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March 20, 1946 - Image 1

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The Michigan Daily, 1946-03-20

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GOVERNMENT
AND SCIENCE
See Page 6

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FAIR,
WARMER

VOL. LVI, No. 92 ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, WEDNESDAY, MARCH 20, 1946

PRICE FIVE CENTS

World State,
Civilian Atom
Control Urged
Resolutions Passed
By Atomic Institute
Special to The Daily
GRAND RAPIDS, March 19-Reso-
lutions calling for a world state in the
future and civilian control of atomic
energy now were passed by the Atomic
Institute here today.
The Institute was composed of
members of the faculty of the Uni-
versity of Chicago and the Grand
Rapids Council of Social Agencies,
educators, editors, radio executives
and religious, government and busi-
ness leaders.
The Institute passed the resolutions
after hearing these reports by Chi-
cago faculty members:
Hill Speaks
Dr. David Hill, chain reaction
physicist, said: "At Hiroshima we
knocked down 100,000 homes with a
force 1,000,000 times the power of
T.N.T. This is an age of specializa-
tion in which the art of destruction is
highly specialized.
"The only real secret which we held
was whether an atomic bomb could
be made now. The atomic bomb made
us weak in the sense that no country
can be strong, because each country
can have enough bombs to saturte
the defenses of all other countries."
Dr. Hill added that "the bomb is
cheap and hardly perishable."
Dr. K. S. Cole, biophysicist, said:
"There are several types of death that
occur from radiation alone, and as a
result people are still dying around
Hirochima.
"A great deal of medical knowledge
and knowledge of how to guard
against radioaction is being held back
by the Army."
Reports On Tracers
Cole reported that "the use of car-
bon 14 istotopes and other radioac-
tive materials has led to a success-
ful traced technique' of sending these
particles through the blood stream to
teach us about the body processes."
Other Chicago faculty members ad-
dressing the Institute were:
Dr. Warren C, Johnson, chairman
of the Department of Chemistry, on
"The Industrial Applications of
Atomic Energy";
Dr. T. R. Hogess, chemist engaged
in atomic research, on "Atomic En-
ergy: A Potential Catastrophe";
Dr. Louis Gottschalk, professor of
modern history, on "Must Freedom
Be Sacrificed?"
Dr. Edward Shils. sociologist, acted
as moderator for the group when it
worked on the resolutions.
The 11-hour meeting was marked
by frank and open discussion, al-
though occasionally a scientist re-
fused to divulge information on the
ground that it was "classified."
Ready To Write
Coal Contract,
argaiers Say
WASHINGTON, March 19 -(/) -
After a "war or peace" ultimatum
from John L. Lewis, bituminous coal
operators and miners got down to ac-
tual bargaining on a new contract to-
day.
Each side professed readinessto ne-
gotiate on the other's demands.
"We want to make a contract," said
Charles O'Neill, the operators' spoke-
man.
As the week of open meetings gave
way to closed sessions, a committee
of six operators, two alternates and
two technicians and a similar number

of miners was appointed to attempt
to write a new agreement before the
present one is terminated by Lewis
at midnight March 31. He has pre-
pared the way for a nation-wide coal
strike of 400,000 bituminous workers
if he finds- it necessary.
Shorter Work Week
Lewis asked for a shorter work week
at higher pay and adjustment of the
"controversy over unionization of fore -
men which provoked a strike last Oc-
tober. But he devoted most of a week
of meetings attended by his 250-man
policy committee and industry repre-
sentatives to emphasizing his demand
for safer working conditions and a
health and welfare fund.
Campus Ballot
Will Be Held
Student government moved a step
closer to realization last night when
the Men's Judiciary Council approved
an all-campus election to be held
April 9 and 10.

