-_ _ _______-.---- -_ _______________________
TJR~Y, APRil.~ ~, 1945
USSR Policy on Small Nations
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Editorials published in The Michigan Daily
are written by members of The Daily staff
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THOSE WHO REASON that a post-war com-
pulsory training program is to prepare the
United/States for war and, it is hoped, to warn
all aggressors that to attack the great power
would be suicide, are taking a negative approach
to the whole problem of international peace.
If the Dumbarton Oaks proposals are car-
ried into effect, as they probably will be, it
would be to our disadvantage to have a large
militia prepared to swing the sword. The pro-
posals are based upon the assumption that
the Big Three will remain mutual friends for
their own benefit. If one of the Big Three
starts to train and arm a large army, regard-
less of its intentions, the other two are going
to become suspicious. The whole platform
of Dumbarton Oaks would be null and void.
But even if Dumbarton Oaks resulted in a
bottle-neck and the proposals were not* carried
into effect, the approach to this problem would
still be negative. As for preparing the United
States for war, compulsory military training
would do the job if it were the only factor in-
volved. But unfortunately, fighting a war is
not that simple. The people behind the lines,
tle self-governing people who run the country,
the men who produce the goods are the most
important factors. The people must be aware
of the times, they must be keyed to the ever-
altering political and economic changes of
foreign nations. If they are not aware of the
dangers, nothing less than another Pearl Harbor
would awaken them. A well-informed public is
a much better preparation than a drafted army.
It is evident that when the Axis Nations
are deprived of their war power, there is no
sign of an attack by some new enemy. A
rising enemy will give years of advance notice
before it would be able to attack. To ward
off this future attack, a drafted army would
only be able to stand guard against the on-
coming attack, and would not be able to
take preventive steps such as an informed
public could very easily do. And, in case
these preventive steps did not work, we would
still have many years to raise an army.
Rather than spend millions to train a drafted
army we would be farther ahead if we used
the money to teach our nation to understand
--Philip L. Elkus
HERE ARE FORCES at work attempting to
call off the United Nations Peace meeting
scheduled to be held in San Francisco April 25.
There were similar forces at work which were
skeptical concerning the value of the Dumbar-
tou Oaks Conference. Despite efforts to mini-
mize the importance of the Dumbarton meeting,
it was held. Although results of the meeting
are by no means above criticism, a nuclear peace
plan based on world cooperation was formu-
Those persons who would have us forget the
San Francisco meeting are similar to other
types of procrastinators in that they realize
th3ere is a task at hand, but refuse to cope
with it until circumstances force the issue.
By DREW PEARSON
WASHINGTON-Tip-off as to how Joe Stalin
feels about smaller nations was given more
than a year ago in a private talk with Cuban
'Ambassador Concheso. It gave a significant in-
dication of why Stalin demands three votes in
the United Nations Assembly.
Stalin amazed the Ambassador with his
knowledge of Cuban labor and economic prob-
lems, but talked as if Cuba were part of the
United States. Concheso explained that the
Platt Amendment had been abrogated and
Cuba now had complete political freedom.
But this made little impression on Stalin, ie
viewed Cuba as wedded to the U. S. A.
Then he turned to Argentina. And with con-
siderable vehemence, he remarked that it was
about time the United States took Argentina
in hand and forced it to join the Allies. Stalin's
eyes flashed when he talked of Argentina and
he seemed to believe that the United States
had complete control of the American continent.
Ambassador Concheso explained that Argen-
tina was a long way off from the U. S. A. and
that the United States took pains to respect
the independence of Latin American states.
But Stalin seemed unconvinced.
Stalin's Border States.. .
SINCE THEN, evidence has increased that the
Soviet considers Latin America as a bloc
which will always vote with the United States;
and smaller nations close to a big power as
legitimate satellites of that power.
For instance, when Winston Churchill visited
Moscow last summer, Stalin was very frank in
saying that Russia must have a series of states
on her western border-Poland, Roumania, Fin-
land-which were friendly to her. He made it
plain that the Soviet would not tolerate for a
minute a government in these bordering states
which did not cooperate with the U. S. S. R.
