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January 21, 1946 - Image 3

Resource type:
The Michigan Daily, 1946-01-21

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Transmission of Virus Studied by Doctors

Children Are Kept Constructively
Occupied DuringHospitalization

Problems in the transmission of
the polio virus are being studied by
the Department of Epidemiology in
the School of Public Health under a
research program. direted by Dr.
Thomas Francis Jr., Dr. Gordon
Brown, assistant professor of, epi-
demiology, revealed in an interview.
Since the fall of 1941, Dr. Brown
said, the department has been en-
gaged in extensive field work dur-
ing the polio season of July, Aug-
ust and September. "Our staff,"
he declared, "always prepared to
move at a moment's notice if an
epidemic occurs, has traveled to
many states including Ohio, Texas,
Arkansas, Oklahoma, Tennessee
and Illinois."
"The exact way in which the virus
spreads has not been determined,"
Dr. Brown said, "but we suspect that
it may be transmitted by human be-
ings, insects, wild rodents or even
water, food or sewage. Since all of
these may be possible vectors of the
disease," he asserted, "they all must
be considered when an epidemic oc-
He explained that the greatest
problem in the study of plio trans-
mission is in discovering what route
the virus takes.
"We have found recently," he
said, "that the virus may be present
in the intestinal tract of the human
for some time before the onset of
the disease, but the significance of
this cannot be determined until
we know the major route of trans-!
mission. We are studying the ex-
tent of the presence of virus in the
population in order to find out how
many people carry the virus with-
out actually having the clinical dis-
Animals used in the laboratory in-
clude monkeys, mice, guinea pigs and
Care, Treatment
Of Polio Costly,
Says O'Connor
Expenses of care and treatment
that make poliomyelitis one of the
costliest diseases known to medicine
were detailed today by Basil O'Con-
nor, President of the National Foun-
dation for Infantile Paralysis, now1
conducting the March of Dimes.
Hospitalization for a single infan-1
tile paralysis patient costs more than
$2,500 a year, he said. Iron lung cas-
es, requiring special nursing attention
24 hours a day, may run over $7,000
a year. Some cases cost less, some
much more, depending on the sever-
ity of the attack, hospital lcation
and other factors.
Foundation's Function
"Few families," Mr. O'Connor de-
clared, "can meet the cost of extended
poliomyelitis treatments. That is why
the National Foundation and its chap-
ters throughout the country are
pledged to see that no victim of in-'
fantile paralysis goes withont treat-
ment for lack of funds, regardless of
age, race, creed or color.
"The high cost of this crippling di-
ease," he continued, "is due to sev-
eral factors: (1) patients who are
hospitalized require, almost constant
attention from doctors, nurses and
phlyiscal therapists; (2) additional
personnel is frequently needed to pre-
pare and apply hot packs; and (3)
special equipment and materials, such
as braces, wheelchairs, iron lungs,
etc., are often necessary.
Nursing Care High
Nursing care is the costliest single
item in the care of infantile paralysis
patients. Paralyzed persons, especial-
ly children, require the unceasing at-
tention of hospital personnel. Such
patients must be fed, and need help
in all natural functions.
Thus, nursing care alone for an iron
lung patient in a metropolitan hos-
pital will cost more than $40 av day.
Approximately $15 each will be ex-

pended for two day nurses and $12
for a night nurse. This is exclusive of
hospital charges and the additional
services which may be necessary, such
as physical therapy treatments, hot
packs, orthopedic surgery and the
Second most costly item in the
threatment of poliomyelitis is special
equipment such as hot pack machines,
hydrothergpy equipment, iron lungs,
braces, orthopedic shoes, massage
tables, heat lamps, walkers, crutches
and wheelchairs.
14,000 Persons Stricken
Infantile paralysis attacked nearly
14,000 persons in the United States in
1945, making it the fourth worst polio
year on record. Infantile paralysis in-
cidence the past three years exceeded
that of any previous fiveyear period
on record.
The National Foundation and its
local chapters throughout the country
disbursed more than $6,500,000 in
1945 for the treatment of polio. Over
$1,500,000 was advanced to local
chapters by the national organization

rabbits. Dr. Brown explained that
the monkey is the most useful expe-
rimental animal because it is the only
one that is susceptible to the various
human strains of the disease. "We
are looking for strains, however," he
said, "that will go into other labora-
tory animals."
Dr. Brown described the etiologi-
cal agent of polio as a filterable virus,
smaller than bacteria, that can be
seen only with an electron micro-
'You MayHve
Polio Without
Realizing It'
You may have had polio without
realizing it.
This dread disease, doctors believe,
strikes thousands of people in the
form of sore throats, stomach upsets
and "bad colds" which'are not severe
enough for the victim to think it
necessary to call a doctor. Unfortu-

