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November 10, 1944 - Image 4

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The Michigan Daily, 1944-11-10

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Fifty-Fifth Year

Phillips' Second Letter to FDR

Study Russia in Historical Context

> ____


Edited and managed by students of the University
of Michigan under the authority of the Board in Control
of Student Publications.

Editorial Staff

Evelyn Phillips
Stan Wallace
Ray Dixon. .
Rank Mantho . .
Dave Loewenberg . .
Mavis Kennedy

. Managing Editor.
City Editor
Associate Editor
Sports Editor
Associate Sports Editor
Women's Editor

Lee Amer . . . . Business Manager
Barbara Chadwick Associate Business Mgr.
June Pomering k . . Associate Business Mgr.
Telephone 23-24-1
Member of The Associated Press
The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the use
for republication of all news dispatches credited to it or
otherwise credited in this newspaper. All rights of re-
publication of all other matters herein also reserved.
Entered at the Post Office at Ann Arbor, Michigan, as
second-class mail matter.
Subscriptions during the regular school year by car-
rier, $4.50, by mail, $5.25.
Member, Associated Collegiate Press, 1943-44



Editorials published in The Michigan Daily
are written by members of The Daily stafff
and represent the views of the writers only.
Losers Speak
A PRESIDENTIAL campaign has come and
gone; a presidential election has come and
gone. During them both each of us made pre-
dictions. Well, some of us were wrong. We
had to be, for there is no consolation prize for
runner-up in this political game. But now the
game is over. The Victor has gathered his chips,
and we won't play for big stakes again until
That's just the idea; the game is over, and
those of us who lost aren't going to sit around
for four years with vengeful minds and sulk
and buck the victorious player just because we
lost. Let's hope not, anyway, for there are
better and bigger things to do, though they
may have found themselves on the second
page of the local paper rather than the first
during these "politically vital" weeks.

(Lt. Col. Robert S. Allen now on active service
with the Army.)
ASHINGTON, NOV. 10-Ambassador Wil-
liam Phillips, President Roosevelt's former
personal representative in India, wrote not
merely one, but two very critical letters to FDR,
regarding British policy in India, urging Indian
The first letter, published exclusively in this
column last July, caused Phillips to be recalled
from London, where he was serving as political
adviser on the staff of General Eisenhower. The
British Government was boiling mad and burned
up the cables to Washington.
At that time, the British Foreign Office
asked Phillips whether he still entertained
the views regarding India he had expressed
to the President. Phillips replied that he
certainly did, but that he hoped another re-
port he had made to the White House would
not leak out.
It is now possible to give the American public
the text of Ambassador Phillips' other report.
In it he proposed that President Roosevelt,
Stalin, King George, and Chiang Kai-Shek spon-
sor. a joint conference of Indian leaders to settle
Indian.problems, arrange for independence and
get India to play a real part in the war.
In his previously published report, Phillips
informed Roosevelt: "The present Indian army
is purely mercenary. General Stilwell has ex-
pressed his concern over the situation and in
particular in regard to the poor morale of the
Indian officers."
Impetus to f< ar ...
In this report published below, Phillips pointed
a finger at Prime Minister Churchill. "I should
imagine that the Viceroy and Churchill," he
said, "are well satisfied to let the deadlock re-
main as long as possible."
It has long been reported that Churchill has
flatly refused to discuss Indian political dis-
turbances which have held back the war in
Meanwhile, Phillips said, "The Indians are
caught in the new idea which is sweeping over
the world, of freedom for oppressed peoples.
The Atlantic Charter has given the movement
Great impetus. Your speeches have given en-
Phillips made his report a year ago last
spring, while he was still in India. But the
bogging down of the Burma campaign for one
full year, plus Stilwell's trouble in China, plus
the recent loss of another U. S. air base in
China, all have caused Roosevelt advisers to
study anew Phillips' plan for giving a military
and political impetus to this far-behind-schedule
theatre of war-
Many advisers agree with Phillips that, since
we are largely equipping the Indian Army and
since Britain will only play a "token" part in the
war against Japan, India is "our business."
Because of its importance, the Phillips letter
to Roosevelt follows.
Problemz of Gandhi ...
"Dear Mr. President:-Gandhi has success-
fully completed his fast and the only result of
it has been increasing bitterness against the
British from large sections of the people. The
Government has handled the case from the
legalist point of view. Gandhi is the 'enemy' and
must not be allowed to escape from his just
punishment and at all cost British prestige
must be maintained.
"Indians look at it from a different angle.
Gandhi's followers regard him as semi-divine
and worship him. Millions who are not his
followers look upon him as the foremost
Indian of the day and that, since he has
never had an opportunity to defend himself,
it is a case of persecution of an old man who
has suffered much for the cause, which every ,
Indian has at heart-freedom for India. And
so presumably Gandhi comes out of the strug-
gle with an enhanced reputation as a moral
"The general situation as I see it today is
as follows:
"From the British viewpoint their position is
not unreasonable. They have been in India for

