THE -MICHIGAN DAILY
WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 6, 1946
ON WORLD AFFAIRS:
By EDGAR ANSEL MOWRER
Flushing. N. Y.
Nov. 5, 1946
THE most important item to be discussed
around the UN meeting is probably Ger-
many. It should come up before the Council of
Foreign Ministers fairly soon. Marshal Stalin's
recent re-affirmation of the Potsdam Agree-
ments finds American critics-among them the
President's representative, Ed Pauley.
Hrae is the opinion of a great expert James
Pollock, professor of political science at Uni-
versity of Michigan, and until recently the
closest civilian collaborator of General Lucius
Clay in reorganizing Germany's political life.
Mowrer-Jim, will Stalin's acceptance of the
economic and political unification of Germany
affect our chances of making that country per-
Pollock-If words mean anything, Stalin has
removed the more important of the two obsta-
cles to the implementation of the Potsdam
Agreements and of Secretary Byrnes' Stuttgart
speech. The remaining obstacle is France.
Mowrer-Isn't a centralized Germany dan-
Pollock-A central government doesn't nec-
essarily mean a centralized government. Our
policy is to promote a decentralized federal Ger-
imany with large powers remaining with the
states. Every modern state needs a central gov-
ernment, particularly Germany with its highly
Mowrer-Precisely-the same integrated and
efficient- economy that has enabled Germany
twice to ttack its neighbors,
Pollock-Not Germany's economy but the kind
of vicious people who got control of it and de-
based it, made Germany dangerous.
Mowrer-If you believe that, why limit Ger-
man industrial output at all?
Pollock-As an added element of security.
:talin, far from being worried over Germany's
productive capacity, proposes an increase-
something which many American and British
experts have thought necessary.
Mowrer-How can one advocate turning the
administration back to Germans before being
sure that their second conversion to democracy
Pollock-The Germans in our zone, al-
Ways under our control, have demonstrated
that they can administer their own services
better than anyone else. No one can be abso-
lutely sure yet that the Germans are converted
to democracy. But the signs are nearly all fa-
vorable. What would you have us do, convert
them to Communism or just do nothing?
Mowrer-What about Stalin's implied charge
that we Americans are coddling Nazis?
Pollock-Repetition of this charge is vicious
misrepresentation. The truth is, we are the only
power which has carried out a policy of com-
plete denazification. The Germans in our zone
enacted a denazification law which carried for-
Ward into German law and in German courts
the program we had ruthlessly applied, often to
Sign of Maturty:
Planning by Labor
LABOR UNIONS are usually looked upon as
trying to get something out of management
-be it higher pay, shorter hours, or better work-
ing conditions-and seldom if ever as contribut-
ing anything constructive to the problems of in-
dustry; indeed management almost universally
recoils at such a thought. Yet is it not a real
question whether such a stand ought not to be
considered favorably at a sign of maturation-
indicative of a wider and deeper perspective on
the part of labor, and therefore worthy of en-
couragement by industry, not to say the public?
The recent proposals and recommendations of
the International Woodworkers of America con-
vention, to be presented at the annual American
Forestry Congress this month, offer an interest-
ing and important example of this enlightened
type of thinking beginning to be adopted by for-
ward-looking responsible labor leaders. The of-
ficials of this organization secured the services
of top-notch foresters and land economists to
advise them on their program. The facts re-
vealed and general plan put forward are not
new to foresters and woodsmen, but are worth
the attention of the average citizen since they
concern so vital a public resource-our forests.
To quote from the report, "Basic wood indus-
tries are still wasting more wood than they use,
despite the expanding technology of wood utili-
zation which makes such waste inexcusable. Gen-
erations of misuse and neglect have reduced the
productivity of our forests to a point where gov-
ernment foresters estimate we are growing only
a third to one half as much wood as good man-
agement could produce.
"The time has come to stabilize the lumber in-
dustry-too long a migratory nature. Its workers
want permanent homes in permanent communi-
ties; this can be provided through government-
industry cooperation in applying the principles
of scientific production to insure sustained tim-
ber yields, in providing fire protection, and over-
all land use planning.
"Many thousands of sustaining jobs could be
provided through complete wood utilization by
manufacturing plastics, sugar, alcohol, yeast for
poultry and livestock feed, paper, dry ice, ash-
less fuel, fire-proof composition board, and fab-
This program can not be called "socialistic."
