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NIGHT EDITOR: FREUDENHEIM
Editorials published in The Michigan Daily
are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only.
S ENATOR Arthur H. Vandenberg's pledge that
the United States' UNO delegation will seek
United Nations support of freedom of the press
raises the questions of free access to sources of
news, and fair and impartial reporting of this
Free access to news sources and lack of
secrecy and censorship is the first requisite of
a free press. Full and complete information
of the activities of all countries is the best
safeguard of international understanding and
However, free access to news sources will be
of little value, unless such news is fairly and
impartially reported. Stories which are slanted
to give the views of the writer, rather than the
facts as they really are have no place in a free
press. The use of words which carry a connota-
tion not borne out by the facts i the most com-
mon way of slanting news stories. It is especially
bad because such slanting is not always readily
Accurate reporting by newspapers and care-
ful reading by the public are both necessary,
for accurate knowledge of news and consequent
LOUD have been the shouts of "aggressor"
levied against Russian foreign policy in the
Balkans by those who are uninformed of its basis.
A little explanation would be a great aid to those
who are confused about the perennial Balkan
Russia's efforts to establish economic ties
in the Balkans derive in part from immediate
need of her own devastated areas. The order
given her State Planning Comnmission sets a
five-year limit not only for completely re-
building communities and industries, but also
for reaching by 1950 a production level far
above that of 1938-39.
That is the real explanation behind Moscow's
insistence upon reparation claims against Ger-
many and former Axis satellites', especially in
materials and industrial equipment. Nothing is
permitted to interfere with the concentrated
drive for rehabilitation.
Russia's trade treaties with Bulgaria, Ru-
mania, and Czechoslovakia, and those pending
with Hungary and Austria have also a political
basis They are examples of Russia's unwilling-
ness to take risks in the Balkan region which
might permit alienation of their support through
infiltration of foreign capital without Russian
During the past fifty years such investment
placed key Balkan industries . in the hands of
Russia's opponents in Europe. The political
impl cations of capital from 'the outside, free
to go its own way, have shaped recent Balkan
So far, the industrial development repre-
sented by such investments has been of scant
ben,fit to native populations. Their wealth
has been drained away and their poverty is
Rusia has agreed to American proposals for
Imm-diate withdrawal of their joint armies of
occupation from Czechoslovakia. The Russians
are beginning to see that an army of occupa-
tion, is not likely to be an ambassador of good
-m - s aa-wil nnrn> fi. tclxa nffl- ,-, a i
By DREW PEARSON
WASHINGTON. - Admiral Leahy, who since
the departure of arry Hopkins knows more
about what goes on behind the scenes in inter-
national conferences than anyone else around
the White House, dropped in to see his chief,
President Truman, the other day. Leahy has
worried over the morale of U.S. troops abroad
and recalled a committment Franklin Roosevelt
had made to Churchill to keep more than 2,000,-
000 men in the American armies of occupation.
"I told Franklin Roosevelt after the Yalta
conference," the White House chief of staff
said to Truman, "that we couldn't keep that
many men abroad. The country, I told him,
won't stand for it.
"These are boys who were glad to fight a war
to defend their country when it was in danger,
But they're not a professional army, and when
the fighting's over it'll be like a football game--
everybody'll want to go home,
"You can't expect boys to stay over there mak-
ing $50 a month when they know they can make
$50 a week back home,
"That's what I told Roosevelt," Leahy con-
tinued. "I'm not at all sure he agreed with me,
but that's exactly what's happening today.
"A few hot-heads and Communists are tak-
ing advantage of a situation which is ready
made for them and the result is making us
ridiculous in the eyes of the world."
NOTE-Admiral Leahy doesn't for a minute
think we should get out of Germany and Japan
altogether. But he does think we can curtail
U.S. forces in Germany down to what we actu-
ally need and let this army be one of volunteers
recruited expressly for overseas occupation.
The same system should be followed in Japan,
where an occupation force of Marines eventu-
ally could take over. The islands of the Pacific
and many other less essential areas could
easily be policed by the Navy with much small-
er use of manpower.
Cordell Hll's Poker
FVER SINCE the Texas Baptists lampooned
President Truman for poker-playing, every-
one around the White House has been poker-shy.
