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June 06, 1946 - Image 1

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The Michigan Daily, 1946-06-06

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ITSO
HAPPENS
See Page 4

Sw t~~

47Iaitl

,AIR AND
WARMIER

VOL. LVI, No. 157 ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, THURSDAY, JUNE 6, 1946

PRICE FIVE CENTS

Reds Charged
WIt h tSowing
Seeds of War
Churchill, Attlee See
Soviet Peace Threat
By The Associated Press
L ON D ON, June 5 - Winston
Churchill charged bluntly today that
"the seeds of a new world war are
being sown" in Soviet-influenced
areas of eastern Europe, and Prime
Minister Attlee declared Russia was
ignoring "the spirit" of the Potsdam
Agreements.
Attlee, however, said the British
should not,, "judge the present state
of the world wholly pessimistically,"
and cautioned against "the counsel
of despair that would divide Europe'
into two separate camps."
Russia Irritating U. S.
Churchill warned that "it cannot
be in the interest of Russia to go on
irritating the United States."
He said he marvelled that in the
single year since the war's end, the
Soviet government could "do them-
selves so much harm and chill so
many friendships in the English-
speaking world,"
The Conservative leaders asserted
that "not only has a curtain descend-
d from the Baltic to the Adriatic,
but behind it is a broad band of ter-
ritory containing nearly one-third
of the population of Europe, apart
from Russia."
New World War Seen
"It is here," said Churchill, "that
the seeds of a new world war are
being sown. Behind that curtain ef-
forts are being made to Sovietize all
the Soviet occupation zone of Ger-
many. We have to face the fact that
two Germanies are coming into be-
ing."
Both Churchill and Attlee advocat-
ed a conference of the 21 belligerent
nations if the "Big Four" were unable
to agree on European peace treaties.
Attlee, replying to Churchill in the
second day of debate on foreign pol-
icy, said the misunderstanding be-
tween Russia and the Western Pow-
ers "is really the iron curtain - it
is a curtain between minds."
He said Russia insisted on literal
and rigid interpretation of the Pots-
dam Agreement, denying all flexibil-
ity to meet changing situations. He
added that "I think that they dis-
regard the spirit in which we entered
into these things at Potsdam."
Russian Understanding Difficult
One of Britain's greatest difficul-
ties, Attlee said, was "to try to get
into the minds of our Russian friends
some real understanding of the way
we work things in Western Democ-
racies."
"We have to look upon the Russian
people, to some extent, as if they
had been born in a dark forest; they
do not seem to understand the sun-
light, the wind and the air of free
democracies," Attlee said. .
Active Student
Legislature Is
Set for Summer
Authorization to continue the meet-
ings and activities of the Student
Legislature during the summer ses-
sion was voted last night by the Le-
gislature at the final meeting of
the spring term.
Nine members who have indicated
that they will be in school this sum-
mer are:
Ray Davis, Bob Taylor, Louis Or-.
lin, Lynne Ford, Wink Jaffee, Sey-

mour Chase, Henry Kassis, Henry
Kaminski and Harry Jackson.

WHO IS RESPONSIBLE?
Carr Hits Local Voters;
Juvenile System Probed

Senate Approves Draft Extension
W ith Teen-Age Induction Clause;
Committee Okays Bill To Rip OPA