It does not call for public ownership of the
forests, but for cooperation between govern-
ment-state and national-in securing the
maximum use, protection and renewal of our
declining forest resources, and providing steady
emnovment and stable community life for a
our own administrative embarrassment. You
saw how Schacht, acquitted by the International
Tribunal, was immediately brought within the
jurisdiction of the German denazification law.
Mowrer-What does Stalin mean in insisting
that Germany must be more thoroughly democ-
Pollock-Russian use of the word democracy
is sometimes peculiar. I like to think he would
wish the extension of our American practice to
the other zones, including the Russian. We
have taken the lead in starting the Germans
back on the road to democracy.
Mowrer-The Germans were put on the road
to democracy, back in 1919-and just see where
it took them!
Pollock-This time we are taking no chances.
At the same time we are trying to re-build re-
sponsible German democracy, we are not let-
ting our guard down. The whole fabric of in-
ternational organization as well as American na-
tional policy rests on ultimate military sanc-
- Mowrer--But our so-called "guard" rests sole-
ly on continued allied unity.
Pollock-No. Germany is so largely destroyed.
Furthermore, we shall deprive Germany of East.
Prussia, Upper Silesia and the Saar.
Mowrer-But you still lean heavily on allied
unity. Suppose the big powers fall out?
Pollock-In that case the present division
will become permanent. East Germany will be-
come economically and politically geared to
Moscow, west Germany to the Democracies.
Then you will see us building up German
strength-just as you fear.
Mowrer-Why not go farther and deprive Ger-
many permanently of key power sources like the
Pollock-That would make it impossible for
the Germans to support themselves even on a
relatively low standard. We and the British
would have to continue pouring in hundreds of
millions each year.
Mowrer-I would gladly purchase immunity
from a Hitler at that price.
Pollock-I would pay more but it is not nec-
essary. If you go too far in cutting down what
the Germans need to support themselves, you
will prevent democracy, destroy peace and render
European recovery impossible. You cannot ex-
pect them to embrace democracy as against
Communism unless they are permitted to restore
a tolerable living standard with hope for inter-.
national acceptance once they have atoned.
Mowrer-My idea of the new order in Europe
is Germany last.
Pollock-Certainly. But unless Germany re-
covers, Europe will languish.
Mowrer-Even if this means preserving war
industries and international cartels?
Pollock-Certainly not. But you can't ex-
wect Germany to embrace democracy unless
they are permitted to restore a tolerable living
standard with hope for international accep-
tance when they have atoned.
Mowrer-You seem to feel that the danger of
Germany becoming a nest of discontent is great-
er than that of its again becoming a military
Pollock-We can avoid both dangers by a con-
tinuance of our present occupation policies-
provided we get Russian and French support.
Stalin has agreed. It's up to the French.
Mowrer-But if the Allies pull out of Germany
Pollock-Then we shall have failed. Mean-
while Stalin's conversion to the Byrnes view is
the finest possible preface to the coming meet-
ing to discuss the German peace.-
(Copyright 1946, Press Alliance Inc.
To Secure Peace
NEARLY one year ago I suggested in an edi-
torial in this paper that all efforts to secure
peace would lack realism- until a sincere pro-
gram of disarmament was undertaken. At that
time the idea met with - various pooh-poohs. I
was a dreamer. We had to maintain a large
Army, Navy and Air Force to counteract the
growing menace of Russia. It seems that we are,
becoming more adjusted to that "growing men-
ace." Even the Soviet Union apparently is, for
the first meaningful approach to disarmament
has been proposed by that nation's foreign min-
ister, V. M. Molotov.
Russia's proposals for world arms reduction
must certainly make many persons very unhap-
py. Even Mr. Churchill in his last red-herring
statement did not seem to maintain deep con-
fidence in describing the extent of Rusia's armed
forces and Soviet intentions concerning peace.
The less skeptical of our Western Bloc diplo-
mats seem more willing than Mr. Churchill
to examine the Russian proposals on the basis
of their merits. Primary among these is that
they inaugurate an attack on a circular evil.
The maintenance of a large armament pro-
gram by one nation forces other nations to
support similarly large programs. This is both
wasteful and dangerous: wasteful in thatit di-
verts productive resources from constructive
activities and dangerous in that it enhances
the tenseness of war fears.