Since then, Stalin has changed the govern-
ment of Roumania when it suited him, has -forced
the Allies to accept the Polish Lublin govern-
ment, and has caused a government turnover
So the coldly realistic Stalin figures that the
tactics he employs with his neighbors are em-
ployed also by the U. S. A. with its neighbors;
and if not, then it's this country's fafilt. In
fact, his only complaint to the Cuban Ambas-
sador was that the United States didn't crack
down on Argentina.
Sixteen Soviet Votes-...
STALIN'S VIEWS regarding small countries
were expressed quite clearly at the closed-
door session of the Dumbarton Oaks conference.
Ambassador Gromyko pointed out that Russia,
occupying one-sixth of the earth's surface, would
have only one vote, while the British Common-
wealth would have six.
Stettinius replied that the United States,
almost as large as Russia, had only one vote
and was not complaining. Gromyko counter-
ed with the reminder that the United States
dominated 20 Latin American republics and
could swing 21 votes.
For a while, the Dumbarton Oaks parley was
completely deadlocked. But, finally, Gromyko
revealed that his government planned to organ-
ize 16 Soviet Republics.
At this, both Roosevelt and Churchill hit the
In the end, Russia agreed to postpone the ques-
tion of sixteen votes until Churchill, Roosevelt
and Stalin could sit down together. This was
what FDR faced at Yalta.
And out of this came the compromise of three
votes for both the U. S. A. and the U. S. S. R.
NOTE-Some diplomats believe it would
have been wiser if FDR had merely let Stalin
have his three votes, with one vote only for
the U. S. A. They believe the small countries,
plus public opinion, would have been strong
enough to force a Russian change in the end.
Diplomats also recall that for years the
Soviet was boycotted by the State Department
and the world generally, and we are now pay-
By Bay Dixon
E'RE HAVING an early fall this year, aren't
we? But don't worry. Ann Arbor is just
as beautiful in the autumn.
Speaking of fall, the Democrats sure did in
Monday's election. Republicans swept the
state as clean as Allies swept France.
Even the Political Action Committee failed to
get actiomwas less than one seventh of the eligible
voters bothered to east their ballots. This is
slightly reminiscent of a campus election.
In one way, a spring election is just like the
fountain in front of the League. Nobody can
This isn't a gossip column, but we think we
should mention that Evelyn Phillips, ye man-
aging ed, had a baby brother on Tuesday. Con-
gratulations Phil. You're doing your bit to elect
a Democrat come 1966.
ing the price. It is not easy to allay Soviet
Byrnes Steps Out ...
'OR A LONG TIME, soft-spoken little Jimmy
Byrnes, the President's all-round handyman,
has been wanting to retire 1rom office. He has
been working allr hurs of the ay and night,
is tired, in poor health and in need of a
For a long time, also, the gentleman from
South Carolina has been keeping a book on
his chief in the White House. It's not exactly
a diary, hut a record of things Jimmy was
promised hut neve got. Probably he'll never
publish i. In fat, only his close friends
know it exists. But those that do say it puts
the chief in a bad position when it comes to
First, there was the vice-presidency. Byrnes
got the imnpression that FDR would welcome him
as his running-mate. But, when he got to Chi-
cago, he was instructed to "clear it with Sidney
Hillman." That was where the "clear it with
Sydney" phrase, so effectively used by the Re-
publicans, got started. Byrnes told it to Bernie
Baruch, Baruch told it to Arthur Krock, and,
on that score, Jimmy got his revenge.
Later, Byrnes got what he thought was a
definite promise of secretary of state when
Cordell Hull resigned. He even made plans
regarding the appointment of his staff. But,
at the last minite, Harry Hopkins persuaded
the President that Ed Stettinius would be
easier to manage, while Byrnes would insist
on running things his own way. So Byrnes
was out again.
(Copyright, 1945, Bell Syndicate in:)
I'D RATHER BE RIGHT:
By SAMUEL GRAFTON
THE AMERICAN PEOPLE have built up a
really furious attachment to the San Fran-
cisco conference. It is stronger perhaps than
we ourselves realize. We adore writing consti-
tutions; that always is. for us, the best part of
any enterprise, and the most fun. We Ameri-
cans cannot conceive of organization except in
constitutional terms, the written clauses on the
fair white sheet. We love it so.