So also is Governor Dewey. During the last
campaign, one newsman, after writing a very
complimentary story about Dewey, submitted it
to him for comment. .He described the New York
governor as a home-loving man whose usual form.
of relaxation was a quiet poker game with a
few friends on Saturday night.
Dewey called the author, praised his story,
but finally blurted out:
"Now, about those Saturday nights -
couldn't you change it from poker to bridge?"
Not so sensitive is Cordell Hull. Col. Harold
Hinton, now returned from five years in the
Army to rejoin the New York Times, is Cordell
Hull's official biographer. In writing his bi-
ography, he sent the former Secretary of Stat
several anecdotes for verification. One was a
story regarding Hull's ability as a poker player.
In the Spanish-American war, so the story went,
Hull was so good at poker that he kept his com-
pany continually out of funds.
When the story cane back from Hull, the
Secretary of State had crossed out the word
company" and submitted the word "regiment."
NOTE-There are only 170 men in a com-
pany, but about 2,800 in regiment.
Japs, Marines Cooperate
TWO-fisted Maury Maverick, retiring chairman
of Smaller War Plants Corporation, gave
President Truman a very disturbing report on
conditions in the Orient last week.
Maverick told Truman he was particularly dis-
tressed about the morale of American forces in
China, where they are increasingly embittered
at Chiang Kai-Shek. The G.I.'s, Maverick re-
ported, are boiling mad over the way Chiang has
insisted on retaining 20,000 armed Japanese to
help put down rival Chinese factions.
When Maverick lauded at the Peiping air-
port, he told Truman that he found 1,000 Ma-
rines on one side of the field and 600 armed
Japanese on the other. The American boys,
many of whose buddies died fighting the Japs,
were outraged over the fact that they had to
cooperate with their enemies-all for the sake
of Chiang Kai-Shek. Maverick went so far as
to warn that there might be instances of Chi-
nese killing American troops because of our
new being on the same side as the Japs.
Maverick also reported to Truman that Ameri-
can businessmen were suffering economic set-
backs in China despite our help to the Chinese
government. He said that while the Chinese
kept American businessmen at arms' length, the
British and Russians were already on their way to
resuming large-scale trade.
The Russians have already signed a secret
trade agreement with the Chinese which gives
them far greater trade opportunities than Amer-
At the end of Maverick's gloomy report, the
President explained that he was not favoring
the Chiang Kai-Shek government, but that he
did very much favor peace in China. He said
he was aware of the dangers in China, but
didn't see what could be done about it until
peace was finally worked ou.
NOTE-Since then it looks as if General
Marshal finally had worked out the long-de-
sired goal of Chinese peace. State Department
experts are very much hoping the peace will
be more than a temporary lull.
(Copyright, 1946, by the Bel Syndicate, Inc.)
I'D RATHER IE RIGHT:
By SAMUEL GRAFTON
HE ASSEMBLY of the United Nations Or-
ganization is trying to decide what it is; it
does not quite know; it is seeking for a defini-
tion of itself, and the first week's struggle has
been largely confined to moves and counter-
moves directed toward giving the body one per-
manent Jhape or another.
The Russians, for example, seem to have little
feeling that the Assembly is an organism, des-
tined to develop a life and traditions of its own;
they appear to regard the Assembly as merely
a convenient place where the powers may meet
and work out their agreements. Any concept
such as that of "the will of the Assembly" seems
quite strange to the Russians; they are forever
butting their heads against the workings of
parliamentary law, attempting to make speeches
after the time for speaking has been declared
closed, etc.; they show an almost puzzled resist-
ance to the idea that the rules of a deliberative
body can be superior to the will of any of its
members; their stern realism is offended by what
seems to them the legal fiction that the Assembly
has a mind and purpose of its own, as distin-
guished from the minds and purposes of its
At the other extreme stand the small na-
tions; and the "small nations line" holds that
the Assembly is everything, that its individual
members are, or should be, as nothing. Thus
a week-end dispatch told us that the small
nations were profoundly reassured because the
great powers had fallen out among themselves;
this meant to the small -nations that the
Assembly was being an assembly, and not a
consortium of great powers dictating to the
There seems something wrong, of course, in
the idea that a disagreement among the great
powers should be reassuring to anybody. That is
not a development which most men would place
in the category of reassuring news; but the small
nations are possessed by the hope that they
have, in the Assembly, a great friend, made up
in part of the great powers, but greater than the
great powers; a friend who enjoys only a legal
and corporate existence, but whom they hope to
make into a real power, like a nation with armies.