Literary College To Keep
Its Standards --Keniston

-0
Iran Asks UNO for Aid in Ousting
Russians; Defies Soviet Warning;
Truman Backs Ideals of Charter

Added Responsibility
Will Fall on Student
The literary college, under the
stress of a faculty shortage and over-
crowded facilities, will not relax its
academic standards but must place
more responsibility for education on
the individual student, Dean Hay-
ward Keniston declared yesterday.
Dean Keniston disclosed these
problems faced by the literary col-
lege:
A 20 per cent increase in student
enrollment over last semester, with
the faculty still understaffed because
of wartime depletion of graduate
schools;
A student-faculty ratio of 15 to
one (the ratio at Harvard is two to
one);
Abnormally large numbers of stu-
dents in certain courses and sections;
Faculty members teaching more
courses than usual;
Some students unable to take cer-
tain courses, particularly in chemis-
try, because of limited laboratory fa-
cilities.
Dean Keniston said the literary col-
lege was also affected by enrollment
increases in the College of Engineer-
ing, and the Graduate School, since
certain courses in these schools are
taught in the literary college.
He discounted current rumors that
See KENISTON, Page 2
Hershey Asks
For Indefinite
Draft Extension
Military Committees
Will Begin Hearings
WASHINGTON, March 19-(/P)--
Selective Service appealed today for
extension of the draft indefinitely
and spurred along a congressional
drive for action.
On the heels of a letter from Maj.
Gen. Lewis B. Hershey, draft direc-
tor, military committees of Senate
and House ordered immediate, closed
-door hearings on the law which is
due to expire May 15.
Hershey, writing the House Com-
mittee, was reported by members to
have recommended:
No Tine Limit
1, No time limit on extension, but
provision for termination by presi-
dential order or joint Congressional
action.
2. Length of service, domestic and
overseas, of men inducted in the fu-
ture be limited to 18 months. The
present law permits retention of in-
ductees until six months after the
war is declared ended.
3. No change in present draft ages,
18 through 45. Under executive order
the top age for inductees is 26 at
present,.
Chairman May of the House Comr-
mittee announced hearings will start
Thursday morning with Army heads
as first witnesses.
Hearings Begin
Simultaneous] v,. Chairman Elbert
Thomas (D-Utah set the stage for
Senate Military Committee hearings
starting probably tomorrow. He said
he expected Secretary of War Robert
P. Patterson to be the first witness,
followed by General of the Army
Dwight D. Eisenhower. Secretary of
the Navy James Forrestal, and Sec-
retary of State James F. Byrnes.
Chairman Thomas had suggested
an extension only until July 1, which
would permit Selective Service to in-
duct thousands of students deferred
until the end of the high school year.
Chairman May has introduced leg-
islation for a six-months extension
and has proposed that the maximum
age for inductions be lowered to 30
years and the minimum raised to
21, with all fathers exempted.