We have built ourselves up to a high pitch
of expectation regarding San Francisco; and
I do not believe the Russians can understand
what a stunning blow they have dealt to Am-
erican public opinion by messing the picture,
through the raising of last-minute questions
and difficulties. Russia's demand for un-
usual and special voting power in the As-
sembly; Russia's demand that the Lublin gov-
ernment of Poland be seated; the feeling that
has been created that there are secret agree-
ments; all this seems to Americans to be the
opposite of the spirit of constitution-making.
If we try, however, with equal sympathy, to
look at the situation from the Soviet point of
view, we may find more reasons for the Soviet
position than are at first apparent. Russia
wants three votes in the Assembly, one for the
Ukrainian Soviet republic, and one for the
White Russian Soviet republic, as well as one
for the U. S. S. R. We should remember, as a
possible motivation for this bizarre demand,
Russia's intense loneliness in the old League of
Nations. She was the only nation ever thrown
out of the League, and that by unanimous vote.
That event followed the long years during
which M. Litvinov stood alone at Geneva and
denounced the aggressor, amidst an immense
and total silence. As the only communist state,
Russia must still, to a certain degree, stand
alone; alone in character and kind. Since the
way of exporting communism is barred, she
tries to gain votes by subdividing, like an amoeb
This is one way of losing particularity, without
It may be somewhat irregular. But we must
remember, that whereas we are tremendously
interested in legal forms, as a means for
minimizing conflict, Russian political theory
is anti-formal, and looks upon many of the
political forms of the west as methods for
perpetuating injustice. Russia points to Pol-
and and says that she's a rather big country,
and ought to be seated at San Francisco. We
point to the fact that the Lublin government
has not been recognized. The clash is a deep
one, between our attachment to legality, and
Russia's desire to break the terrible isolation
that goes with being the only one of a species.
The voting question is only one small aspect
of the larger problem, of making a synthesis
of western democracy and Soviet communism,
of building one structure across these two foun-
dations. It is not going to be easy, and the
voting question must be viewed as the first of
the difficulties which will, in series, present
We have begun an adventure in understand-
ing; but I don't think we understand that the
Soviets still feel isolated, and I don't think
the Soviets understand that western attach-
ment to legal form is a deep and sincere in-
stinet, common to all classes. We must keep
these reference points eternally in mind; -it is
only when we forget them that our problems
seem to go formless, and messy, and hope
seems to sink below the ground.
(Copyright, 1945, New York Post Syndicate)
f THE United States public will ac-
cept continuing strict regulation
of food supplies after the war, the
United Nations will have a chance
to win a stable, democratic peace in
Europe. If not, a food crisis in Eu-
rope may bring about a political
crisis and even eventually another
The vital importance of the ques-
tion of food supplies has only recently
been recognized. Churchill and
Roosevelt conferred on the trans-
atlantic telephone about food, and
two British cabinet ministers flew
to Washington to discuss it.
Without a doubt the food situa-
tion at the end of the war in Eu-
rope will be serious. When Ger-
many was in full power she regu-
lated food production and distribu-
tion with a firm-if discrimina-
tory-hand. Now, production is
becoming haphazard, and is great-
ly curtailed by lack of seeds, tools,
fertilizers and manpower.
This will be even more the case
after the final victory in Europe. Fur-
thermore, there will be the question
of distributing that which is pro-
duced from the eastern European
countries, which normally produce a
surplus, to the western countries,
which even in normal times do not
produce enough for their own needs.
* The United States is the best-
nourished nation in the world; on
the whole, its diet has been better
,since the war than before. It
will be the task of the United
States, with aid from Canada and
Australia and other parts of the
British Empire, to provide for the
starving nations of Europe until
such time as they can provide for
Need for the satisfaction of hunger
is the sharpest want experienced by
the human race. A hungry people is
not a happy people, nor is it apt to
be a contented people. The lack of
food supplies in Europe after the
war, the breakdown in the transporta-
tion system, the general confusion,
could add up to potential revolution.
If we desire a peaceful, amicable
state of affairs in Europe after the
war, it is up to us to provide a food
supply for the starving millions of
Navy War Bond Cartoon Servi
"It's amazing how fast my
War bonds pile up!"