Both France and China are, in an interesting
fashicn, drifting over toward this viewpoint;
both have been admitted into the top circle,
as the smallest of the great powers, but both
seem to prefer to become the greatest of the
small powers, instead.
HERE is also what might be called "the Brit-
ish line." The British have long been accus-
tomed to balance-of-power politics; the old in-
stinct seems to be stirring again, and, very sure-
footedly, to be working out a new balance in an
unfamiliar setting. For the British are firmly
among the Big Three on the Security Council;
they have the vetoes and the privileges which go
with membership among the great powers; but,
in the Assembly, Britain too is becoming a
spokesman for the small nations.
It is as if Britain, lacking a large, compact
power-mass, like that of Russia, or the United
States, is attempting to form a bloc of precisely
those nations which are excluded from the blocs,
an organization of the unorganized. This is an
intricate, new application of balance-of-power,
indeed; for Britain's line gives her a foot in each
of two camps, both among the small nations and
the great ones.
Mr. Bevin is the only one among the Big
Three foreign ministers who both holds the
veto power and argues against it. It can be
said, without impugning his sincerity, that
there is in his line something of the traditional
British appreach to the practical business of
diplomacy; it helps, in a curious way, to make
up for Britain's lack of real power as compared
with Russia and America.
All of which puts the United States in a deli-
cate position, for we are also fond of self-running
parliaments; temptation is strong upon us; but
if we were to join with the small nations group-
ing, too, it would suddenly become a case of the
world against Russia. So far Mr. Byrnes has
been feeling for compromises; he has insisted,
in some instances, that Russia yield to the
Assembly's rules; he has stood up for'the dignity
of the Assembly; but he has also worked with
the Russians on specific election strategy,
If American policy has seemed nervous, it
has not been without point; for suddenly it
has come clear, somewhat to our own surprise,
that the United States, and not Britain, is the
mediator between Russia and the world; and
there the great story stands at the end of the
first historic week.
(Copyright, 1946, N.Y. Post Syndicate)
Write to Congress
To the Editor:
T HE response from this particular
district in support of President
Truman's request that the citizens
wiite to their Congressmen concern-
ing pending or stalled legislation has
I should like to reassure those who
have not written because they feel
their letters are ignored and ineffec-
tive. Years of work as a citizen in-
terested in better government which
has included work with Representa-
tives from the various districts where
we were located at the time as well as
our Senators has led to the follow-.
ing conclusions which I should like
to present for your consideration:
1.Our future chances of survival
as a democracy are in direct ratio to
the willingness of the public to ac-
cept their responsibilities as individ-
ual citizens in active participation in
2. Letters and interviews are a
welcomed and effective means of
presenting your views and opinions.
To dismiss the only -mediums open
to the average citizen is to abandon
the field to, highly organized and
well financed pressure groups
which rarely take into considera-
ticin the welfare of the whole peo-
3. Letters supporting or opposing
certain proposed legislation should
always be accompanied with the rea-
sons for such support or opposition
to receive the greatest consideration.
Our Congressmen are elected by the
people and dependent upon the votes
of the people for continuance in of-
fice. Views which they are convinced
would lead to defeat at the polls are
seldom entertained for long.
4. Together with letters and in-
terviews with elected representa-
tives, a wider participation in elec-
tion primaries is essential. The at-
titude that primaries are unim-
pcrtant and one can safely wait for
"the real election in November"
leaves the selection of final candi-
dates to pressure groups and often
mediocre party hacks who hold po-
sitions of power solely because of
public apathy. The result is the
citizen is frequently left with a
choice between two evils in Novem-
ber and concludes, "what's the
use?", and sits it out.
-Mrs. John Benson
White Man's Burden
AGAIN I must "climb into my pen"
in an attempt to correct some in-
terpretations of facts.
Mr. Arun Chhatrapati state (M.D.
Jan. 10, 1946) that the common man
in Indonesia had become civilized
long before there was any civilization
in Western Europe. Is that really so?