Foresees Trend to
More Advanced Work
Predicting that the literary college
in future years will follow the trend
of Harvard and Chicago, Dean Hay-
ward Keniston said yesterday that
"the University will continue to be
the unit where graduate and ad-
vanced undergraduate work is carried
on in Michigan" and that "the first
two years of college work must be dis-
tributed as widely as possible
throughout the state."
"While the University will continue
to offer the best undergraduate train-
ing possible, it must emphasize ad-
vanced undergraduate, graduate and
professional work," Dean Keniston
said.
Dean Keniston said the literary
college "probably will be unable to
admit everybody who wants to at-
tend" and that greater use should be
made of junior colleges and other
four-year liberal arts colleges
throughout the state.
"Higher education is a state prob-
lem, and all the colleges of the state
must formulate a program that will
take care of everybody," he said.
Citing Detroit's Wayne University,
Dean Keniston said that education is
also a "city problem" and predicted
that such cities as Grand Rapids and
Flint may some day have to establish
their own colleges.
Cork Decries
KeepingAtom
Bomb 'Secret'
Cooperation Is Needed
In Scientific Research
Trying to keep secrets regarding
military equipment, including the
atomic bomb, from the Russians is
futile, Prof. James M. Cork, of the
physics department, said last night in
a talk before the Student Chapter of
the American Institute of Chemical
Engineers.
Results The Same
"Scientists often think along the
same lines and end with the same re-
sults," Prof. Cork, who worked on nu-
clear energy during the war, said,
"It is imperative that we win the
friendship of Russia," he commented,
pointing out that cooperation is
needed for scientific advancement.
"It is reasonable that Russia should
be suspicious of us because they can
remember the time when we had
troops in Russia attempting to in-
fluence their form of government,"
lhe said.
The big question today is the fu-
ture control of atomic energy, Prof.
Cork said. He added: "Some say that
we must give the secret of atomic
energy to other countries, others say
that we should keep it to ourselves
and arm as fast as we can. There is
no one solution that we can be sure
of, but we do not want to enter into
a competitive race with any country
in the production of armaments."
Jap Reports
Every important country in the
world has a source of radio-active
material, Prof. Cork pointed out. He
told of going over the reports made
by Japanese scientists trying to ex-
plain to their people what happened
when atomic bombs were dropped on
their cities.
"Although their guess was not too
close," he said, "they did guess the
general nature of the bombs. Two
hours after they went off there was
radio-activity equivalent to that from
10 billion grams of radium.
Every living thing nearby was bound
to be killed, even by radiation alone."
Those who say that we will be us-
ing atomic energy in small power
See CORK, Page 2

(V

GIves Account
Of UNO Work
To Congress
Says U.S. Must Help
Perfect Organization
By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON, March 19-Presi-
dent Truman accounted to Congress
today on the first work of the United
Nations Organization and pledged
all-out support to the peace preserv-
ing principles of its charter.
By doing its utmost to perfect the
charter, he said, the United States
will "give new and full expression to
the meaning of 'America' to the
world."
Byrnes' Report
Mr. Truman passed along to Con-
gress a report by Secretary of State
Byrnes on the American delegation's
first activities in the United Nations
Assembly in London.
Asserting that this nation's part
in setting up the institutions provid-
ed in the UNO charter "is vital to all
Americans," the President's message
said:
"The United States supports the
charter. The United States supports
the fullest implementation of the
charter. The UnitednStates seeks to
achieve the purposes of the charter.
And the United States seeks to per-
fect the charter as experience lights
the way.
Betrayal Of Trust
"To do less than our utmost in this
essential effort of peace-loving na-
tions, whatever may be the obstacles
and difficulties, would be a betrayal
of the trust of those who fought to
win the opportunity to have a world
at peace with security and well-being,
for all. To do our utmost will be to
give new and ftIl 'expression to the
meaning of 'America' to the world."
Secretary Byrnes' report covered
the first part of the first session of
the General Assembly, which was
chiefly organizational.
"The United Nations is now a going
concern," Byrnes declared in his let-
ter of transmission, dated March 1..
Russian Troops
Withdraw West
Of Changehun
CHUNGKING, Wednesday, March
20-(P)-Russian troops are with-
drawing west of Changchun amid in-
dications they soon will quit the Man-
churian capital itself, the semi-offi-
cial Central News Agency reported
today.
Another indication of a possible
early Russian withdrawal from
Changchun, the agency added, was
that the Soviets had shipped more
than 10,000 puppet Manchurian
troops northward from the capital by
train.
Gen. Thung Yen-Ping, ranking
Chinese officer at Changchun, was
informed the question of unloading
relief supplies at Dairen would have
to be referred to Moscow, according to
the Changchun account, although
Dairen was to become a free port un-
der the Chinese-Russian treaty.
The pro-government Central Daily
News charged that Chinese Commun-
ists broke through government de-
fenses at Szepingkai with "ferocious
attacks" and fought into that city on
the Changhun railway 100 miles
north of Mukden.
Asserting that under the treaty
China was to preserve order along the
route. the Soviet officer said the Chi-
nese government must bear responsi-
bility for the present "undesirable
conditions."