SAN FRANCISCO CONFERENCE:
Poles Excluded from Meeting
WHY was Poland the only Allied
Nation excluded from the con-
ference in San Francisco? Many
publications and political groups
would have us believe that there has
been disagreement and conflict be-
tween the Big Three on this point.1
Supposedly, the British are support-
ing and demanding recognition for'
the government-in-exile, heir of the
pre-war Polish regime, while Russia
is outspoken in her demands for the
recognition of the Provisional Gov-
ernment at Warsaw, originally the
The fact that the Polish govern-
ment is split is probably the only
principal reason the nation received
no invitation. However, the Big
Three amiably settled the question
when they decided to support no
one faction or group. Instead they
are waiting until the Poles themselves
settle their uncertain status. The
Big Three at the Yalta conference
agreed that a new government should
be formed on a broader democratic
basis with the inclusion of the demo-
cratic leaders from Poland and from
the Poles abroad.
If it is possible for the two Pol-
ish factions to come to some agree-I
ment and form a consolidated gov-
ernment, they will probably re-
ceive an invitation to the confer-
ence. Poland should participate.
The nation's heavy sacrifices en-
title it to a voice in the affairs of
the United Nations. The with-
holding of an invitation should
prove an incentive for the two op-
posing governments to coime to
some agreement; as it now stands
it' is impossible to recognize either
-R. E. McNabb
E ATINGhas always been a favorite
sporof Americans, but during
1945 civilians will have to draw in
their belts a little tighter.
The April-May-June supply of
meat is expected to be the lowest in
ten years, since Army buying has
stepped up to fill longer supply lines
and help feed growing numbers of
prisoners. There will probably be a
systematic government attempt to
bring all meat processing under gov-
ernment inspection, where the Office
of Price Administration can see what
is going on.
Not all foods are declining in pro-
duction. Consumers can eat all
they desire of certain grains and
milk-but meat, butter, chickens,
eggs, food fats and shortening and
sugar supplies are fading into the
Nevertheless the nation is on a
slimer diet. -Jane Ludlum
T HE HORRIBLE story of how 30,-
000 Russian prisoners of war
died and another 30,000 were starv-
ing in a German prison camp when
rescued by Yank GI's presents both
a pathetic and ironic situation.
It should be apparent to the
War Department that American
prisoners are being treated in a
similar fashion, yet U. S. author-
ities are content to lodge formal
Meanwhile, German prisoners in
U. S. prison camps are treated well,
eat regularly and in many camps
have better quarters than our own
work and who have demonstrated I History" which meets every Thurs-
THURSDAY, APRIL 5, 1945
VOL. LV, No. 113
Publication in the Daily Official Bul-
letin is constructive notice to all mem-
bers of the University. Notices forihe
Bulletin should be sent in typewritten
form to the Assistant to the President,
1021 Angel lhall, by 3:30 p. in. of the day
preceding pnblieiilon (11:30 a. m. Sat-
Instructors are invited to attend
the special meeting of the University
Senate on Monday, April 9, at 4:15
p.m. in the Rackham Lecture Hall
for the purpose of receiving and dis-
cussing the report of the Senate Ad-
visory Committee, "The Economic
Status of the Faculty".
To the Members of the University
Council: It is planned to hold the
April meetingof the University Coun-
cil on Monday, April 16, at 4:15 p.m.
in the Rackham Amphitheatre.
Group Hospitalization and Surgi-
cal Service: During the period from
April 5 through April 16, the Univer-
sity Business Office will accept new
applications as well as requests for
changes in contracts now in effect.
These new applications and changes
will become effective May 5, with the
first payroll deduction on May 31.
After April 16dno new applications or
changes can be accepted until Octo-
To all male students of the Uni-
versity: There will be no refunds or
renewals on lockers purchased for
the Fall Term 1944-1945 at Water-
man Gymnasium or the Sports Buil-
ding after April 14, 1945.
Alpha Kappa Delta initiates of last
December may call at the Sociology
[Office, 115 Haven Hall, for member-
ship certificates this week.
