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February 07, 1946 - Image 2

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The Michigan Daily, 1946-02-07

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TriTTi SDA , i. TERVARY 7, 1549 - -

THE. 4Y 11a V N a1 TTY-y ,.. Ja i.}1



Council-Forum vs. Congress Discussed


Britain's Middle Position Confusing


r >_

EDITOR'S NOTE: An editorial presenting the
case for the Congress-Cabinet Constitution will ap-
pear in The Daily tomorrow).
LET'S TAKE A LOOK at the Student Govern-
ment situation as it exists today!
At the present time there are two proposed
constitutions being considered. The first calls
for a nine-member, popularly elected Student
Council with an advisory Forum made up of
representatives from existing campus organiza-
tions. The second proposes a Congress made up
of students elected on the basis of one for every
400 students enrolled at the University.
Each proposed constitution states that the
governing body is intended to be of the stu-
dents and represent their interests. In our
opinion, the Council-type government would
work effectively. But we sincerely believe that
the Congress-type government is impractical
and would not work.
Here's why:
1) There are going to be 14,000 students en-
rolled at the University next semester with even
more expected next year. Assuming 14,000 stu-
dents, this means there would be 35 members of
Congress. At the least, there would be two can-
didates for each Congressional seat, making a
grand total of 70 candidates for office. Each
voter would be expected to choose 35 of these,
numbering them in the order of preference.
In our opinion, it would be impossible for
the average voter to consider the individual
merits of 70 candidates and vote intelligently
for or against them. The voter would, in all
likelihood, vote either for the ones he knows
or not vote for the full number of candidates.
This would make it possible for a candidate
with a small number of first choice votes to
defeat a candidate with a large number of,
for example, twentieth choice votes.
Certainly The Daily would be at a loss to give
adequate coverage to the qualifications of this
many candidates. If the Council-type proposal
is adopted, however, there would be a maximum
of 24 candidates and; while still difficult, it is
at least conceivable that The Daily could give
extensive coverage to each of the candidate's
qualifications and that the voter could familiar-
ize himself sufficiently with the candidates to
vote intelligently.
2) A large ballot containing more than 50
names would be an open invitation to the form-
ation of political parties and candidates run-
ning just for the honor of being elected. There
would, indubitably, be "slates" of candidates
and such organizations as fraternities and so-
rorities would be tempted to put up candidates
just for the sake of doing so. While these dan-
gers would not be entirely eliminated with a
smaller ballot, they would be minimized.
3) One of the 'chief faults that has been
found with the first proposal is that it em-
powers the Council to limit the ballot to 24
candidates. This, according to some people,
would enable members of the outgoing Coun-
cil virtually to pick their own successors.
While this may have some validity, we feel
that the number of candidates should be
limited 'to keep the ballot from becoming too
unwieldy. As an alternative to the primary
system of limiting the number of candidates
(which is awkward in itself), we feel that the
Council is the logical body to do the job.
Personally we doubt that the number of can-
didates will ever bo so large that the ballot
will have to be so limited.
4) Somehow the impression has been con-
veyed that the Council will be a tool of existing
campus organizations. This may have resulted
from the provision in the first constitution that
candidates must "have held positions of execu-
tive responsibility in recognized campus organ-
izations or the Student Organization for Self-
Government for at least two semesters."
This provision was adopted in an attempt
Fifty-Sixth Year

to insure that only candidates with a sincere
interest in student government would run
and that Council members would not be com-
plete neophytes in the realm of student activ-
ity. This provision will, we hope, be inter-
preted liberally so that any student who has
done any sort of work with campus organiza-
tions or student projects may be considered
eligible. We daresay that almost everyone
who would consider becoming a candidate
would be eligible under this provision.
5) The function of the Forum has also been
misinterpreted by some. It is made up of repre-
sentatives of campus groups and serves merely
in an advisory capacity. Obviously, many of
the projects of a student governing group would
require the cooperation of other student organ-
izations. The Forum is the means by which this
cooperation may be obtained. It would be a
strong force for unification and would promote
mutual understanding among the groups. But,
and this is important, it would not have any
power over decisions of the Council. It may not
work, but there is a very good possibility that
it will, and it is worth trying. There is no pro-
vision for such a body in the Congress-type
6) On the surface it appears that the Con-
gress-type constitution would be more demo-
cratic. But Section 5 provides that one of the
basic functions of the Congress shall be to
"delegate representatives to all joint faculty-
student bodies." This presumably would elim-
inate election of student members to the Board
in Control of Student Publications and the
Union Board of Directors. It would also involve
changes in the constitutions of the League and
the Student Religious Association as well as
changes in the methods of choosing representa-
tives to the Student Affairs Comgittee and the
Administrative Board of the College of Litera-
ture, Science and the Arts.
Somehow we can't quite see any of these
changes being approved. We don't think that
they should be approved except in the cases
of the Student Affairs Committee and, per-
haps, the Administrative Board. At present
student members of both these committees
are appointed and it might be better if they
were chosen by the student body. But changes
of this sort might better be left to separate
elections and not be provided for in the Stu-
dent government constitution.
7) Finally we believe the Congress-type stu-
dent government to be inferior because of the
provision for election of president from within
its own membership. We feel very strongly that
it is important that the president be elected
directly by the student body. He has got to be