Vets"Will Begin
Elections Today
Nomination for officers of the Vet-
erans Organization will take place in
an open meeting at 7:30 p.m. today
in Rm. 319 of the Union.
The executive positions of presi-
dent, vice-president, recording and
corresi'nndina seretaries. treasuirer

STUDENTS PICKET CHURCHILL AT COLUMBIA-Protesting stu-
dents carry placards as they picket Columbia University in New York
where the former British Prime Minister was awarded an honorary
Doctor of Laws degree.
Glee Club mill Feature
AllCmpsSing 9Today

Highlighting their program with
an all-campus sing, the Varsity Men's
Glee Club, directed by Prof. David
Mattern, will make their first post-
war appearance at 8:30 p.m. today
in Hill Auditorium.
The group will feature the "Rail-
road Chant," a spiritual, depict-
ing the Negro chain gangs at work.
The number is made particularly in-
teresting by the inclusion of drama-
tic speaking parts. It is a number fre-
quently used by Fred Waring's Penn-
sylvanians and was arranged by
Scott, a member of that organiza-
tion. Rowland McLaughlin and Shel-
don Sandweiss will take the solo
parts in this number.
In addition to the listed program,
Prof. Mattern said yesterday that
Chandler Pinney, an alumnus and
former soloist with the club who has
just completed service in the Army,
will sing the solo parts in the Michi-
gan songs which make up the second
half of the program,
Religious numbers will make up
the opening group of the perform-
Book Exchange
Wants Fall Texts
Students who have first semester
books which can be used next fall at
the Student Book Exchange should
notofy the Exchange by Saturday.
Unclaimed books can be called for
until Saturday, and after that will
become the property of the Exchange.
The Exchange will be open from 1:00
until 5:00 p.m. through Saturday.
Checks are being sent out rapidly and
should be received about the first of
next week.
Business done by the Student Book
Exchange totals $2,300 which is twice
that of last semester.

ance. Included in them is "Salve Re-
gina" by Waddington which has been
made famous by Father Finn's Paul-
ist Choir in New York City. Eugene
Malitz, who is a student of voice un-
der Prof. Arthur Hackett, and former
soloist with the Navy Glee Club, will
appear as soloist in the number. Har-
ry McCain, Assistant conductor, will
serve as piano accompaist for the
entire group and Kenneth Pool, a
student of Prof. Palmer Christian,
will be at the organ.
A newly-formed quartet, composed
of Rowland McLaughlin, William
Phebus, Robert Rabe and Douglass
Wilson, will make its first appearance
tonight under the direction of Harry
McCain, presenting "Spirit Flower".
See VARSITY, Page 2
Stowe To End
Lecture Series
Leland Stowe, Pulitzer Prize win-
ning journalist, will present the final
Oratorical Association lecture at 8:30
p.m. tomorrow in Hill Auditorium on
the topic "What We May Expect in
the Future."
With one of the profession's high-
est records for war reporting, Stowe
is especially remembered for his
"scoop" on the German invasion of
Norway, a ;tory on which he man-
aged to "beat" other correspondents
by hiking through mud and snow over
a Norwegian mountain range to reach
the Swedish border,
He covered the Ethiopian conquest,
the Italian intrigues in Albania, the
Spanish uprisings, the Reichstag fire
trial and the Panr-American confer-
ences. Since 1941 he has been in the
Far East, visiting, such points as
Burma, China, India and Russia.