pools are a potential source of dan-
Attempts to solve these problems
are slow and costly. Typical of the
obstacles is the fact that ordinary ex-
perimental animals are not affected
by all the virus strains, and much ex-
perimentation can be done only with
certain kinds of monkeys, both diffi-
cult and expensive to procure.
Problems exist also in the fields
diagnosis and treatment. The
fsymptoms (slight fever, stiff neck,
irritability) are so hard to recog-
nize that definite diagnosis can
often be made only with the aid of
a lumbar puncture, in which spinal
fluid is removed and examined. The
1University Hospital, Miss Dorothy
Ketcham, secretary for the local
March of Dimes drive, said, acts
as a center for diagnosing polio-
myelitis and patients come even 200
miles to be examined here.
Present methods of treatment help
most patients to become better, even
though they may never be well. The
treatment, however, usually extends
over such a long period of time, often
many months, that most families
cannot afford to pay for it by them-
selves. The Kenny packs, which at-
tracted so much attention a few years
ago, are now thought to be beneficial
mainly in easing pain and in their
psychological effect on the patient.
In order to give comfort to patients,
they are applied every hour and as
often at 12 to 16 times a day. Physi-
cal therapy, such as bathing affected
limbs in warm moving water, is also
helpful, time-consuming, and expen-
Cases in which the nerve cells
controlling breathing and heart ac-
tion are affected are particularly
serious. "Iron lungs" and continual
care, according to Dr. James L.
.Wilson, foremost authority on.
respirator, may save and some-
times completely cure those who
have "bulbar" polio and have great
difficulty with breathing or swal-
lowing. This requires, of course,
extensive hospitalization.
Infantile paralysis is a costly dis-
ease-costly because of the research
which must be carried on, because of
the types of experiments necessary,
because of the lengthy and expensive
treatment it involves. It is only
through you and the dimes you con-
tribute that the fight'again polio-
meylitis can be carried on.
Victims Without
Money Treated
Emphasizing the fact that care is
provided at the University Hospital
for any polio victim regardless of fi-
nancial status, Miss Dorothy Ket-
cham, secretary for the local March
of Dimes Campaign, said that expen-
ditures during 1945 exceeded by $4,-
000 the amount of money raised in
the campaign last year.
"In 1945, exclusive of the month of
December, we spent $11,535 for the
care of the 43 cases now being treated
by the hospital," Miss Ketcham said.
"The overdraft expenditure was met
by using residual funds from other
years," she explained.
Miss Ketcham also said that during
the year just past one patient was
fortunate enough to go to the Warm
Springs Foundation and a number
have gone to the Oakland County
Contagious for a time. Others have
received treatment in Farmington,
Michigan. "Patients from Ypsilanti,
Chelsea, Dexter, and other neighbor-
ing cities are treated at the hospital,"
Miss Ketcham said.

To keep children constructively
occupied during hospitalization, they
are kept as active and interested as
the doctor thinks advisable, Mrs.
Mildred Walton, director of the Spe-
cial Education Division of the Social
Service Department of University
Hospital, stated in an interview yes-
The Galens Workshop, the Ki-
wanis playroom, a glass-enclosed sun
deck and an open-air playroom,
equipped with sandboxes, gardens
and sailboat ponds, located on the
ninth floor of the Hospital are giv-
en over to young patients. ' Indivi-
dual and group activities are pro-
vided for the children, even the bed-
ridden, who, if possible, are wheeled
to the roof to give, them the fu~ll
benefits of sun, air, activities and
companionship. A children's library
is maintained through gifts, its
shelves stocked with picture and
reading books for children in the
primary grades, pre-primary and
recreational fields.
Roof Facilities Offered

the child that he has a place in the
world, Mrs. Walton emphasized, ev-
en though a part of his body may
be useless. A child who is totally
paralyzed is given something to think
about, such as arranging parties,
playing competitive mental games,
and participating in movie andi
group discussions. Children who are
partially disabled may work in the
Galens' workshop where there is a
full supply of tools and equipment,
and where they learn that there is
something which they can do. He is
allowed to participate in quieter
games so that he will not feel apart
from the group.
Jandicraft Items Offered
Whenrchildren cannot come to the
roof, Mrs. Walton declared, special
activities teachers go to them, wheel-
ing a brightly-colored cart, in which
there are books, games, and an infi-
nite number of handicraft items.
The physician details the require-
ments of particular children and the
teacher takes over from there. Her
main object is to make the child

-Daily Photo by Ms: 1
YOUR CONTRIBUTIONS HELP: Doras Oldfield, an n paient
at University Hospital, is one of the many all over the cm4ry wbo will
be helped on the road to recovery by the dimes you donate toa, tomor-
row, and Wednesday in the University drive headed by .Je X fey
and George Spaulding.'
9 A
Developiment o Prsonality,,
Strssed in Instryuting Patei
U' ' ospital School . wherever he desires and whenever l(
desires. There is no coercion! Mrs.
Does Varied Tasks Notley emphasized, no attempt to
make the student keep up with his
A mentally constructive, personal- work while convalescing, yet the ma_
ity development angle is used in the jority of patients, once they have
begun, make rapid progress and i t
teaching of pupils who are patients~ they return to the hospital, they seek
at University Hospital, according to ; out their former teacher, without
Mrs. Geraldine Notley, Principal and having to be asked.
Director of the Hospital School, one Patients suffering from infantile
of the divisions of the Social Service paralysis, as well as from diabetes
Department. and other chronic illnesses, benefit