150 years and, except for the mutiny in 1857,
generally speaking, internal peace has been
maintained. They have acquired vast vested
interests in the country and fear that their
withdrawal from India would jeopardize those
interests. The great cities of Bombay, Calcutta
and Madras have been built up largely through
their initiative. They have guaranteed the re-
gime of the Princes, who control territorially
about one-third of the country and one-fourth
of the population. They realize that new forces
are gathering throughout the world which affect
their hold over India and they have therefore
gone out of their way, so they believe, to offer
freedom to India as soon as there are signs that
the Indians themselves can form a secure gov-,
ernment. This the Indian leaders have been
unable to do and the British feel that they have
done all that they can in the circumstances.
Behind the door is Mr. Churchill, who gives
the impression that personally he would prefer
not to transfer any power to an Indian govern-
ment either before or after the war and that the
status quo should be maintained.

"The Indians, on the other hand, are caught
in the new idea which is sweeping over the
world, of freedom for oppressed peoples. The
Atlantic Charter has given the movement great
impetus. Your speeches have given encourage-
ment. The British declarations that freedom
would be granted to India after the war have
brought the picture of Indian independence as
never before in the thoughts of the entire In-
dian intelligentsia. Unfortunately, as the time
approaches for ending the war, the struggle
for political prestige and power between the
parties has increased and this has made it more
difficult than ever for the leaders to' be willing
to reach a compromise agreement. And fur-
thermore, Gandhi and all Congress leaders, not
to mention the fifty or sixty thousand Congress
supporters, are in jail and, as Congress is the
strongest political party, there is no one avail-
able to speak for it.
"There is thus a complete deadlock and I
should imagine that the Viceroy and Chur-
chill are well satisfied to let the deadlock re-
main as long as possible. That is, at least,
the general impression in most Indian circles.
"The problem, therefore, is: can anything be
done to break this deadlock through our help?
It seems to me that all we can do is to try to
induce the Indian political leaders to meet to-
gether and discus the form of government whih
they regard as applicable to India, and thus to
show the world that they have sufficient intelli-
gence to tackle the problem. We cannot sup-
pose that the British Government can or will
transfer power to India by the scratch of a
pen at the conclusion of the peace conference
unless there is an Indian government fit to re-
ceive it. The question rerhains, therefore, how
to induce the leaders to begin now to prepare
for their future responsibilities.
"There is, perhaps, a way out of the deadlock
which I suggest to you, not because I am sure
of its success, but because I think it is worthy
of your consideration.
Phillips' Plan .. .
"With the approval and blessing of the Brit-
ish Government, an invitation could be address-
ed to the leaders of all Indian political groups,
on behalf of the President of the United States,,
to meet together to discuss plans for the fu-
ture. The assembly could be presided over by
an American who could exercise influence in
harmonizing the endless divisions of caste, re-
ligion; race, and political views. The confer-
ence might well be under the patronage of the
King Emperor, the President of the United
States, the President of the Soviet Union and
Chiang Kai-Shek, in order to bring pressure
to bear on Indian politicians. Upon the isu-
ance of the invitations, the King Emperor could
give a fresh assurance of the intention of the
British Government to transfer power to India
upon a certain date as well as his desire to grant
a provisional set-up for the duration. The con-
ference could be held in any city in India ex-
cept Delhi.
"American chairmanship would have the ad-
vantage, not only of expressing the interest of
America in the future independence of India,
but would also be a guarantee to the Indians of
the British offer of independence. This is an
important point because, as I have already said
in previous letters, British promises in this re-
gard are no longer believed.
"If either of the principal parties refused to
attend the conference, it would be notice to all
the world that India was not ready for self-
government, and I doubt whether a political
leader would put himself in such a position.
Mr. Churchill and Mr. Amery may be obstacles,
for, notwithstanding statements to the con-
trary, India is governed from London, down to
the smallest details.
British Attitude .. .
"Should you approve the general idea and
care to consult Churchill, he might reply that,
since the Congress leaders are in jail; a meet-
ing such as is contemplated is impossible. The
answer could be that certain of the leaders,
notably Gandhi, might be freed unconditionally
in order to attend the conference. The British
may even be searching for a good excuse to
release Gandhi, for the struggle between him
and the Viceroy is over with honors for both-
the Viceroy has maintained his prestige; Gandhi

