SUNDAY, JUNE 7, 1916
THE MICHIGAN DAILY
THE M I IIf 2AN I'_ATV\.£2 1,1Z* r.
Magnetic Finger Used To Find
U-Boats in Straits of Gibraltar
POW I- ,E iR E ER a :
Gas Turbin Locomotive Future Is Uncertain
By The Associated Press
NEW YORK, June 1--A new wa
secret, a magnetic finger on airplane
that pointed unerringly at submar
ines beneath the water, and tha
sealed Gibraltar's Straits to U-boa
passage, was disclosed today by Col
The finger is a magnetic detector
small enough to be attached to th
extreme tail end of a plane or trail
ed from the end of a cable. In prac
tice it was trailed from a cable to fre
it from the magnetic influences o
the plane. It picks up and points t
the magnetic disturbance of a stee
Nazi Fleet Bottled Up
This finger begins pointing in a
wide cone above a submarine. The
plane then circles until the magnetic
device says the submarine is below
at the right angle for dropping a
depth bomb. The Columbia an-
nouncement said that in the critica:
days after the invasion of Normandy
that part of the German U-boat
fleet in the Mediterranean remained
bottled up because no boat could
In Washington, W. E. Wrather,
director of the Geological Survey,
The controversial plan for nation-
alization of the British iron and steel
industry, now before Parliament, in-
dicates that the Labor party is carry-
ing out the platform on which it was
elected, Prof. Lionel H. Laing, of the
political science department, declared
The Labor party's campaign plat-
form promised progressive national-
ization of certain key industries and
was put into effect last December
when the government took over the
Bank of England.
Majority Enables Action
"The present Labor government re-
ceived a clear majority in last sum-
mer's election and can proceed with
its program in a manner that was
impossible for previous coalition La-
bor governments," Prof. Laing said.
Although the Labor government
has proved that its methods are not
"confiscatory" by exchanging gilt-
edged bonds for stock in the Bank of
England when it took control, there
is still some conservative opposition,
Criticized by Industry
Commenting on British industry's
complaint that the Labor govern-
ment has introduced the element of
"uncertainty" by not publicizing its
full plan, and has stalled private in-
dustry's own plans for reconditioning,
Prof. Laing declared that the "end in
sight is certainly clear, however, if
one takes the Labor victory at its
The Labor government, he said,
argues that the present controversy
goes back to the basic conflict be-
tween the philosophies of the two
groups: Can public ownership or
private ownership best accomplish
modernization of British industry?
"There is no question of the need
for such modernization if Britain is
going to recover her position in world
trade," he declared. "The present
discussion is merely over a question
said that the magnetic finger had
r been used in aerial hunts for new
s, iron and petroleum producing areas
- and was "1Q0 times as fast as ground
t surveys" and more accurate.
I- tHe said the finger had been used
for two years by the Geological Sur-
vey and more than 40,000 square miles
had been covered, from northern
e Alaska to the Gulf of Mexico.
Should Help Locate Gold
e Whether the device will locate sunk-
f en ships and buried treasure is not
o known but if the water is not deep
l it ought to show the same indications
for a ship full of gold as a submar-
ine full of torpedoes, Capt. F. S.
Withington, officer in charge of the
e Navy Ordnance Laboratory, said.
The finger was called Mad Opera-
tor, from its right name which is
magnetic airborne detector. It works
on the same general principle as the
land mine detector, the ship's cable
, that protected against German mag-
netic sea mines and the detectors
miners use in prospecting.
But this mad operator is far more
sensitive. It reads magnetic disturb-
ances smaller and more complicated1
than other magnetic instruments.
When the scientists were developing1
the detector they could not wear<
steel rimmed spectacles because these
rims cause magnetic interference.
The same was true of shoe nails,
watches and pocket knives. Some-l
times the research men had to search1
their clothing for odd bits of metal.
The earth itself interfered with
early developments. The work hadp
to be started in one of the spots
which for some reason not under-
stood are magnetically quiet. Quonset
Point, Rhode Island, is one such place
and the work started there early in
Animal Exhib it
Four bears, Pete, Ted, Brother and
Sister may be found among the in-
habitants of the University's Mu-
seums' Zoo by visitors who on a Sat-
urday or Sunday summer afternoon
number almost 500.
They were raised from cubs when
they were brought in by conservation
officers more than ten years ago.C
Brother, who is believed to be the
largest black bear in captivity, and
Sister were cared for personally since
their arival in 1933 by Miss Crystal
Thompson, Curator, and Dr. Elmer
Berry, former Zoo keeper. Pete and
Ted arrived here in 1929.
When the cubs were still small
enough to hold in one hand, Miss
Thompson fed them milk every two
hours for eight weeks by taking them
home with her at night to continue
"Once, when the keeper was clean-
ing the cages," she related, "Brother
accidentally pushed him into the
pool and then clumsily offered his
paw to help him out. Brother's eye
was hurt in one of the frequent scuf-
flies with his partner, but with no'
more inducement than a bag of
raisins and a few soothing words,
allowed Miss Thompson and Dr. Ber-
ry to clean and lance his wound."