'Understandings' Rule
Children in Detention
By MILT FREUDENHEIM
and CLAYTON DICKEY
Unwritten "understandings" form
the basis of Washtenaw County's ju-
venile correction, procedure, an in-
vestigation by two Daily reporters re-
vealed.
Asked what provision is made for
notifying the County Probate Court
of children apprehended by off i-
cers and placed in detention, Judge
J. G. Pray explained that there
was an "understanding."
"Police and matron notify us at
once," the judge said, "or report the
next morning.".
Asked what provision is made for
placing children in the detention
home at night, Judge Pray said that
the "understanding" was that police
take offenders to the Detention Home
and report to him the next morning.
"They sometimes miss," he added,
"but not very often."
The "understanding" for holding
children when the Detention Home
is completely filled is to place those
aged 15 and over in the County Jail,
the judge said. The attendant told
The Daily that when the home is fill-
ed to capacity (six children), she
places a notice on the door.
He made no statement concerning
the "understanding" for overflowed
children who fail to top this age
minimum.
Asked if there is a state code
for procedure in juvenile court
cases, Judge Pray said he thought
there was but that it was not used
by his court.
An average of 60 to 70 youngsters
a year come under the jurisdiction of
See PROBATE, Page 2
Italian Voters
Eet Republic,
Reject Monarch
ROME, June 5-(IP)-Itay's royal
House of Savoy fell tonight under
the weight of more than 12,000,000
votes cast against it in the week-end
plebiscite, and the nation chose to
be a republic.
The Ministry of Interior announced
that with only a few ballots still to
be counted, voters in favor of a re-
public led by 1,820,146. They swept
the industriail and densely populated
north and one section of central
Italy, defeating more than 10,300,000
supporters of the monarchy.
Vice Premier Pietro Nenni said
King Umberto I, 47, who reigned
less than a month, would leave Italy
on Saturday after the official ver-
dict was announced by the Supreme
Court, and probably would join his
father, Victorio Emanele III, who ab-
dicated May 9 and went into volun-
tary exile in Egypt.
The Interior Ministry said the re-
publicans polled 12,182,855 votes,
against 10,362,709 for the monarchy.
All southern Italy and the islands of
Siciliy and Sardinia, where the king-
dom was born, favored the retention
of the monarchy. But the votes of1
the more populous north sealed the
fate of the royal house which united
Italy in 1870.

Says 'Stupidity' Limits
Washtenaw Officials
. By FRANCES PAINE
County officials are doing the best
they can with facilities available
to handle the problem of juvenile
delinquents, but they are sorely limit-
ed by the "stupidity" of the voters.
according to Prof. Lowell J. Carr of
the sociology department, former
head of the Michigan Child Gui-
dance Institute.
"There's no way to make the aver-
age voter see what the mishandling
of even one youngster can cost," Prof.
Carr said, in commenting on the
treatment of children at the Wash-
tenaw County Junvenile Detention
Home. The voters "can see what they
spend but can't see the cost of what
they don't spend."
Voters Are Indifferent
"The average voter thinks: the
kids aren't in the home very long,
we've gotten along before, anything
we do will cost money, so why do
anything? The officials are pretty
good representatives of the people,
and the voters are just too dumb,"
Prof. Carr said.
What the voters don't see, accord-
ing to Prof. Carr, is that while the
juvenile delinquents who develop into
full-fledged criminals may not cost
the taxpayers in the individual coun-
ties anything, the cost will inevitaIly
be brought back to the taxpayers
some way.
Slight Local Improvement
The situation in Washtenaw Coun-
ty, Prof. Carr pointed out, is an
example of the backwardness of deal-
ing with juvenile delinquents all over
the state and nation. A few counties
in Michigan have adequate provi-
sions for the detention of juvenile
delinquents, but there are at least
a dozen others as bad as Washtenaw
County or worse. In this county the
situation has improved recently.
Years ago, Prof. Carr said, children
were detained, locked up, in the tower
of the County Court House, which
was nothing but a fire-trap.
"However," he emphasized, "this
certainly does not release us from
our local responsibility."
Help Is Needed
It will take a state and federal
See CARR, Page 2
Honor Society
Hear's Haber
Joy Rassmussen Wins
Scholastic Award
Scientific discovery must be com-
bined with research in "social de-
sign" if civilization is to be saved,
Prof. William Haber, of the economics
department, told new members of
Phi Kappa Phi honorary society last
night.
Prof. Haber believes that the con-
tribution of science to our lives has
fantastic possibilities, if war is avoid-
ed. Science can release men from
drudgery, provide employment, and
create more leisure for everyone, he
says.
Presentation of the Annual Schol-
astic Award was made to Joy A. Rass-
mussen by Prof. Clifford Woody,
president of the chapter. Among the
initiates were four faculty members,
87 undergraduate students, and 67
graduate students.

