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April 26, 1945 - Image 4

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Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1945-04-26

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THE MICHIGAN. DAILY

tIIftJiLDA . ALFIL 2456, 1945

Proposed Reduction of Tariff
Called Step in Right Direction

Experiments on RatsAid
Human Behavior Study

bargoes and other devices to re-
strict or direct foreign trade which,
in w their over-all effects, consti-
tuted a more serious threat to tol-
erable international economic re-
lations than had even the rela-
tively high tariffs of the 1920's foi
which we were in large part re-
sponsible.
It is rather ludicrous, Palmer
pointed out, to read of the current
objections to tariff reduction on the
grounds that our markets will be
flooded after the war with the prod-
uct of cheap foreign labor. As a
matter of fact, the United States
will be one of the few countries in a
position to export goods after the
war. We pay high wages because
our labor is efficient and, as long as
high wages are accompanied by a
high degree of labor efficiency, the
labor cost of the product need not
be high. Low wages are a result of a
low degree of labor efficiency and
frequently mean high labor costs per
unit of product. The trade statistics
of the past bear eloquent testimony
to the fact that we can hold our
own in counries paying wages only a
fraction of those prevailing here.
It is particularly important at
the present time for the United
States to go on record in support
of tariff revision, said Palmer. The
San Francisco Conference is at-
tempting to establish the machin-
ery for international political co-
operation, but this will mean little
if economic warfare continues as
it has in the past.
Tariff revision is also related, Pal-
mer concluded, to the Bretton Woods
proposals of last summer. At Bret-
ton Woods, plans were drawn up for
an International Stabilization Fund
and for an International Bank. The
broad objectives were to stabilize the
relative values of the currencies of
the world and to stimulate interna-
tional lending after the war. Neither
of these objectives would mean
much, nor could they in any likeli-
hood be achieved, unless a large vol-
ume, and a fairly stable volume, of
world trade were assured.
e Sixth Man Held
In Hooper Case
JACKSON, Mich., April 25-()-
i Murl Aten, Jackson County prosecut-
e or, announced tonight the detention
of a sixth man for questioning in
a the investigation of the slaying of
t state Senator Warren G. Hooper.
The man was identified by Aten
f only as Sammy Chivas of Detroit.
His arrest followed by a day the
detention of Henry Luks of Detroit.
Earlier four other Detroiters, three
of them former members of the pro-
hibition-era "Purple Gang," had been
detained.
Hooper, who was shot to death in
his automobile near Springport,
Mich., last Jan. 11, had been expected
- to be a witness in graft conspiracy
cases arising from warrants of Cir-
1 cuit Judge Leland W. Carr's one-
e man grand jury.
Y JGP
(Continued from Page 1)

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SOVIET TANKS BREAK INTO BERLIN-Caption accompanying the above photo, received in New York
via radio from Moscow said, "Soviet tanks breaking into Berlin." It adds that the photo is from "Kras-
naya Zvesda," which is Red Star, the Soviet Army paper.

NAZI DREAM CITY:
Only La,,, dmark Re mitants
Remain Standing in Nuernberg

By WADE WERNER
NUERNBERG, Germany- (/P)-
Here lies Nuernberg, once the dream
city of Nazidom, today a fantastic,
fearsome nightmare of gutted great
architecture, mediaeval memories of
disemboweled churches-the deepest
pit in the German Gehenna.
The torn, charred carcass of the
old city within its ancient walls 'is
recognizable- barely- because the
remnants of remembered landmarks
are still standing.
Nazis' Congress
Looking at these landmarks amid
Ex-Legislators
Are Convicted
On Graft Count
LANSING, April 25.-(/P)- After
deliberating only 40 minutes, a cir-
cuit court jury today convicted six
former legislators of a legislative
graft conspiracy during the 1941
session of the legislature.
They were accused by Circuit
Judge Leland W. Carr's one-man
grand jury of accepting bribes to
influence their action on an unsuc-
cessful bill to recognize and regulate
the practice of the healing art of
naturopathy. There were no acquit-
tals.
Defendants convicted were for-
mer State Senators William G.
Birk, Baraga Republican, and Leo
J. Wilkowski, Detroit Democrat,
and former State Representatives
William G. Buckley, Francis J..
Nowak and Edward J. Walsh, De-
troit Democrats.
Wilkowski, Buckley, Nowak and
Walsh were convicted last summer
in the finance graft conspiracy .case,
and were sentenced to serve three to
five years in the state prison of
southern Michigan. Special Judge
John Simpson of Jackson today pro-
nounced a four-year sentence, rec-
ommending that three of these run
concurrently with the earlier sen-
tence, and one year in addition for
their conviction on this charge.
Green and Birk, both convicd
for the 1st time, were sentenced to
serve a minimum term of three
years. Green was released on $4,
000 bond, but Judge Simpson can-I
celled Birk's bond and he was to
start serving his sentence at once.
Buckley, Nowak, and Wilkowski
already had started serving their
sentences. Walsh, who had been
free on appeal bond, also started
serving his sentence today.
Special Prosecutor Kim Sigler as-
serted the jury returned "a very
important verdict." He refused to
elaborate.
Green was indicted by the grand
jury with Frank D. McKay, Grand
Rapids politician, and Floyd Fitz-
simmons, Benton Harbor lobbyist
who has been convicted on another
charge, on a warrant accusing them
of conspiring to corrupt the legisla-
ture on a 1943 bill regulating horse
racing and pari-mutuel betting.
Price To Repeat Sunday
Carillon Recital Today
A repetition of the Sunday carillon
recital will be presented by Prof.
Percival Price at 7:15 p.m. EWT to-
day. The program includes selec-
tions by Chopin, Kamiel Lefevere's
"Alfred Bells Suite" (composed for
the 17th century carillon at Alfred
University, N.Y., Verdi's Drinking
song from "La Traviata" and quartet
from "Rigoletto". '