the driving force and organizational leader in
the student government and he should be re-
sponsible to the students, not to his fellow mem-
bers of Congress. That is why the Council-
type constitution provides for direct and sepa-
rate election of a student president.
PERHAPS WE HAD BETTER say right here
that we do not believe the type of student
government represented in the first proposed
constitution is the only type which would work.
We sincerely believe it to be the best, but can
easily conceive of a student council made up
of representatives from the Universty schools
and colleges or even of representatives of exist-
ing organizations as. working.
There are probably other plans which would
have a good chance of successful operation. One
student told us recently that he thought the
present set-up would be all right if only all
student members of student-faculty boards were
elective. While not going far enough, in our
opinion, it would be a definite improvement on
the existing state of affairs.
Put the constitution which was printed in
Tuesday's Daily provides for a student gov-
erning body that would be so large and un-
wieldy and so far removed from the student
body that we feel it would fall of its own
weight within a short period.
However, this question should be left up to
the campus and not to a Daily editor. If the
students backing it are really sincere in their
belief that their constitution is superior and
could be successfully operated, then we believe
that the Student Affairs Committee should give
their tentative approval and that the student
body should be allowed to choose between the
two. That is providing that some other group
does not make itself heard in the meantime with
an entirely different proposal. Perhaps some
workable compromise is possible between the
various plans so united student support could
be given to student government. But in view of
the basic differences in approach pointed out
above, we rather doubt it.
Certainly there is a need for some sort of
student government being established soon.
Right now the University is operating on the
assumption that what is good for the Uni-
versity is good for the students (to paraphrase
the U.S. Chamber of Commerce slogan.) We
believe that this philosophy should be modi-
fied to take account of the idea that what
is good for students is good for the University.
An effective form of student government is
the only way -to make unified student opinion
-Ray Dixon

TFVENTS of the last few Gays in
London show plainly that Britain
has become the center of conflict
among the three great powers. She
is in the strange and difficult position
of having to oppose Russian socialism
with British socialism, while simul-
taneously opposing American capital-
ism- with British capitalism. -Or, you
can put it the other way, and say that
she finds herself opposing Russian
socialism with British capitalism, and
American capitalism with British so-
Her lot in international life is a
hard one, for she, alone among the
three great nations, finds her inter-
ests gravely threatened by the re-
maining two, neither of whom, how-
ever, seriously threatens the other,
either geographically or economically.
Britain could not be more squarely in
the middle; and in a very few days,
now, the picture will become even
more painfully clear, as our Con-
gressional isolationists try to keep her
from obtaining the $3,750,000,000
credit her industry needs, while Rus-
sia continues the political pressurej
which is designed to challenge her
sway in the Mediterranean, and her
clear routes to the East.
Britain's position is a curiousj
one, for her people have moved to
the left, far more than have ours,
and have much less desire, on the
whole, to challenge Russia than
have ours. Yet a Britain which has
come out of the ' war lean and
naked, without surpluses, without
fat, finds she can give nothing
away; not even ancient claims and
prerogatives which used to be chal-
lenged in her own debates by labor
and the left.
Her socialist government fights
communist Russia for place in the*
Mediterranean and for lifelines with
as much gusto as was once shown by
Victorian Britain in fighting Czarist
Russia on the same issues; she tries
to keep communism out of Greece,
and to press it back over the Iranian
She fights for her assets, few and
old and battered as these may be; she
fights for colonialism; she even fights,
in rather unsocialist fashion, for
higher fares on the Transatlantic air-
lines, continuing that same high
price, low-turnover policy for which