(">_

I

v

Permits Price
Rise on Meat,
Dairy, Produce
Bowles Promises To
Urge Presidential Veto
By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON, J u n e 5- A bill
ripping great gaps in OPA's powers
was approved by the Senate Bank-
ing Committee tonight in defiance
of Chester Bowles' warning that he
would urge President Truman to
veto it as a "monstrous thing."
Under the measure, price control
would be extended until June 30,
1947, but with amendments lifting
controls from meat and dairy pro-
ducts, preventing OPA from inter-
fering with normal markups of
thousands of merchants, and making
other sweeping changes in that stabi-
lization program.
Wolcott Amendment Deleted
The committee did, however, de-
lete the Wolcott amendment of the
House, which provided that all pro-
ducers, processors and distributors
must be allowed cost plus "a reason-
able profit."
The committee stuck to amend-
ments previously adopted and even
plastered on some new ones despite
Stabilization Director Bowles' radio
address last night declaring the
measure constituted a "fraud" which
would send the cost of living sky-
rocketing.
To File Minority Report
Chairman Wagner ( m., N.Y.)
immediately told reportes he would
file a minority report against the
bill and declared he would be joined
by "several others."
The bill was not officially reported
and there was no record vote on its
final form. That probably will come
tomorrow when the committee ga-
thers to look over the final draft.
Bill Would Curb OPA
The bill would remove price con-
trols on meat and dairy products and
impose various restrictions on the
OPA.
As one of its final decisions, the
committee adopted a provision con-
tained in the OPA bill which the
House has passed prohibiting the
price agency from interfering with
normal discounts or markups of re-
tailers and wholesalers on "recon-
version items" such as automobiles,
refrigerators, washing machines, and
radios.
The OPA has estimated that this
amendment will raise the price to
consumers approximately $500,000,-
000 a year, with the boost on $1,000
cars, for instance, running about
$88. The estimates, however, have
been contested by senators favor-
ing the amendments.
Chinese Truce
Will Be Signed
Will Allow Marshall
Tiie To Bettye Strife
NANKING, June 6--(-An agree-
ment for a 15-day truce in the Man-.
churian conflict was expected to be
signed by General Marshall's commit-
tee of three at noon today, giving
the special American envoy badly
needed time to help settle the pro-
longed civil strife between Chinese
Communist and Government forces.
A communist spokesman predicted
the action. At the same time, a gov-
ernment spokesman said Generalis-.
simo Chiang Kai-Shek would insist
that General Marshall's power of
arbitration be increased.
The Manchurian truce, announced

Wednesday after conferences between
President Truman's special envoy and
leaders of the opposing factions, was
to take effect today immediately after
its formal signature by Marshall's
committee of three.
Hillel Elects Ofieers
For 194647 Year
Newly elected president of the Hil-
lel Student Council, Stuart Goldfarb
will preside over the governing body

RADIO RESEARCH:
Super-Sonic Plane Equipment
Designed by University Student

By JOHN CAMPBELL
Radio equipment for the new Xs-1
super-sonic plane, announced Tues-'
day by Army Air Force engineers,
was designed, installed and operated
by John Lekas, sophomore in the
College of Engineering.
A member of the National Ad-
visory Committee for Aeronautics,
and currently on leave of absence
from the NACA, Lekas was closely
connected with the experimental
development of the clipped-wing,
rocket-powered craft expected to fly
Senator Austin
Appointed U.S.
Delegate to UN
By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON, June 5-Sen-
ator Warren Austin, life-long Ver-
mont Republican, lawyer and advo-
cate of international peace organiza-
tion, was named by President Truman
today to succeed Edward R. Stettini-
us, Jr., as American representative on
the United Nations Security Council.
Selection of the 68-year old senator
from the ranks of the President's
nominal party opposition gave a bi-
partisan tone to Mr. Truman's for-
eign policy development, for the Uni-
ted Nations post is one of the most
important diplomatic jobs in the
President's power to fill.
Charles G. Ross, presidential sec-
retary, told newsmen the appointment
was "further evidence of the Presi-
dent's belief in bi-partisan policies
where the foreign relations of the
United States are concerned."
The post pays $20,000 a year, and
the man who fills it has immediate
responsibility for carrying out in the
Council the development of American
foreign policy laid down by the Presi-
dent and Secretary of State Byrnes.
Austin's approval by the Senate
was considered assured. Presumably
his ready acceptability to his col-
leagues was one of the factors favor-
able to his selection. Others, it was
learned, were the facts that he is a
lawyer capable of conducting the in-
tricate public debate for which the
Security Council has grown famous,
and that he has been a consistent sup-
porter of an "international" foreign
policy.
Shortly after his name reached the
Senate in the President's formal
nomination, Austin announced that
he was accepting the appointment.
Officially the appointment will not
become effective until January be-
cause of a Constitutional provision
that a member of Congress cannot,
during a term to which he has been
elected, take an office created during
that term. Austin's senatorial term
runs out in January.
Meantime Herschel Johnson, de-
puty American representative to the
Security Council, will represent the
United States in United Nations af-
fairs.