the smoldering embers, one remem-
bers why the Nazis chose it for their
annual party congress. Old Nuern-
berg was the embodiment of German
dreams and traditions through the
centuries; upon it the Nazis super-
imposed their own traditions.
Many and amazing were their
dreams, and some of them came
true-at least partly and for a while.
Adolf's Dreams
Here it was that Hitler dreamed
aloud in 1936, inspired by the rum-
bling of new German tanks over
Nuernberg's cobblestones and the
drone of Goering's new bombers
overhead:
"Yes, if I had the Ukraine . . . if
we had the Urals!"
He got the Ukraine eventually, but
the Urals remained a mirage.
Here the Nazis dreamed of an
aryanized Europe and wrote their
dreamings into law- the ruthless
Nuernberg anti - Jewish statutes.
That dream also was partially real-
ized- but it lies among smoking
ruins now.
Castle in Ruins
Nuernberg's ancient castle is inj
ruins, so also are the dreams of
empire Hitler dreamt there. Nine
years ago I walked through halls and
corridors of its stately interior, past
portraits of one German emperor
after another until finally I passed
a likeness of the last Hohenzollern
Kaiser Wilhelm II-then I stepped
onto a little balcony to meet Ger-
many's new imperial genius-Hitler
himself.
The long walk past those many
emperors to the most ambitious of
them all was an impressive build-up
in the best Nuernberg Nazi style.
Today I could see no trace of that
balcony. The beflagged streets thro-
ugh which the Fuehrer rode are
ashes now.
Mood Changed +
Pageantry, flags, songs, oratory
and enthusiasm were the keynote of
Nuernberg's mood in those party
congress days.
Today, gloom, devastation and
foreboding dominate the city which
once housed nearly half a million.
An estimated 200,000 people, includ-
ing perhaps 10,000 displaced persons,
wander about the streets, foraging
for food, poking into ruins. Several
thousand have been gathered into an
emergency camp. So far 134' cases
of typhus have been reported.
Fuller in Command
The new boss of Nuernberg is a
former school superintendent from
North Tarrytown, N.Y., Lt.-Col. Del-
bert O. Fuller, commander of a mili-
tary government detachment. His
right-hand man is Lt.-Col. James C.
Barnett, formerly of Oklahoma State
Teachers College.
Probably it will be an extra drop
of bitterness in the Nazi cup of
defeat to know that two American
educators are establishing a new
regime for Nuernberg under the
stern rules of a conqueror.