Anyone who has observed men and
things in the Orient will doubt the
truth of such a statement; for he is
aware of the fact that at no time in
history and nowhere on earth is there
any evidence that the common peo-
ple who comprise, let us say, 99.44!
per cent of the total population, were
directly responsible for the active
participants in any native civiliza-
tion. It has always been a small frac-
tion of the population that erected
the structures, or produced and ap-
preciated the literature and the
works of art by which later genera-
tions estimate the worth of past civ-
In Indonesia, in India, China and
elsewhere in the Orient it was this
very small group of the population
-one half of one per cent would
probably be a liberal estimate-
that was responsible and had an
appreciation for those manifesta-
tions of civilization and culture
which did not affect the common
man at all. The priesthood took
the initiative to build temples for
the glorification of their god (s);
the princes and other magnates
had palaces built for the glorifi-
cation of themselves, or for other
motives. Thus, it is said that the
Taj Mahal resulted from the am-
orous prosperity of a "fabulously"
rich Indian prince; while in Java
the noteworthy /'Water Castle"-
a secluded bathing place in the city
of Jogjakarta-was especially built
in mediaeval times by another na-
tive prince to promote his private
study of the comparative anatomy
of the beautiful sex, although all
rivers and creeks on Java are pub-
lie bathing places.
In the construction of these edi-
fices the semi-skilled among the com-
mon people had as much to do as the
stone-masons and the bricklayers
had to do with the building of the
Lincoln Memorial; while the un-
skilled were active only in the kind
of work that is now done in this
country by the steamshovel and the
"bull-dozer." The common people
in the Orient have remained unaf-
fected by civilization to this day.
Everybody has heard about the
splendor and culture of Babylon,
Niniveh and Carthage. What has
become of all that under the care and
management of the natives? If the
people in Java had reached the de-
gree of civilization claimed by Mr.
C., they would not have allowed the
magnificent temples, left by the
Hindu interregnum, to fall into ruins;
nor would they have waited for the
initiative of the Dutch to patiently
restore the Borobudur, Panataran
and other temples to their former
Thus, Mr. C.'s statement is only
one more example of the all-too-
prevalent confusing of the many
with the few and vice versa.
It is useless to answer Mr.Chha-
trapati's scoffing remarks on the
"white man's burden" in the Orient
inasmuch as he appears to be com-
pletely oblivious of the very recent
sacrifices the white man has made
in the Orient.
-M. W. Senstius
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
Publication in the Daily Official Bul-
letin is constructive notice to all mem-
bers of the University. Notices for the
Bulletin should be sent in typewritten
form to the Assistant to the President,
1021 Angell hall, by 3:30 p. m. on the day
preceding publication (11:00 a. n. Sat-
THURSDAY, JANUARY ' 17
VOL. LVI, No. 53
To the Members of the Faculty-Col-
lege of Literature, Science, and the
There will be a special meeting of
the Faculty of the College of Litera-
ture, Science, and the Arts on Jan.
21 at 4:10 p.m., in Room 1025 Angell
Hall, for continued discussion of the
curriculum proposals. Large atten-
dance of the faculty is desired at this
Applications in Support of Re-
search Projects: To give Research
Committees and the Executive Board
adequate time to study all proposals,
it is requested that faculty members
having projects needing support dur-
ing 1046-1947 file their proposals in
the Office of the Graduate School by
Friday, Feb. 8. Those wishing to re-
new previous requests whether now
receiving support or not should so in-
dicate. Application forms will be
mailed or can be obtained at Secre-
tary's Office, Room 1006 Rackham
Building, Telephone 372.
Choral Union Members. Courtesy
passes for the Heifetz concert will be
issued to all members of the Chorus
whose attendance records are clear,
on the day of the concert, Friday,
Jan. 18, between the hours of 9:30
and 11:30 and 1 and 4..After 4 o'clock
no passes will be issued.
Ushers wanted for Hasty Heart in
the Michigan Theater on Jan. 21. In-
terested women should sign up this
week in Miss McCormick's Office in
the Michigan League.
Professor Rensselaer Lee of Smith
College and the Institute for Ad-
vanced Study of Princeton will speak
on "Poussin and the Ancient world,"
at 4:15 p.m. today in the Rack-
ham Amphitheatre;, auspices of the
Dept. of Fine Arts. The public is cor-
Dr. F. A. Vening Meinesz of the
University of Utrecht, Netherlands,
recent recipient of the Penrose Medal
of the Geological Society of America,
and well known for his measurements
of gravity anomalies at sea in con-
nection with areas of active move-
ment in the earth's crust, will give a
lecture on the topic, "Shearing of the
Earth's Crust and Shift of the Poles"
tonight at 8:00 in Room 2082, Nat-
ural Science Bldg.