Despite their present size, the bears
are gentle, docile and affectionate
HOPWOOD LECTURER -- Dean
Hatcher of the literary college of
Ohio State University who will give
the annual Avery Hopwood Lecture
By Joyri er
PHILADELPHIA, June 1--(/')-A
joyrider who apparently would like
to be a motorman put a kick in
trolley car travel today.
Undetected, he entered Philadel-
phia Transportation Company barns
and swished out in a sleek two-tone
green streamliner. It looked like bus-
iness as usual to attendants.
An hour and 20 minutes after
leaving the barn, the joyriding pilot
braked the trolley to a squealing,
spark-showered stop at the same
place and ran away with pursuers
hot on his heels.
ShoIurter W" alk- ON~I''1!
Several years o clveopnient ,fl
Wcst Hall Occupied experimentation will be clirr1d be-
fore the cost and p"r ance of
S Front Yard Until 1928 the gas turbine lcong v ere ac-
tually determined. Prof '"rd 'P.
By ALICE JORGENSEN Vincent of the meclal (hpo t-
Women students living in Betsy ment said yesterday.
"BIecause o tE fenno~ m
Barbour Dormitory admittedly have "eaus g t e enof h-
a short walk to their eight o'clocks, gas tur bineven he maryn a vt
but their predecessors had a shorter duringthe r a " :
one because old West Hall, a building :eni-technical writr renned
of classrooms'for the literary college,I to adopt avery opio
was in the front yard. gas turbine as t o
However, a Regent's Resolution in the loremotiv.''
stated that "West Hall shall be torn l
down not later than 1928," and in locomotive now s;in e cxlerlnc
accordance with the resolution West face w inaI e al
Hall was razed in that year. titbon from the s an ye calhe-
Barbour dorm was first conceived electric and sttnte m ri types.
when former Regent Levi L. Bar- In any sts, t aid, t gas
bourgave the University a sum of Int maurbi n locom i e m a a p er cos
$100,000 in 1917 to be used for the tubinelocom1tide rmad le' lye.
building of a women's dormitory. t Teifc tha iiad lecivf.
Similar to the present postwar per- ises rapidly as tuv i + mil t ten -
iod, prices were so high then that rises rapincrease, h ein. tsp-
the University put off building the tenally oneafi, p'icpai. x'an-
dormitory for two years. It was not tential y one of its etinCI', a t
until the fall of 1920 that Betsy Bar- ages. He pointedvut, in ih-t
bour Dormitory, named for Mr. Bar- peraturecmetallurgy; i i out-ful
bour's mother, opened its doors to whether the turbne-blad medwF tl has
Michigan women, been developed tha, will withstand
Designed by Albert Kahn of De- the high temperatures necessary for
troit, the final cost of the building any appreciable length of time.
was $196,000. The main floor of the "In the gas turbin~e the thr ieuc-
dormitory is devoted chiefly to large
living rooms with smaller connecting
lounges; a dining hall; offices and
several student rooms. Mr. Barbour
donated many pieces of furniture
which had previously been in his De-
ions of combustion-compression,
burnig and expansion of hot gases-
are each accomplished in a seperate
c mponent designed for that ex-
clusive purpose. The result is a large
gain in simplicity over the Diesel in
which these operations are combined
in one mechanism and therefore must
be successively interrupted." Diesel I
efficiency, however, is higher, Prof.
The efficiency of the gas tur-
bine, he said, depends upon the
temperature of the gases entering
the turbine. For the simple open-
ccle gas turbine the thermal ef-
ficiency at 1300" is approximately
18% which is well below Diesel-
engine efficiencies of 35-401. Al-
though the efficiency rises to 24%
at 1500" and to 30% at 1800", these:
temr peratures are not yet practical
for continuous operation. Other
types of gas turbines offer consid-
erable efficiency gains but with re-
Friting sacrifices in simplicity.
"Not only is the efficiency of the
gas turbine considerably lower than
that of the Diesel at maximum load,''
he said, "but at partial loads the ef-
ficiency of the Diesel engine becomes
greater while the efficiency of the
gas turbine declines."
The gas turbine has no recipro-
cating parts, he said, and its oper-
ation is simplified in that it re-
quires no boiler or clean water.
Its costs have not yet been de-
termlrmed, he said, but it should be
cheaper to build than the Diesel
although the maintenance may be
higher at first.
"Designers hope that the gas tur-
bine, no ' operating on oil, will even-
tually bui'n coal, The problem seems
to center around obtaining a pul-
verizer that will reduce all the coal
to ultra-minutc lardicles far smaller
It has been suggested, he said, that
since the output of the gas turbine
increases as the air temperature
drops, the energy obtained from a
lowering of temperature could be used
to heat the train in cold weather,
eliminating the necessity of a sepe-
rate heating plant. In other types of
locomotivea, however, the necessary
heat is obtained from the exhaust
Atmy To Recruit Dogs
WASHINGTON, June 1-(/)-The
Army started out today to recruit
German Shepherd dogs to fill the
depleted ranks of the wartime K-9
corps. An undisclosed number will
be purchased outright, the War De-
partment announced, to take the
place of war dogs which were loaned
to the Army by their owners and have
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