The Russian proposals are not merely effu-
sions of hot air. It is interesting to note that the
Soviet national budget for the coming year has
cut armament appropriations far more drasti-
cally than our tentative budget does. True,
planned expenditures for scientific research, in-
cluding the development of atomic energy, are
increased, but there is no intrinsic threat in this,
especially since we have a considerable lead in
We must realize that the Molotov' proposals
are not perfect. Warren R. Austin, chief of the
U. S. delegation to the United Nations Assem-
bly, has pointed out the need for provision of
inspection and enforcement measures if limi-
tations are to be made effective. Such measures
would mean little if they were neglected as were
the restrictions on German armaments after the
first World War. However, such a program is
implied by the very nature of disarmament pro-
posals at this time of international instability
The U. N. Assembly has agreed to include the
disarmament question in its agenda. Russia, by
making the proposals, Britain, by moving that
they be put on the assembly's agenda, and the
United States, by recognizing the realistic ne-
cessity for enforcement measures-these Big
Three who will set the world's course for peace
or war have made manifes4 their willingness to
consider a true basis for peace. It now becomes
the responsibility of every diplomat, legislator
and citizen of every nation rationally to delib-
erate upon these proposals and to help produce
peace of mind in our time.
L .t46by V fa~d F.hr S,4c.. I-,
11 - a
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
After the body of Leon McAtee, a Negro tenant
farmer was found floating in a bayou one day
last July, five white men were charged with his
murder. Last week, at Lexington, their trial
was held. The judge freed two; the jury took
four minutes to acquit the others..
Publication in The Daily Official Bu-
letin is constructive notice to all mem--
bers of the University. Notices for the
Bulletin should be sent instypewritten
form to the office of the Assistant to the
President, Room 1021 Angell Hail, by 3:00
p.m on the day preceding /iablication
(11:00 a.m. Saturdays).
WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 6, 1946
VOL. EVII, No. 38
University Press Club of Michigan:
At the annual meeting of the organ-
ization, Nov. 7-9, the University will
be host to a large group of editors
and publishers. There is need for a
number of both single and double
rooms for Thursday and Friday
nights, Nov. 7 and 8. If faculty mem-
bers have such rooms available, they
are asked to call Campus Extension
485 any afternoon between 2:00 and
F. E. Robbins
Deadline for Veteran Book and
Supply Orders: Dec.- 20 has been
set as the final date for the ac-
ceptance of veteran book and supply
orders at the bookstores. All faculty
members are requested to anticipate
material needed through thet end of
the semester and authorize same on
or before Dec. 20. All back-orders
for material not in stock at the book-
stores will be canceled as of Dec. 20.
Bibliography of Publications (1943-
45) by members of the several facul-
ties of the University are available
for distribution in the office of the
Graduate1 School for those faculty
members who did not receive copies
through the mail.
-Dean R. A. Sawyer
Women students wishing to attend
the Ohio State University football
game are requested to file in the
Office of the Dean of Women a let-
ter from a parent or guardian giving
permission for the trip and stating
the mode of transportation. When
the letter has been filed, permission
slips will be issued for the informa-
tion of the house directors.
Varsity Glee Club: Both sections
will neet on their respective nights
at 715 in Room. 305 of the Union.
Willow Run Village
West Court Community Bldg.:
Wed., Nov. 6, 8:00 p. m., Wednes-
day Night Lecture Series, Glenn D.
McGeoch, Professor of the History
of Music, "How to Listen to a Sym-
phony."; 7:30-9:30 p. in., Rev. Mr.
Edwards, Religious Counseling,
Thurs., Nov. 7, 2:00 p. in., Openr
class in Prenatal and Infant Care,
MissRoth will speak on the subject
"Care of the Infant from Birth to
one year"; 8:00 p. m. Extension
Class in Psychology; 8:00 p. m.,
Sewing Club; 8:00 p. in., Bridge Ses-
Fri., Nov. 8, 8:00 p. in., Classical
Sat., Nov. 9, 8:00-11:30 p. in.,
Dance, Refreshments, Bridge.
University Lecture: Dr. Erwin Pan-
ofsky, Professor of history of art in
the Institute of Advanced Studies,
Princeton, N.J., will lecture at 4:15
today in the Rackham Amphitheatre
under the auspices of the Depart-
eL/etteri 'to the 6kt0N
ment of Fine Arts His subject will
be "Et in Arcadia Ego," The public+
is cordially invited.
"The Nuremberg Trial" will be the
subject of Louis P. Lochner's lecture
tomorrow evening in Hill Auditor-
ium. Mr. Lochner, for over twenty
years one of our leading journalists
in Germany, recently returned to
that country to study conditions and
cover the trial of the Nazi war crim-
inals. Tickets for his lecture may
be purchased today and tomorrow at
the Auditorium box office, which is
open today from 10-1, 2-5 and to-
morrow from 10-1, 2-8:30.7
Operation Crossroads: Due to the
demand for tickets for the lecture
by Dean Sawyer, "Operations Cross-
roads," the only seats now available
are in the side sections. No tickets
are necessary for these seats.