William Henry Chamberlin, noted
American journalist, author and
speaker, who lived and worked in
many European countries and Japan
as a Foreign Correspondent will be
presented Monday night, Jan. 21, at
8:00 p.m., in the Kellogg Auditorium.
The topic of the lecture will be,
"Russia and the West: Conflict or
Dr. Ananda K. Coomaraswamy of
the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston,
will speak on "The Riddle of the
Sphinx" at 4:15 p.m., Tues., Jan. 22,
in the Rackham Amphitheatre; aus-
pices of the Institute of Fine Arts.
The public is cordially invited.
Chemistry 291 will not meet today.
F. E. Bartell
Orientation Seminar today at 3
p.m., Room 3201 Angell Hall.
Dr. George Piranian. will speak on
"Detection of Singularities of Analy-
Tea at 4 p.m.
Seminar in Physical Chemistry will
meet today in Room 410 Chemistry
Building at 4:15 p.m. Dr. Jerome
Karle will speak on "Influence of
thermal motion on electron scatter-
ing by gasses." All interested are in-
Forestry Seminar-The Deputy Di-
rector of the Michigan Department
of Conservation will describe that or-
ganization and employee duties in-
volved as well as state employment
in general. Mr. Fontanna is makingx
a special trip from Lansing so a largel
turnout is desired. The Employment.
Seminar meets in Room 2039 Natural
Science Building at 4:30 this after-r
Biolegical Chemistry Seminar will
meet on Friday, Jan. 18, at 4 p.m. int
319 West Medical Building. "Thel
Physiological Relationship betweent
Amino Acids and Vitamins." All in-l
terested are invited. i
A joint exhibition of paintings byx
John Pappas and Sarkis Sarkisian ofX
.-nfni in fh T~nram T0TrIavP
o'clock today. The lecture is spon-
sored by the Undergraduate Club of
Students in Education, and a cordial
invitation is extended to all who may
be interested to attend. The lecture
will be followed by the showing of a
film, "Living and Learning in a Rural
Tea at the International Center:
The weekly informal teas at the In-
ternational Center on Thursdays,
from 4:00 to 5:30 p.m. are open to
all foreign students and their Ameri-
Phi Delta Kapa. There will be a
coffee hour today at 4 o'clock in the
East Conference Room of the Rack-
ham Building. President Ruthven
will speak on "Some Problems Re-
garding Admissions to the Univer-
sity of Michigan." Members of all
chapters are cordially invited.
Mortar Board will meet tonight at
7 o'clock in the Undergraduate Office
in the League.
The I.C.C. ,Educational Committee
will present a talk by Professor Lob-
anov-Rostevsky: "Causes of the Rus-
sian Revolution," tonight at 7:30
p.m. at Stevens Co-op, 816 Forrest.
All are invited to attend and partici-
pate in the bull session afterwards.
Refreshments will be served.
American Youth Hostel: There will
be folk dancing at 7:30 tonight at
Lane Hall. All students are invited.
La Sociedad Hispanica will hold
the fourth of its lecture series to-
night at 8:00 p.m. in Kellogg Audi-
torium. The speaker will be Dr. San-
tedomingo Guzman, who will talk
about "Colombia-Pais Del Dorado."
Dr. Guzman will illustrate his talk
with a movie. All members are urged
Psychology Club: Professor Mischa
Titiev of the Anthropology Depart-
ment will speak on Culture and Per-
sonality at the next meeting of the
Psychology Club tonight at 8:00 p.m.
in the Rackham Amphitheater.
The meeting is open to all students
and those interested are cordially in-
vited to attend.
"The Old Maid and the Thief" and
the Garden Scene from "Faust" will
be presented tonight at 8:30 in the
Lydia Mendelssohn theatre by Play
Production of the department - of
speech in conjunction with the School
of Music and the University Orches-
tra. Other performances of the
operas will be given tomorrow at 3:30
p.m. and Saturday evening at 8:30
p.m. Tickets are on sale daily in the
theatre box office.
By Crockett Johnson
The program is Detect and Collect. And I
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You mean they won't