at speeds greater than 1,500 miles an
hour within six weeks.
While an instructor in the Signal
Corps Lekas received a great deal of
publicity because of his invention of
a multi-signal recorder for radio-
intercept work. As a result of this
contribution he was requested to
work on research for the government.
Early in 1945, with two years of
college and 14 years of practical ex-
perience behind him, Lekas was
assigned to special duty as a civilian
radio control engineer. In this posi-
tion he helped direct research on
radio equipment for guided missiles.
Operates Manufacturing Company
Lekas, now 28, left the University
in 1943 to go into the Army and is
now carrying on his studies in the
Engineering-Physics Department un-
der the G.I. Bill of Rights. In order
to continue his studies at the Uni-
vesity, he must have his term marks
approved by the National Advisory
Committee for Aeronautics. Lekas has
been designing since lie was 13 years
old.
Lekas operates his own manufac-
turing company in Ann Arbor. Em-
ploying only University students, the
company is currently engaged in re-
search on radio equipment invented
by Lekas during his service in the
Signal Corps.
Before the war Lekas designed a
"Sound System," which he describes
as a "glorified record player," that is
reported to be much in demand by
hotels and dance studios throughout
the country. He also worked in the
X-Ray and Cancer Research Depart-
ment of Harper Hospital in Detroit.
High Speed Research
Brig.-Gen. L. C. Craigie, chief of
the engineering division, air materiel
command, disclosed that the new
Xs-1 is one of a series of craft that
are being constructed for further re-
searches in realms of speed up to
as high as a possible 4,500 miles an
hour.
The "ramjet" engine disclosed by
Army authorities has been described
as the "ultimate in simplicity" and
is credited with the ability to operate
at greater speeds and higher altitudes
than any other present power plant
aside from rockets.'
Vets Must Fill Out
Form By Saturday
Student veterans must fill out
the Veterans Administration ques-
tionnaire by Saturday noon in
order to continue studying under
Public Law 346 (GI Bill), Robert
S. Waldrop, Ann Arbor VA chief
emphasized yesterday.
The local VA office, in Rm. 109
RIackham Building, is open from
9 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. Monday through
Friday and from 8 a.m. to 12 noon
on Saturday. Veterans will have to
indicate their future educational
plans. Waldrop stressed that each
veteran should know his claim
number.

Danger Seen in
Depending on
Volunteers Only
Bill Grants Pay Raises
To Enlisted Personnel
By The Associated Press
WASHINGTON, June 5-The
Senate passed a draft extension bill
today which would continue the act
until May 15, 1947, permit 18 and
19-year olds to be drafted again after
this month, and raise the pay of en-
listed men.
The vote on final passage was 69
to 8. It came after the Senate de-
feated, 63 to 14, a proposal that
actual inductions be halted while the
volunteer system got a further trial
with the pay of an Army private
raised from $50 to $75 a month.
The main features of the Senate
bill, which grants most of the ad-
ministration's requests, are subject
now to House action. That chamber
voted an extension only to Feb. 15 ,
with a ban on teen-age inductions,
and approved pay increases in a
separate measure.
Then Senate and House, in seek-
ing to adiust their differences, will
work against a July 1 deadline when
the temporary draft extension ex-
pires,
Senators Reverconib (Rep.-W. Va.),
Wilson (Rep.-Iowa) and Wherry
(Rep.-Neb.) had proposed the stop
on inductions, arguing that Congress
should await results from the pay in-
crease.
"I dont want to draft American
boys to march into Spain," Rever-
comb said, adding that he does not
know what this country's commit-
ments might be. "And I don't want
to draft boys to take part in a civil
war in China."
Administration leaders contended
it would be dangerous to ban in-
ductions and leave future man-
power needs of the armed forces to
the uncertainty of volunteering.
A Senate-House committee will
have to compromise differences be-
tween the two branches. Three days
of Senate debate drew the issues.
The chief point of controversy be-
tween the two chambers is whether
18 and 19-year olds should be sub-
ject to the draft. The House voted
no. The Senate decided, 53 to 26,
that they should Talk already is go-
ing around of a possible compromise
dropping boys 18 but taking those 19.
Other major differences:
The House voted to extend the
draft only until Feb. 15 and to sus-
pend all inductions from May 15 un-
til Oct. 15.
The Senate approved an increase
from $50 to $75 a month in pay of
"buck" privates, increases fpr other
enlisted men, but no pay boost for
officers. The House, in a bill separate
from its draft measure, voted com-
parable increases for enlisted men.
It also approved 20 per cent raises for
first and second lieutenants and 10
per cent increases for higher offi-
cers. The Navy and Marine Corps
also would receive the higher pay.
The Senate bill, as drawn by the
Military Committee, took account
of the possibility that volunteers
may meet future needs through a
section directing, in effect, that no
one shall be drafted if sufficient
volunteers do step forward.
This section requires that the Army
shall be reduced "consistently month
by month" from the current figure
of about 1,550,000 to 1,070,000 by
July 1, 1947.
Permit To Use
Dorm Facilities
Sought by IFC