has carried out his protest against the Govern-
ment by his successful fast, and has come, back
into the limelight.
"There is nothing new in my suggestion, ex-
cept the method of approach to the problem.
The British have already announced their will-
ingness to grant freedom to India after the
war, if the Indians have agreed among them-
selves as to its form. The Indians say they
cannot agree because they have no confidence
in the British promises. The proposed plan per-
haps provides the guarantee required by the
Indians, and is in line with British declared
"Possibly this is a way out of the impasse,
which, if allowed to continue, may affect our
conduct of the war in this part of the world
and our future relations with colored races.
It may not be successful but, at least, America
will have taken a step in furthering the ideals
of the Atlantic Charter.
"Sincerely yours,
"William Phillips"
(Copyright, 1944, United Features Syndicate)

On The Russian Revolution-I
Aldous Huxley, author of "Point
Counter Point" explains his tech-
nique in that novel as one that has
a plot within a plot within a plot.
Life "cut lengthwise" is really like
that: infinite in its convolutions.
This analysis can appertain to
politics as well. For example, I
think Soviet Russia is a state with-
in a state within a state within a
state. Only such a view of that
country-from many vantage
points on several planes-will give
a fair picture of her,
Look at Russia today as the sav-
ior of Western Civilization, and
you are impelled to say, "Bravo!"
Examine the Russian one party sys-
tem, and tears are in order. See how
magnificently Russia treats its many
minority groups; and observe how
abominably the Bolsheviki have acted
toward all opposition. Notice the
high degree of respect accorded to
artists-and the compulsion that they
propagandize communism. But, let
us back up a moment, and look at
this matter in its historical context.
By now I think there can be no doubt
that the October Revolution was the
most significant single event in a
century and a half of the Modern
Era. It was in line with and, in many
ways analagous to, the French Revo-
lution. In both cases the people
rose to power by violent overthrowal
of degenerate tyrannies-and in-
dulged in some excesses. These were
magnified unjustly by the forces of
reaction that consolidated in Europe
and America. Even Thomas Carlyle,
no friend of the masses, admitted
that had those individuals who were
guillotined during the so-called Ter-
ror been ordinary people instead of
nobles, the world would never have
taken notice, nor would Edmund
Burke and his confreree have been
so unspeakably shocked, by what
went on in Paris.
It may seem strange, but just as we
still have novelists (like that stal-
wart Book-of-the-Monther, Kenneth
Roberts) defending Benedict Arnold
and the Tories so we have those who
forget our debt to the France of
Rousseau, Voltaire, and Montesquie
without whom there would have been
no true republican revolution, French
or American. These people, in as-
tonishing numbers, continue to re-
gard Burke's word as Gospel. Yet
Americans should know that Burke
was answered conclusively by Tom
Paine, among the greatest of Ameri-
can patriots, a man whom the upper
crust has never stopped calling 'that
filthy little atheist." Read the "Rights
of Man" sometime. Maybe you will
wonder with me why more people
don't do the same.
Anyhow, France incurred the en-
mity of rulers all over the world who
shivered for their own necks. Just
so in 1917 and thereafter. An inse-
cure capitalism saw the Communist
Spectre as a prime threat to its con-
tinued dominance. In vain did it
send troops to aid the white army.
History wouldmnot be reversed. The
House of Romanoffe was unseated
and the royal family executed. With
the weak willed Korensky govern-
ment in discard, Lenin took over and
the Great Experiment began.
From that movement, with the
establishment of the Union of So-
cialist Soviet Republics and until
1941, undeclared war existed be-
tween Russia and the capitalist na-
tions. Lurid stories about the bar-
barism of the new regime leaked
On Second Thought
0NE THING is certain. Gov. Dewey
is a man who keeps his promises.
If you remember, two years ago he
promised the voters of New York
that he would be their governor for
four years.