Two Films ot
South America
To Be Shown
Two films on South America, "The
Amazon Awakens" and "The Bridge"
will be shown at 7:30 p. m. EWT
(6:30 CWT) (tomorrow) in the Rack-1
ham Amphitheatre.
"The Amazon Awakens" is a color-
ed film produced by Walt Disney. Itc
reveals the history, industrial pro-
gress and future possibilities of .the
Amazon River Basin. Many of the
sequences are done in the Disney ani-
mated form.
"The Bridge," produced by the For-
eign Policy Association, deals with the
economic basis of trade relations be-
iween Latin America and the rest of
the world. The film's emphasis is
on the economic problems of the need
for diversification of agriculture, in-
dustrialization and transportation.
The films will be presented by the
Bureau of Visual Education, Post-
War Council, MYDA and IRA.
German Club
Holds Meeting
Prof. Price Conducts
Burton Tower Tour
One can best hear the tones of the
carillon from the steps of the Gen-
eral Library or from Burns Park,
Prof. Percival Price of the School
of Music, told more than 75 members
of the Deutscher Verein Tuesday.
Holding its third meeting in the
Burton Tower, through which the
group toured, the Deutscher Verein
heard and watched the University
carillonneur play several German
folk songs. Prof. Price played two
original compositions which he wrote
at the request of an English priest
and which will be pla.yed on V-E
dVy in England, where the playing of
carillons has been silenced. One of
the compositions was written for a
large carillon, the other for a small
one.
Carillons made their first appear-
ance in the Netherlands, Prof. Price
said, in the 15th and 16th centuries.
During the 19th century the art of
making the bells became a lost sci-
ence, he declared, but that art has
been regained in this century, he
added.
Sophs Urged to Try
For Cabaret Parts
All sophomore women are urged to
try out for parts in the Soph Cabaret
floor show, Robin Scherer, Script
Chairman, announced recently.
Those interested in singing should
try out from 3 to 5 p. m. EWT (2 to
4 p. m. CWT) today, while tryouts for
speaking parts will be held tomorrow
at the same time. An announcement
of the room where the tryouts will
be held will be posted on the bulletin
board in the League.

All rats do not live in basement
rag piles, a fact which became mani-
fest during a recent trip to the ex-
perimental laboratory of Dr. N. R. F.
Maier of the psychology department.
Using rats as subjects for his ex-
periments, Dr. Maier is investigating
the determinants of abnormal be-
havior, emphasizing a study of con-
vulsive disorders and abnormal fixa-
tions, or, in more simple language,
why people go slightly "off the
beam".
Abnormal fixations, such as a
child's fear {of a policeman, which
can reach a point of terror, are
studied in the rats by instigating
the fixation under laboratory con-
ditions. A rat placed on the Lash-
ley- Jumping Stand, which looks
something like a raised diving
platform seen in the middle of a.
lake, finds himself face to face
with a huge black board, probably
encompassing the full range of his
vision.
A perceptive rat will notice that
in the lower center portion of the
board there are two cards, a black
one with a white circle, and a white
one with a black circle. If he's hun-
gry (and rats usually are) he will
jump to one of the cards. At this
stage of the game the card will fall,
and 1o and behold, behind the card
the rat will discover a petrie dish
containing sweet meats from Re-
search Assistant Robert Feldman's
cuisine. A recipe for this tasty dish
includes calf meal, oat meal, corn
meal, salt, and cod liver oil, with
either tomato or split pea soup added
for flavor.
Through a series of trials over a
period of days, the rat becomes
educated to the fact that there is
food behind the cards, and he
usually chooses either the card on
the right or the one on the left as
his regular jumping goal. When
he has mastered the art of jump-
ing for his living, he is placed on
a system of 50% random punish-
ment during which one of the
doors will be locked, while the
other will still fall to reveal food.
The rat jumps to' his chosen side,
and sometimes the card will fall, and
sometimes it won't. So the rat be-
comes puzzled, and he tries the other
side. But this reversal in policy
meets with the same results--some-
times success, sometimes failure. The
confounded rat, at a loss to know
which course to take since neither
side gives certain satisfaction devel-
ops a real fixation, choosing one side
to which he will always jump no
matter what happens.
When, for three consecutive days,
with ten jumps a day, the rat jumps
to one side, he is started on 100%
punishment. "His" side will be al-
ways locked, but by this time the
rat has become so fixated that it