her Labor speakers once, eloquently
used to denounce British industry as
But it is her fight against Russia
which most attracts the attention
of the world; and a ripple runs
through American opinion; the
"clash of empires," British and.
Russian, is hailed with a certain
amount of glee; Kevini is quoted.
and used in arguments against
Russia; and the Labor government
"though it is socialist" wins a cer-
tain popularity in American con-
servative circles, as, indeed, it has
won in conservative circles at home.
BUT these same American circles
will soon if'se in a different way
the fact that Britain's government is
socialist; they will denounce the pro-
posed $3,750.000,000 credit, when it
comes up in Congress, as the wanton
use of American resources to socialize
British industry; and some of those
who are now encouraging Mr. Bevin
the most will try hardest to defeat
the loan. Mr. Bevin will then have to
take up the westward half of his
strange struggle against the worlds
That the British press and people
feel themselves embattled, both
east and west, is now abundantly

clear; British newspapers are al-
most unanimous in speaking of
both Russia and America withu a
kind of equal asperity, and a
mournful surrender of hope. The
British feel that the Russians want
to dominate their old trade routes,
and that we want their old trade;
and they are gathering around
their government in a new show of
unity that is both an echo and a
caricature, of the unity of wartime.
It seems to me to be the first task
of world statesmanship to release
Britain from this unhappy position,
to free her of the need of having to
fight both wings of the former Grand
Alliance. No one expected precisely
this to come out of the war, but it
has; and it seems to be peculiarly an
American opportunity to work it out,
by giving of economic support to Brit-
ain, and by helping Britain and Rus-
sia to come to an agreement on the
strategic realities of the Near East.
Britain deserves more than this
future of battering herself against
two walls; and the world is too
round for any people to have to be
in the middle, if the willto take
advantage of its roundness and
oneness exists.
(Copyright, 1946, N.Y. Post Syndicate)


Publication in the Daily Official Bul-
letin is constructive notice to all mem-
bers of the University. Notices for the
Bulletin should be sent in typewritten
form to the Assistant to the President,
1021 Angell Hall, by 3:30 p. m. on the day
preceding publication (11:00 a. m. Sat-

VOL. LVI, No. 71


U.S. Steel in German Cartel

WASHINGTON.-Dozens of G. L investigators
have been working since the shooting war
stopped to help win another war. This is a war
against international big business, which recog-
nized no national boundaries, which used coun-
tries only as market divisions for its products,
and which at one time aided Hitler, Mussolini
and Hirohito just as much as it did France and
What the G. I. investigators have uncovered
in Germany is a tribute to Nazi thoroughness
and to the gullibility of American big business.
For what it amounts to is a world plan by which
Germany expanded its industrial capacity for
war while simultaneously curbing the industrial
capacity of this country and other potential
And names of the same men who have been
dickering with Truman over steel--Ben Fair-
less, Eugene Grace, et al-have turned up in
European files as a part of the cartel which
unwittingly played into the, hands of the
Nazis. It is a story which the leaders of the
steel industry would like to forget. But the
Justice department hasn't forgotten it.
American participation in the steel cartel was
decided upon as late as 1937-when there was
no longer any doubt regarding Hitler's warlike
intentions. By that time he had already invaded
the Rhineland, showed his hand by sending
arms to Franco, and boasted openly in speech
after speech that Germany would dominate
The steel cartel files, seized in Luxembourg,
reveal that S. M. Bash of Bethlehem Steel and
A. G. Mundle of U. S. Steel took the initiative
in binding their companies to the cartel. Four
months later an agreement to divide up world
markets was reached.
Anti-'Trust Act
THE STEEL BARONS were careful about the
Sherman Anti-Trust Act, however, and the
minutes of the June 1937 meeting reveal that
no written agreement regarding U.S. markets
was concluded.
In February 1938, a delegation of European
steel men came to the United States.
"Our representatives," the Luxembourg
files showed, "obtained a very clear declara-
tion of responsibility for the agreements from"
Messrs. Eugene Grace of Bethlehem Steel,
Ben Fairless of U. S. Steel, Rufus Wysor of
Republic Steel, Frank Purnell of Youngstown