We note that the Detroit News
again calls itself a "politically in-
dependent publication."
Health note: The Burr in Mr.
Michener's side was removed suc-
Representative Fish was defeated
in New York. Knocked off his
Perch, as it were.
In Connecticut they didn't "Clare
it with Sidney."
If Roosevelt had voted in the
campus Guy Lombardo poll, he
undoubtedly would have chosen
"PAC Up Your Troubles" as his
favorite song..
** *
Republicans are already begin-
ning to wonder who is 'going to run
for vice-president on the Democratic
ticket in the next election.
-By Ray Dixon

UNRRA Has First Test
GREECE is free again. Where den- King George? It is our so
ocracy was born to the world, to see that the will of
despotism has succumbed, as it al- rules, instead. And what c
ways must, to the will of free men In Greece, UNRRA wi
to whom life and liberty are one its first major operation.
thing. After three and a half years see that it is supplied with
of murderous thralldom, Greece has needs: medical supplies,
emerged to a new and terrible glory, clothing, presses to extrac
The glory that is Greece is terrible olives, and bread. With
because it has been won at a cost we can help the stricken e
barely less than life itself. A half- Greece to begin to funct
million Greeks have died, thousands own again.
of them of starvation, So rapacious- Greece, haggard in h
ly have the Nazis plundered the risen. It is swept clean o
Greek state and people that the pap- vader, but is still occupie
er drachma-worth two-thirds of a want of its people, the
cent in 1940 and one-millionth of a ciency of its economy. UJ
cent now-blows like yesterday's evils have been cleansed a
newspapers in the streets of Athens. the United States and tI
Shall Greece ever go back to the Nations dare not look on,1
dictatorship it knew under the cyni- to Greece as accomplishe
cal Metaxas and the complacent -St. Louis Post

out of European capitals and spill-
ed onto editorial pages in this
country. Probably the best deeds
of this new government were per-
formed in its earliest days when
outside condemnation was the
strongest. Education began on a
mass scale. Now the Commisariat
can point with justifiable pride to
the fact that when it took over
the Russian people were roughly
90% illiterate while they are today
roughly 90% literate. No govern-
ment contemplating permanent
repression of the people would have
instituted such a change.
Moreover, the Revolution had to
come in Czarist Russia for that coun-
try was rotten through and through.
To be sure, its weaknesses were ac-
centuated by the Japanese war. But
no nation producing a Turgenev, a
Dostoievsky, a Tolstoy, and a Decem-
brist Revolt could long have remained
serene. What occurred was never-
theless no spontaneous upsurge of
popular will. It took a carefully
laid plan to bring Nikolai Lenin from