Children with every type of ill- happy by developing new interests,
ness are allowed to take advantage giving him the best of attention and
of the facilities on the roof, as it is care so that infantile paralysis or
^amiliarly called, Mrs. Walton said. any similar disease with which the
Among them are some suffering from child is afflicted, will not prove as
infantile paralysis and other bone hopeless as it might be otherwise.
and joint diseases for whom special His time in the Hospital will permit
attention and planning may be in- him new inter-personal experience
'icated. The work of the Special and exchange which will be con-
'ducation Department begins where structive and developmental in his
he physical treatment stops, though succeeding life. The child, Mrs. Wal-
.aturaliy doctors and social service ton concluded, learns through play
workers work in close cooperation, the rules of the road os well as the
Every effort is made to convince I road to usefulness itself.
- - - -





President Truman ..
in speaking of the March of Dimes
drive said, "There can be no slow-
down in the fight against disease.
Our victories abroad must be fol-
lowed by a victory on the home
front against this common enemy
of all mankind. I am certain that
no American can fail to respond to
such a challenge.
nately, Dr. Ernest H. Watson, Uni-
versity Hospital peditracian, said
persons with this mild and undiag-
nosed form of poliomyelitis may
transmie the virus to others in whom
the disease may take the fearful
form which we call "infantile paraly-
A disease is terrifying, however,
only until it has been brought under
control. It is the hope of those who
study poliomyelitis, Dr. Watson
stated, that eventually a successful
vaccine may be discovered. It is
known, for instance, that polio is
caused b( a virus which cannot be
seen with) ordinary microscopes, and
that this virus has several strains. It
is also known that this virus may be
transmitted through droplets ex-
pelled when an infected person
speaks and sneezes, and that water
may be contaminated with it in the
same manner as typhoid.
Even so, he continues, scientists
remain confronted with the prob-
lems of why the disease is more
prevalent in summefr, although the
disease does strike in winter; what
part insects may play in the trans-
mission; whether or not swimming

oaet 7 so Ax week
1 :00 A.M. to 1:00 A.M., MONDAY THRU THURSDAY
1 1 :00 A.M. to 2 A.M., FRIDAY
11:00 A.M. to 4:00,A.M., SATURDAY
2:00 P.M. to 1 A.M., SUNDAY
&~keo*46 9ill

In existence for 25 years and under
the direction of Mrs. Notley during
most of that time, the school has
become an educational unit serving
patients from the age of four through
high school and even college level.
A staff of fully qualified teachers
gives individual instruction to pa-
tients, either at their bedside or in
the schoolroom, which is . fully
equipped with maps, tables, charts,
limited materials for laboratory stu-
dy, and typewriters for those de-
Airing commercial subjects or just a
general knowledge of typing.
Individual InstructionE
Individual instruction, used while
patients are hospitalized, Mrs. Not-
ley stated, is advantageous to a cer-
tain extent and for the limited per-
iod of time. Each case is individually
considered, books that the child uses
in his school are obtained if possible,
and the pupil may start his work

especially from the school because
of the length of time they spend in
the hospital. Many have received
the greater part of their education
there and have taken their places in
the world and in college on an equal
footing with people their own age.
Commercial Course Offered
A complete college preparatory as
well as commercial course is taught.
Every grade from one to twelve is
listed, and no matter how little time
is spent, the pupil receives a certifi-
cate of achievement when he leaves
the hospital as well as his discharge.
A report of his progress is sent back
to the school from which the pupil
came. Very often, Mrs. Notley de-
clared, the pupil returns ahead of
his class.
The main purpose of such instruc-
tion, Mrs. Notley said, is to channel-
ize the interest and energies of the
child along constructive lines.
- I






Students who eat out regularly
make LEO PING'S LUNCH a daily

take a
- -
- N
to find your

Come to the TAVERN CAFE
TERIA for a delicious meal serv
in homey atmosphere.




' /7 p } 1

About the meals at the MAY-
FLOWER. The restaurant where
every meal is a treat (.

Friday Evening, January 25, 8:30
Quartet in D minor, Op. 76, No. 2. . Hxo
Quare in E-flat major (1943) .. . . -HINDEM\IT
Quartet in t in E major, Op. 74 . . . . . . . BEETH0N
Saturday Afternoon, January 26, 2:30



Therapy Training
Plan Fights Polio

Quartet in F major, K. 590 . . . . . .
Quartet No. 12 . . . . . . . . . . ..
Quartet in G major, Op. 161 . . . . .
Saturday Evening, January 26, 8:30
Quartet in A major, Op. 18, No. 5 . . . . .
Quartet . . . . . . . . . . .


Drop in after a brain teasing hour
and have one of our special malted
milks. CAMPUS DRUG, 224 South



llo "



/" '

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