Detroit Armenian Women's Cluby
Award: The Detroit Armenian Wo-
men's Club offers a scholarship award
of $100 for 1945-46, open for compe-
tition by undergraduate students of'
Armenian parentage residing in the
Detroit Metropolitan district who
have had at least one year of college
both scholastic ability and excellence
of character. The award will be
made by the scholarship committee
of the club May 15, 1945. Applica-.
tions will be received and forwarded
by F. E. Robbins. Assistant to the
President, 1021 Angell Hall.
A Representative from the Good-
year Aircraft Corporation, Akron, 0.,
will be in our office, Monday, April
9, to interview girls for their College
Staff Training Program. If inter-
ested, call Bureau of Appointments,
Univ. Ext. 371, for appointment.
The Five-Weeks' Grades for Navy
and Marine Trainees (other than
Engineers and Supply Corps) will be
due April 7. Department offices will
be provided with special cards and
the Office of the Academic Coun-
selors, 108 Mason Hall, will receive
these reports and transmit them to
the proper officers.
Faculty, College of Literature, Sci-
ence, and the Arts: The civilian
freshman five-week progress reports
will be due April 7 in the Office of
the Academic Counselors, 108 Mason
Tea at the International Center,
every Thursday, 4-5:30 p.m. Faculty,
foreign students, and their American
friends are cordially invited.
Phi Beta Kappa: Annual meeting
today at 4:15 p.m. in Rm. 1035 Angell
Hall. Members are urged to attend.
Inter-Guild Inventory: Reverend
E. H. Redman will speak on "The
Unitarian Approach to Protestant
Action" in Lane Hall at 4 p.m. This
will be the third of a series of discus-
sions on the Protestant denomina-
tions under the leadership of Miss
The International Center Camera
Club: There will be a regular meet-
ing at 5:10 at the Center. The pro-
gram will include a talk by Mr. Aug-
osto Munos. Members are urged to
Michigan Chapter A.A.U.P. open
meeting this evening at the Michigan
Union. Join cafeteria line at 6:15
day evening at the Hillel Foundation
at 7:30 p.m. will begin this Thursday
at 7 p.m., so that members of the
class may attend the Avukah meet-
ing which follows.
The Regular Thursday Evening
Record Concert will be held in the
Ladies Lounge of the Rackham Buil-
ding at 7:45 p.m. The program will
feature Symphony No. 1, by Sibelius;
Rhapsody in Blue, by Gershwin;
Schelomo, by Bloch; and De Moldau,
by Smetana. All graduate students
are cordially invited to attend.
The Cercle Francais will meet to-
night at 8 p.m. in the Michigan
J Union. A nice program of social
games and group singing. Come all.
Avukah, Student Zionist Organiza-
tion, is holding an urgent meeting
this evening, 8:30 p.m., at the Hillel
Foundation. All members please at-
The Pi Lambda Theta Guest Tea
scheduled originally for April 6 has
been temporarily postponed. A later
announcement will reveal the date
and place of the event.
The Geological Journal Club will
meet in Rm. 4065, Nat. Sci. Bldg. at
12:15 p.m. on Friday, April 6. Pro-
gram: Professor W. H. Hobbs will
speak on "Reminiscences of Ameri-
can and Foreign Geologists." All in-
terested are cordially invited to at-
The April meeting of the Ann Ar-
bor Library Club will be a Sympos-
ium based on Fremont Rider's "The
scholar and the future pf the re-
search library". Papers by C. Camp-
bell, E. Campbell, M. Drake, F. Ham-
man, S. Jonas and H. Walter. Dem-
onstration of reading machines for
use with films, Rm. 110, General Li-
brary, 7:45 p.m. Friday, April 6. This
meeting is open to non-members, if
they are interested in coming.
"Target for Today", a full-length
film which records the bombing of
Germany by the Eighth Bomber
Command will be shown at Rack-
ham Amphitheater, Saturday eve-
ning at 7:30, under the auspices of
the Inter-Racial Association, the
Post-War Council, the University of
By Crockett Johnson
If the bankers close4
your big financial Naturalfly. The ramifications of a
You and your mother in
But luckily, your Fairy Godfather's
still at the financial helm, m'boy.. .