The lecture will be at 8:00 p.m.,
MIon., Nov. 11, in the Rackham Lee-
Biological Chemistry Seminar will
meet at 3:00 p.m., Fri., Nov. 8, in
Room 319 W. Medical Bldg. The]
subject will be "The Transmission of
the Nervous Impulse-Acetylcholine
Special :eunctions Seminar today'
at 10:00 a.m. in Rm. 340 W. Engin-
eering. Mr. Northam will talk on'
Mathematics Seminar on Stochastic
Processes will meet at 3:00 p.m.'
Thurs., Nov. 7, in-Room 317 W. En-
gineering. Prof. A. H.Copeland will'
present Kolmogoroff's foundations of
Seminar in Applied Mathematics
will meet at 3:00 today in Room 317
W. Eng. Dr. C.' L. Dolph will con-
clude his discussion of "Optimum
Current Distributions for Broadside
Antenna Arrays." Visitors are wel-
Physical Chemistry Seminar will
meet at 4:15 p.m., Thurs., Nov. 7,.
in Room 151 Chemistry Bldg. Mr.
Wilbur C. Bigelow will speak on
"Formation of Oleophobic Films by
Adsorption from, Oil Solutions" All
interested are invited.
Wind Instrument Recital at 1:00
p.m., Fri., Nov. 8, in Harris Hall.
Quartet No. 1 in G major by Haydn,
transcribed by Stubbins; Scherzo
from Quartet in A minor by Schu-
mann, transcribed by Howland, pre-
;ented by Harold Sefton, Edwin
Kruth, Fred Eggert and Robert Sohn;
Introduction and Fantasy by Fitz-
gerald, presented by Margaret Boss-
cawen, cornet; Divertimento No. 9,
K. 240 by Mozart, played by Ham-
barson Bogosian, Leo Sacarny, Dan-
el Kyser, Louis McEnderfer and
Freeman Russell; Introduction and
Rondo, Op. 72 by Ch. Marie Widor,
played by John Harris; Morning
Prayer, and Valso Scherzo, by C. So-
dero, and Trois Pieces Breves by
Ibert, presented by Louise Steele,
riet Falls, Joan Harris, Rose Ram-
sey and Carla Hemsing. Pianists:
Patricia Baumgarten and Shirley
Bower. The public is invited.
The Museum of Art presents "Four
Centuries of Tapestry Weaving," in
the galleries of Alumni Memorial
Hall, Nov. 6 through Dec. 1, daily ex-
cept Monday, 10-12 and 2-5; Sun-
days, 2-5. The public is cordially
Human Heredity: Museum Rotun-
tensen, Aerobiology in relation to
plant disease," reviewed by Elaine
DeBrine. Zuch and Diehl, "On fun-
gal damage to sun-exposed cotton-
duck," reviewed by Alma Dietz. Gau-
mann, "Types of defense rea tions in
plants," reviewed by Martha Kotila.
refreshments will be served. Chair-
man, Prof. F. K. Sparrow.
Phi Sigma, honorary biological
fraternity, will sponsor a lecture by
Dr. Robley Williams, Asso. Prof. of
Physics at 3:00 tonight in Rackham
Amphitheatre. Dr. Williams will
speak on "Physical Propreties of
Plant Viruses," with special refer-
ence to work with the electron micro-
scope. His lecture will be illustrated.
New members and officers for the
coining year will be voted on, and a
delegate to the National Convention
chosen. Members will meet at 7:30.
The lecture will be open to the pub-
lic at 8:00.
The Graduate History Club will
meet at 3 o'clock tonight in the
:Fain room of the Clements Li-
brary. Dr. Randolph G. Adams, di-
rector of the library, will speak on
its facilities and conduct a tour
through the building. After a short
business meeting, refreshments will
be served. All graduate students in
history are invited to attend. En-
trance at rear of building.
Astronomical Colloquium at 3:15
today. Dr. Orren Mohler, of McMath-
Julbert Observatory, will speak on
"The Continuous Spectrum of the
Sun," to be held at the Main Ob-
Der Deutscher Verein will present
at its meeting at 8:00 tonight in the
Assembly Room (3rd floor) of the
Rackham Bldg., an evening of clas-
sical German music. Program: vocal
numbers by Miss Rose Derderian, so-
prano; and a piano selection by Mr.
