatches credited to it or otherwise
credited in this newspaper. All rights of
re-publication of all.other matters herein
Sare, also reserved.
Entered at the Post Office at Ann Arbor,
r Michigan, as second-class mail matter.
Subscription during the regular school
1 year by carrier, $5.00, by mail, $6.00.
On the other hand, there's the Stanley
Steamer- You may recall the furore it
~.sd when--ut R, n mnfatr. Your Pfer
3.P94096 TMt N..""', P. .
I I f II N~p , U~ . S.Par 0
Hmm. Not listed in the telephone book.
Neither is the Marmon. Or the Maxwell.
Or is it possible that there's
a more pertinent explanation?
Er ... One that hasn't occurred