Requests 'Just
Determination'
Of Difficulties
Claims Interference
In Internal Affairs
By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON, March 19-Oil-
rich Iran defied a Russian warning
today and appealed to the United
Nations Security Council for help in
getting Soviet troops out of its ter-
ritory.
It asked UNO for a "just deter-
mination" of the case, emphasizing
that Russia was violating a written
agreement, and that Moscow agents
were interfering in Iran affairs.
The action, taken here by Ambas-
sador Hussein Ala on orders from
Premier Qavam Es Sultaneh, shoved
Iran's dispute with her big neighbor
toward a climax at the council's
meeting in New York next week.
The appeal threw into doubt the
continued existence of Qavam's go-
vernment since the Soviet charge
d'affaires in Moscow had warned
him last week that any such move to
take the case before the Security
Council would be considered as an
unfriendly act."
Appeals to Council
The Russian warning was reported
in oficial dispatches toWashington.
However, some diplomats believe
that the full publicity given Iran's
action may be a strong protection
to Qavam.
In his appeal to the Council which
was actually filed last night but cir-
culated to council members only to-
day, Ala made these two charges:
1. Russia has been keeping troops
in Iran beyond last March 2, con-
trary to the Soviet-British-Iranian
treaty of January, 1942, which pro-
vided that foreign troops should be
withdrawn in six months after the
end of the war. The war ended with
the Japanese surrender last Sept. 2.
2. Russia is "continuing to inter-
fere in the internal affairs of Iran
through the medium of Soviet agents,
officals and armed forces."
Charter Violated
Ala argued that such things violate
the charter of the United Nations
and the Roosevelt-Churchill-Stalin
declaration at Teheran in the au-
tumn of 1943 pledging support of
Iranian sovereignty.
Meanwhile,, -reports continued to
arrive from Iran telling of Soviet
troop movements and the long-
range Russian objective remained as
obscure as before. Evidently few top
officials here believe that all the
Russians want or intend to accom-
plish by the current maneuvers is a
slice of control over Iran's rich oil
deposits.
Prosecutor Rae
Makes Cout
Innocence Plea-
Formally charged with disorderly
conduct in a warrant recommended
by Asst. Atty. Gen. Harry W. Jackson,
Prosecutor John W. Rae pleaded not,
guilty when arraigned yesterday in
municipal court.
His trial was set for March 29 by
municipal Judge Jay H. Payne who
released the prosecutor without bond
on his own recognizance.
The warrant, based on a complaint
signed by Parker O. Pennington, Jr.,
local teacher, specifically charged Rae
with being drunk and Intoxicated in
a public place on Jan. 12. According
to his testimony, Pennington and his
son saw Rae in an intoxicated condi-
tion after he had run his car into a
ditch north of Ann Arbor.
Several witnesses also charged that
Rae pulled a gun on a deputy sheriff

who was taking him to the sheriff's
office following the accident.
Arraigned before Judge Payne, Rae
waived a reading of the information
as he will be represented by counsel
at the trial,
Parking Meters Wil
lie Installed In City

PRESIDENTIAL POWERS:
FDR Threatened To Suspend
9 CorwinDeclares

NEAR EASTERN TVA:
Dr. Lowdermilk Will Lecture
On Jordan Valley Authority

The late President Franklin Roose-
velt threatened to suspend the Con-
stitution by eliminating the division
of powers basic to our national gov-
ernment, Prof. Edward S. Corwin, of
Princeton University, declared yes-
terday in the second of the William
W. Cook Foundation Lectures.
According to Prof. Corwin, Presi-
dent Roosevelt was indebted to his
predecessor during World War I for
techniques of expanding his powers
during World War II on an "unpre-
cedented scale." The precedents cited

Dr. Walter Clay Lowdermilk, assis-
tant chief of the U.S. Soil Conserva-
tion Service, will speak on the subject
"Plans for a Jordan Valley Authority"
at 8 p.m. today in Rackham Lecture
Hall.
The lecture, given under the aus-
pices of the College of Engineering
and the School of Forestry and Con-
servation, will be preceded by one
at 11 a.m. today, when Dr: Lowder-
milk will address an asembly of the
forestry school on the subject "Land
Use Studies in the Near and Far
East."
Dr. Lowdermilk has studied land
use in 25 countries and on three con-
tinents. extepndine' from Chine. Korea~

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