Sheet and Tube, M. Hackett of Jones and
Laughlin Steel, Charles Hook of Armco Inter-
national, William Holloway of Wheeling Steel,
Robert Wolcott of Lukens Steel, and Ernest
Weir of the National Steel Corporation (Weir-
ton and Great Lakes Steel.)
Also included in the American group were
Inland Steel, Newport Rolling Mills, Pittsburgh
Steel, Otis, and the Allan Wood Company.
Race for War
not only a division of markets but arrange-
ments for price-maintenance. Quotas were set
regarding the total production of each partici-.
pating company, with fines levied against the
firm if it exceeded its quota.
However, here is the pay-off. The Ger-
mans always exceeded their quotas, after
which they politely paid their fines and then
kept on speeding their output of steel in the
race for war. Meanwhile, American and Brit-
ish firms stayed within their quotas and kept
down their war machines.
In contrast with the Germans, American firms,
when they exceeded their quotas, were contrite
and apologetic. For instance, here is an item
from the steel cartel minutes of April 18, 1939,
which read:
"In regard to a recent shipment by the Amer-
ican group to Belgium, i. e. a home market, the
American representative stated that he was tak-
ing this matter up with his group in order to
avoid a recurrence."
How the cartel worked is also illustrated by a
cable sent by Eugene Grace of Bethlehem Steel
to Sir Charles Wright in London, dated Jan. 12,
1938, which read:
"Glad to have your message and talk with
Elliott. I feel sure there will be no question
about performance of member companies. Our
only difficulty will come if at all from outside
and uncontrolled interests. It will be our hope
and effort to protect prices and haye scheduled
bringing all influence possible on uncontrolled
interests. You of course in like manner will
insist upon performance in ou.r pricing zone.
Best wishes, Grace."
These agreements were renewed as late as
December 1938, long after Hitler had seized
Austria; and after the armed truce at Munich.
They were even renewed in April 1939, just
four months before the first shots were fired
in Poland.
(Copyright, 1946, by the Bell Syndicate, Inc.)

February 6, 1946
To the Editor:
N ANSWER to Marshall Wallace's
editorial on Student Government:
in emphasizing that the framers
of the Forum -Council Constitutions
were the heads of the student organi-
zations they represented, Mr. Wallace
has touched precisely the point to
which we most strenuously object.
Representatives of existing organi-
zations convene to set up a Forum,
consisting of representatives of or-
ganizations, and a Council, composed
of persons who have held executive
posts in organizations (or later, stu-
dents who have worked in the Stu-
dent Government itself); this Coun-
cil nominates its own successors. At
no point in this self-perpetuating
chain do the independent, unorgan-
ized students who sincerely want a1
meaningful student government, have
a chance to represent themselves.t
And yet the very thing that this cam-
pus needs most is a government that
springs directly from the student body
as a whole.
Whichever constitution goes intoa
effect, changes will undoubtedly
have to be made later on; but they
will be merely modifications of the
basic plan. Once the Student Gov-
ernment is set up, we do not want
to tear down the whole structure1
and begin again. The Congress-1
Cabinet Constitution represents anr
approach to student governmentt
which is radically different in spiritt
and purpose from the earlier plan;I
for that reason, the issues involvedY
should be carefully considered by
the entire campus before any gov-
ernment is set up.
Of course Mr. Wallace is rightt
in saying that if each group of six
individuals who had a differentr
idea were to submit a constitution,t
there would be nothing but con-t
fusion. But in point of fact, noth-r
ing like that has happened. Ther
framers of the Congress-Cabinetq
Constitution undertook the task
only because they realized that
there was a widely prevalent de-
mand for a more representative t
type of government. The Congress-
Cabinet Constitution has nevert
been the mere brain-child of six r
individuals; it expresses the united
will of all who are in favor of a
significant, democratic student gov-K
--Robert Taylor
Sy Crockett Johnson 4

Attention All Students: Registra-
tion for the Spring Term i
By action of the Conference of
Deans, all. students are required to
register for the Spring Term at, and
no later than, the time announced in
the Registration Schedule. Late reg-
istrations will not be permitted by the
administrative authorities of the sev-
eral units, except in the case of vet-
erans who have not been in residence
for the Fall Term. Students must pre-
sent their identification cards at the
time of registration and must file
their registration material them-
selves, not by proxy.
The reason for this requirement is
the unprecedented demand which the
enrollment for the Spring Term will
make upon the educational resources
and the housing facilities of the Uni-
versity. Because of these conditions,
it is absolutely essential that regis-
tration and classificationbe com-
pleted according to schedule.
Dr. Frank E. Robbins
Assistant to the President
Attention Faculty Members:
Faculty Bibliography. The blanks
that were distributed for the Faculty
Bibliography are overdue. Those who
have not returned the blanks must do
so at once if their names and publi-
cations are to appear in the next is-
Veterans in Refresher Course. All
books and supplies for the Refresher
Course must be purchased not later
than Feb. 9. This deadline is neces-
sary to allow the University time to
audit and pay the veterans' accounts
at the various stores and, in turn, to
submit invoices to the Veterans Ad-
ministration for reimbursement be-
fore the end of the course.
Boyd C. Stephens
Attention February Graduates Who
Ordered Graduation Annaunce-
ments: Please call for your announce-
ments today or tomorrow from 10:00
to 12:00 or 1:00 to 3:00. They will be
distributed outside of Room 4 in Uni-
versity Hall. You must bring your
receipts in order to obtain your or-
Recommendations for Departmen-
tal Honors: Teaching departments
wishing to recommend tentative Feb-
ruary graduates from the College of
Literature, Science, and the Arts, and
the School of Education for depart-
mental honors should send such
names to the Registrar's Office, Room
4, University Hall, by noon, Feb.'26.
Orders for caps and gowns for men
graduating Feb. 23 will be taken
through Saturday by Moe's- Sport
Shop. All orders must be taken by
hem so that caps and gowns will ar-
rive in time for graduation.
Students, College of Literature,
Sience, and the Arts: Students are
'equested to conserve the supply of
College Announcements by using for
lie spring term the copies issued to
hem last fall. The large supplemen-
ary edition which was printed is al-
nost exhausted. Any remaining new
opies must be issued only to students