Wolaver, accompanied on the violin
by Miss Margaret Kays. All mem-
bers of the German Club and those
interested in the organization are
cordially invited to attend. Mem-
bership tickets will be available after
The Graduate Education Club will
hold its first regular meeting of the
year at 7:45 tonight in theW. Lounge
of the Rackham Bldg. Several mem-
bers of the faculty will discuss the
various phases of the graduate pro-
The University Chapter of Amer-
ican Veterans' Committee (AVC)
will sponsor a Record Hop from 2-5
today in the League. All are cor-
The Williw Village AVC will meet
at 7:30 tonight at West Lodge. Three
executive council members will be
elected, and local problems will be
Delta Sigma' Pi, Xi chapter will
hold a smoker at 7:30 tonight in the
Union. There will be a short busi-
The Hiawatha Club will hold a re-
organization meeting in the Michi-
gan Union at 8:00 tonight. All stu-
dents from the Upper Peninsula are
urged to attend.
The RogerWilliams Guild will have
its regular weekly Mid-Week that at
4:00 today in the Guild House. Ev-
eryone welcome for refreshments and
The Geological Journal Club will
meet in Room 3055 Natural Science
Bldg.; at 12 noon, Friday, Nov. 8.
Prof. T. S. Lovering, who was on
leave of absence to do special work
for the United States Geological Sur-
vey in Utah during the war, will talk
on "New Methods of Exploration in
the Tintic District, Utah." Tea will
be served; please bring your own
(Continued on Page 6)
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To the Editor
O THOSE that listened to Mr. Markham's
talk on the Russian influence in the Bal-
kans, and may even have succumbed to his "elo-
quent" praise of a certain democratically avowed
Croatian peasant leader named Matchek, I
should like to point to a fascination quotation
(On P 87-88 of Count Ciano's Diaries, 1939-43,
edited by Hugh Gibson) which without question
reveals the political character and integrity of
B. H. Matchek and especially Mr. Markham, who
seemed so gravely concerned that evening with
the fate suffered by Matchek under the hands
of the Yugoslavo government.
"A meeting with Carnleutti, who has just re-
turned from Zagreb. He confirms Matchek's
full decision to turn down every agreement
with Belgrade and to refuse to prepare the re-
bellion. We agreed and embodied in a memo-
randum the following points: (1) Italy will fi-
nance Matcheck's Croat revolt with twenty mil-
lion dinars; (2) he undertakes to prepare the
revolution within four to six months; (3) he will
quickly call in the Italian troops to insure order
and peace; (4) Croatia will proclaim itself an
independent state in the confederation with
Rome. It will have its own government but its
ministries for foreign affairs and of national de-
fense will be in common with Italy; (5) Italy
will be permitted to keep armed forces in Croa-
tia and will also keep there a Lt. General as in
Albania; (6) after some time we shall decide on
possibilities for union under a single head.
'The Duce read the report and approved. He
desires, however, that Matchek countersign it. In
the meantime, I have sent it to Zagreb by safe
means. In the coming week we shall begin our
payments via Zurich (the twenty million dinars
to finance the revolution)" (P 87-88 of the Ciano
Unfortunately, the audience that night (and
this is the real reason Mr. Markham's shock-
ing conclusions were not seriously challenged)
knew neither the reprehensible reputation of
Matchek as an Axis-collaborator, or the speak-
er's sympathies; both are almost insanely op-
posed to any spark.of freedom and democracy
in the Balkans. It appeared very much as
though Mr. Markham had that evening at
Rackham cooked, seasoned and served the
stew to suit his own malicious purpose-using
a Mussolini henchman as a star-witness to
discredit the heroic people in the Balkans that
fought so valiantly and fiercely against the
brain plague of Hitlerism.
How odd and bitter the times that make of
such men apostles of humanity and freedom-
and that we here lend an altogether too willing
ear to such hateful falsehoods is ever more tragic.
I deeply regret the unfortunate choice of Mr.
Markham as a speaker to speak the truth about
the existing Balkan governments.
Peruse this magazine at your leisure. Skip
the fiction .. .But note how the cars roll
by. Page after page. Convertibles. Sedans.
Cabriolets- All your father has to do is
Salesmen migjht annoy him. They're pesky
fellows- Always on the look-out for a
new customer. But they're obliging and
courteous. In fact, they'll consider it
- -;;n. +. m n fri lor -^ m
-7" - ed fFrr
_ aCK morley
Gosh. You'd better talk
to Pop, Mr. O'Malley. He
-, doesn't know he can get