Faced with overcrowded chapter
houses for the fall semester, the In-
ter-Fraternity Council last night set
up a special committee to "look into"
University regulations governing eli-
gibility of fraternity men for dormi-
tory space.
"Very few fraternities have been
able to acquire annexes, and most
will not have sufficient facilities to
accommodate all of their members
next fall," IFC president Harry Jack-

NAVAL TANK PROJECT:
New Trawlers Will Freeze,
Package Fish on Shipboard

Investigating Committee
A special committee was formed
to investigate the Union and League.
The , committee will study prices
charged in the cafeterias, the admin-
istrative organization, the amount
of student control and the present
use. of the social facilities of the
two organizations. Committee mem-
bers are Ruth McMorris, Virgina
Councell, Charles Helmick and Har-
ry Jackson from the Legislature and
Tom Walsh and Ken Bissell from
the student body.
Authorization was given to the
Men's Judiciary Council to publicize
and enforce the University rule which
prohibits bicycle riding on campus.
The Council will investigate the pre-
sent rules and suggest revisions.
Student Affairs Delegate
Lynne Ford was elected to the
Student Affairs Committe as repre-
sentative-at-large from the Legis-
lature. Ray Davis and Seymour Chase
will serve on the committee as ex-
officio members from the Legisla-

REASSURING NEWS:
French-Italian Elections Show
Trend Toward Center'-Slosson

Design of modern steel trawlers,
equipped for on-board processing of
fish hauls, is one of the post-war
experimental projects now being
conducted iii the Naval Tank in West
Engineering,
By tapping the trawler grounds of
Westward Alaska and the Bering Sea.
described as the richest unexploited
fisheries resource in American wa-
ters, the operators of these vessels
hope to supply the expanding domes-
tic market for quick frozen pack-
aged fish fillets and crabmeat.
Processing Saves Time
Modern production line tech-
niques in the processing of fish will
be adopted on these trawlers, with
the result that when the trawler
reaches port its catch, packaged and
frozen, can be shipped immediately
by rail in frozen food lockers,
On-board processing is expected to
increase greatly the amount of fish

ducted year-round under relatively
adverse conditions. Other factors are
the development of markets for fil-
leted bottom fish of the Pacific va-
rieties, the development of fillet-
ing methods, personnel and plants,
and the perfection of freezing and
packaging methods.
Other Naval Tank experiments in-
clude the design of higher speed hull
forms for fishing fleets on the East
and West Coasts.
"A few years back," Prof. Louis A.
Baier, Chairman of the Naval Archi-
tecture and Marine Engineering Dc-e
partment, said, "when it was un-
necessary for the fleets to go so far
for fish and the price was low, speed
was not very important.
Travel Great Distances
"Now, however, it is necessary for
fishing fleets to travel distances of
two or three thousand miles, and the
higher price of fish warrants the

The results in the recent French
and Italian elections indicate a trend
toward "center" in both countries,
according to Prof. Preston W. Slos-
son of the history department,
Elections were held on the same
day in both countries and each en-
tailed the election of a new national
legislature and a new form of gov-
ernment, Prof. Slosson said.
Direct, Indirect Elections
He pointed out that the Italians
decided between monarchy and re-
public by direct plebiscite, while the
French form of government was cho-
sen indirectly since the new legis-
lature will later submit a consti-
tution.
A certain number of Italian votes
have not yet been counted, Prof. Slos-

and any ministry that is formed will
have to have the support of at least
one of them,"
An interesting fact concerning the
Italian plebiscite is that the indus-
trially developed north was "over-
whelmingly" republican while the
"comparatively impoverished and il
literate south" remained monarchi-
cal, he reported.
United Italy
Prof. Slosson pointed out that the
results of the election meant that
the dream of Mazzini and Garibaldi
of a united and republican Italy was
finally realized.
"Even though the election yielded
similar results in both countries," he
stated, "the reaction will be some-
what different since the leftist groups

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