We're going to forget we voted for Dewey or
Thomas or our own sweet-self, and we're going
to remember that Franklin Roosevelt wouldn't
have been elected .if a majority. of the voters
in this country hadn't wanted him. It isn't
necessary to keep a man in office here because
someone has a gun in your back and "encour-
ages" you to vote for him. That's why we
must rea ze-those of us who didn't win-that
a suffici'ent number of people to express the
general attitude of the nation voted for Roose-
velt because they wanted him as the supreme
chief he has been.
That reason may sound absurdly simple, but
isn't it true? Sure, some may bark that Roose-
velt is merely a tool of the PAC and that they
"saw to it" that he was elected, but let's be
fair about this: If you concede that, then you
concede that this country is just as bad off
as certain so-called "democratic" countries that,
merely go through the process of voting to make
a "good show." Those countries where, a pow-
erful group determines who shall be president;
is that what you think about the democratic
system in the United States? Well, if you do,
that's your privilege, for regardless of what you
want to think, you have the Constitutional right
as a free man to do so-that is, here you do.
However, there are a lot of us who have paid
our chips without calling the dealer a cheat
and without intimating that the cards were
marked. We've admitted defeat, and we're
being good sports, that's all. We know we
can always try again.
So let's get on with winning the war-Re-
-Betty Ann Larsen

THURSDAY, NOV. 10, 1944
VOL. LV, No. 9
All notices for The Daily Official Bul-
letin are to be sent to the Office of the
Assistant to the President, 1021 Angell
Hall, in typewritten form by 3:30 p. m.
of the day preceding its publication,
except on Saturday when the notices
should be submitted by 11:30 a. m.
Choral Union Members in good
standing will please call in person
for their pass tickets for the Cleve-
land Orchestratconcert, today, be-
tween the hours of 9:30 and 11:30
and 1 and 4 o'clock, at the offices of
the University Musical Society in
Burton Memorial Tower. After 4
o'clock no tickets will be issued.
The Bureau of Appointments and
Occupational Information, We have
received notice from the Division of
Teaching Personnel, Cincinnati, O.,
that they are interested in having
applications from teachers in the
kindergarten-primary and physical
education fields.
Anyone interested may receive
further information by calling at the
Bureau, 201 Mason Hall.
Registration for positions will be
held by the University Bureau of
Appointments and Occupational In-
formation Monday, Nov. 13, at 4 p.m.
in Rm. 205 Mason Hall. This regis-
tration is for those interested in both
teaching and non-teaching positions,
including business, professional, gov-
ernment service, etc. It is open to
seniors, graduate students, and Uni-
versity staff members who may be
desirous of positions after each of
the next three commencement peri-
ods. Only one registration is held
during the school year and everyone
who will be available up to next
August or October should register at
this time.
University Bureau of Appointments
and Occupational Information
Victory Gardens: "Victory garden-
ers" at the Botanical Garden are
hereby reminded that one of the
conditions of the use of these garden
plots is that rubbish must not be left
on the land. At the end of the sea-
son, each gardener should clear his
plot. Corn stalks, stubble and dead
plants of all kinds should be pulled
up and, after the earth has been
knocked from their roots, piled in the
middle of the plot, so that they may
be readily picked up by the garden
truck and burned. Stakes should
also be pulled from the ground and
taken away (if the owner wishes to
use them again) or piled separately
from the rubbish. There need be no
hurry in clearing those parts of the
gardens thatare still productive.
Gardeners who do not clear up
their plots this fall, as well as those

PAC Coni Ues

MORE GOOD news has come out of the elec-
Sidney Hillman, chairman of the CIO Politi-
cal Action Committee and the National Citi-
zens PAC, announced today that the American
people have reaffirmed the faith and confidence
they repose in a great American and an out-
standing leader by voting to return President
Roosevelt to office.
In addition he stated that the CIO-PAC "Is
expected to continue." In spite of what some
folks may think, the PAC was and still is
one of the best organizations to be founded in
this country since the coming of the first labor
Before the advent of the PAC, labor was di-
vided not only into two labor unions, but also
into many schools of thought. Although the
PAC, during its election fight, did not unite the
AFL and CIO, it did help to unite the workers

. Y ti

- While i'm resting up, -
trust you'll take caref
of any small problems

By Crockett Johnson

Your Fairy Godfather
is down by the woods-

-- - I ---- L - - I- -- "

Jam, 1

He is. I just saw him. And-

Okay, Mr. O'Malley. I'll
take care of this. Don't-

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