doesn't occur to him to try the other
side.
A study of the data collected from
this experiment shows that a rat
with an abnormal fixation has lost
all power of reasoning out his
conflict, and so continues to act
according to habit, Feldman ex-
plained. Translating this into hu-
man terms, the child with the ab-
normal fear of the policeman cannot
be helped by being forced to be near
the policeman because he cannot
reason himself out of the fear, and
would only feel further conflict, he
said-.
Dr. Maier believes that convul-
sions are a result not only of a
stimulus, but also a conflict
which comes when the stimulus is
presented, Feldman said. An ex-
periment which illustrates this be-
lief involves they use of a convul-
sion box which might have been
"dreamed up" by Rube Goldberg.
The box is completely enclosed,
and covered with a glass top, which
reveals the action of the rats inside
when the "juice" is turned on. Press-
ing one of the buttons at the side of
the box results in any one of a vari-
ety of noises from the sound of the
front door bell to the jangling of a
jail keeper's key ring.
As the noise continues the rat
begins to jump around' inside the
box resembling a man just stung by
-a bee. The rat's motions become
more and niore frantic until finally
he falls into a convulsed state.
Observing this kaleidoscopic pic-
ture of the convulsed rats would lead
one to believe that there must be
some conflict involving an inability
to escape from an irritating stimu-
lus.
In a sense the animal is being
'forced to avoid something without
having the essential avoidance re-
sponses at his disposal, Feldman
explained.
Mary Stubbins
To Give Recital
Packelbel, Bach To Be
Played Sunday at Hill
Mary McCall Stubbins, organist at
the First Methodist Church, will pres-
ent an organ recital, featuring compo-
sitions by Pachelbel, Frescobaldi,
Bach, Liszt and Sowerby, at 4:15 p.m.
EWT (3:15 p. m. CWT) Sunday in
Hill Auditorium.
Mrs. .Stubbins, a graduate of the
University of Chicago and the School
of Music here, has played several
times in recent years at Hill Auditor-
ium. Her program will include both
classical and modern organ litera-
Xure.

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Truman Address.00
(Continued from Page 1)
for the settlement of disputes among nations. Without this, peace
cannot exist. We can. no longer permit airy nation, or group of
nations, to attempt to settle their arguments with bombs and bayonette.
If we continue to abide by such decisions, we will be forced to accept
the fundamental philosophy of our enemies, namely, that 'might makes
right." To deny this premis2, and we most certainly do, we are
'obliged to provide the necessary means to refute it. Wor ds are not
enough.
We must, once and for all, reverse the order, and prove by our' acts
conclusively, that right has might.
If we do not want to die together in war, we must learn to live to-
gether in peace.
With firm faith in our hearts, to sustain us along the hard road to
victory, we will find our way to a secure peace, for the ultimate benefit of
all humanity.
We must build a new world---a far better world-one in which the
eternal dignity of man is respected.
As we are about to undertake our heavy duties, we beseech Almighty
God to guide us in building a permanent monument to those who gave
their lives that this moment might come.
May we lead our steps in his own righteous path of peace.

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dy Bott, Jacqueline Shepard, Jeanne
Parsons, Marcia Wellman, Virginia
Petrouleas, Martha Bradshaw, Sally
Diekema, Jean Athay, Pat Picard,
Marilyn Jenkins, Dorothy Gray, Car-
leen Gormsen, Shirley Sickels, Jane
Archer, Janet Morgan, Jacqueline
Gatel, and Barbara Hoatson.
The dancing chorus consists of
Jeanne Parsons, Patsy Brown, Jane
Archer, Beverly Wittan, Carol Evans,
Shirley Makima, Marj Sadler, Jayne
Gourley, June Retzlaff, Jean Arbo-
gast, Dotty Wantz, Greta Kranz,
Peggy Kohr, Nora McLaughlin, Jac-
queline Shepard, Betty Vaughn, and
Edna Kennedy.
Those in the singing chorus are
Polly Carroll, Lavonne Haslett, Suz-
anne Rhodes, Betty Smith, Lucille
Wilson, Cathy Shilson, Norma Craw-
ford, Sybil Katz, Beverly Solorow,
Helen Baldwin, Janice Whittington,
Dorothy Worose, Ruth Duell, Jane
Ludlum, Doris Richard, Helene Ri-
che, Rika Drewes, Emily Minthorn,
and Jean Adams.
The all-junior orchestra consists
of Evelyn Horelick, Tady Martz,
Jean Morgan, Nina Goehring, Mari-
lyn Mason, Lynda Peltz, Blossom
Reynolds, Margaret Southworth, Do-
ris Parker, and Virginia Werner,
Tibbetts to Discuss
Veterans Program
Clark Tibbetts, director of the
Veterans Bureau will discuss "The
Veterans Program in Michigan" at
8 p.m. Monday in the Michigan
League.
His talk is being given in response
to many requests for discussion of
the organization, Pauline Gollub,
chairman of the program committee

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I'E THEl BVS'!'

TH~E IRICRIGW
1iSHES TNO GIB.

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POSSIBLE SERVICE TO ALL
OF ITS SLUBSCRIBERS
N ORDER to accomplish this aim, we
are inaugurating a special courtesy service,
We request that you call 23-24-1 before

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