Directed Teaching, Qualifying Ex-
amination: All students expecting to
do directed teaching next term are
required to pass a qualifying exami-
nation in the subject in which they
expect to teach. This examination
will be held on Saturday, Mar. 2, at
8:30 a.m., in the auditorium of the
University High School. The exami-
nation will consume about four hours'
time; promptness is therefore essen-
Applications in Support of Research
To give Research Committees and
the Executive Board adequate time to
study all proposals, it is requested
that faculty members having projects
needing support for 1946-1947 file
their proposals in the Office of the
Graduate School by Friday, Feb. 8.
Those wishing to renew previous re-
quests whether now receiving support
or not should so indicate. Application
forms will be mailed or can be ob-
tained at Secretary's Office, Room
1006dRackham Building, Telephone
Women students who do not expect
to be able to register without a Uni-
versity loan should apply immediately
at the Office of the Dean of Women.
It is not possible to grant regular
loans without advanced application.
Women students whose residence
arrangements for the spring term re-
quire special permission are instruct-
ed to call at the Office of the Dean of
Women prior to registration.
Resort in northern Michigan needs
experienced waiters and maids. Those
interested may apply at the Bureau of
Appointments, 201 Mason Hall.
Summer camp in Michigan needs
experienced arts and crafts counselor
to direct their handicraft program.
Prefers woman with some knowledge
of singing and dramatics. Those in-
terested may obtain further informa-
tion at the Bureau ,of Appointments
and Occupational Information, 201
Mason Hall.
City of Detroit Civil Service an-
nouncement for Student Technical
Assistant (Male) has been received
in this office. Specialties in engineer-
ing and business administration, Also
for a Student Technical Assistant
(Male & Female) with specialties in
general science, physical education,
and social science. Salary is from
1,928 to $2,000 per year.
City of Detroit Civil Service an-
nouncement has also been received
for a Junior Stenographer. Salary is
from $2,245 to $2,397.
For further information, call at
the Bureau of Appointments, 201
Mason Hall.
University Lecture: Dr. Jorge
Americano, Rector of the University
of Sao Paulo, Brazil, will speak on
the subject, "Education as a Bulwark
for International Law," at 4:00 p.m.,
Thursday, Feb. 7, in Room 120 Hutch-
ins Hall; auspices of the Law School.
The public is cordially invited.
Academic Notices
Psychology 113 will meet today in
Hill Auditorium. Use rear entrances.
M. G. Colby
Concentration in English. Students
from A through K should arrange
for appointments with Dr. Morris
Greenhut in 3232 A.H.; students from
L through Z with Prof. J. L. Davis in
3228 A.H.

Edited and managed by students of the University of
Michigan under the authority of the Board of Control
of Student Publications.
Editorial Staff
Rai Dixon . . . . . . . . . . Managing Editor
Robert Goldman . . . . . . . . . . City Editor'
Betty Roth ... . . . . . . . EditorialDirector
Margaret Farmer.... .... . Associate Editor
Arthur J. Kraft . . . . . . . . . Associate Editor
Bill Mullendore . . . . . . . . . . Sports Editor
Mazy Lu .Heath . . . Associate Sports Editor
Ami Schutz . . . ........ Women's Editor
Donia Guimaraes . . . . Associate Women's Editor
Business Staff
Dorothy Flint . . . . . . . . Business Manager
Joy Altman . . . . . . . Associate Business Mgr.
Telephone 23-24-1
Editorials published in The Michigan Daily
are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only.
Member of The Associated Press

Naturally, your Fairy Godfather knows what he
: - n :n .r mr . v A c.:.ln f~l fhelf i


it,er,could be done that way, of course.
But. be realistic. . . There ore millions


W711 vats make ua one

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