THE MICHIGAN DAILY
Army Promotion Policy Raked
COMPULSORY MILITARY TRAINING FORUM:
Dean Edmonson Presents Pro and Con
Edited and managed by students of the University of
Michigan under the authority of the Board in Control
of Student Publications.
Ray Dixon .
Kay McFee .
. . . Managing Editor
. .Editorial Director
. . . . City Editor
. . . Sports Editor
. . Associate Sports Editor
* . . Women's Editor
BusinessStaff B n
S . BusinessManager
. . . Associate Business Mgr.
. . Associate Business Mgr.
Member of The Associated Press
The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the use
for re-publication of all news dispatches credited to it or
otherwise credited in this newspaper. All rights of re-
publication of all other matters herein also reserved.
Entered at the Post Office at Ann Arbor, Michigan, as
second-class mail matter.
Subscriptions during the regular school year by car-
Tier, $4.50, by mail, $5.25.
Member, Associated Collegiate Press, 1944-45
NIGHT EDITOR: ARTHUR J. KRAFT
Editorials published in The Michigan Daily
are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only.
"FOUR DISOBEDIENT WACs Get Year" was
the black newspaper headline in an obscure
part of page three. The desk disclosed "De-
fense Charged Race Discrimination."
At Fort Devens, Mwssachusetts, on March 20,
four Negro WACs were sentenced to one year
at hard labor which will be followed by a
dishonorable discharge because they refused
to obey orders. The orders, they said, were to
perform "menial tasks in Lovell General Hos-
pital because of their color."
During the court martial, which was presided
over by two male Negro officials and two white
WAC officers who were members of the seven-
man court, Pvt. Alice Young testified that Col.
Walter M. Crandall, hospital commanding of-
ficer had told her "they want no black WACs
at the motor pool" after she had requested
transfer there March 9. Pvt. Alberta Goss sup-
ported this statement.
That's all there was to the story except for
the names of the other three who were sentenced
and the fact that there is the possibility of
review of the case before high army officials.
So, granted, we don't know many of the details.
Neither does Little Joe Goebbels in Ger-
many, but his imagination is more lucid and
pernicious than ours, and he has probably
fondly tucked it in with his other clippings of
the lynchings and strikes caused by racial
friction just to show the German people "dem-
ocracy at work."
That "democracy" will, in this case, bear in-
rjHE BEGINNING of a drive by Federal tax
agents to round up all wealthy, "free-spend-
ing" income tax evaders frequenting resorts
and centers of pleasure spending was announc-
ed Thursday by the Treasury Department.
Tax agents are investigating a list of several
hundred "free-spenders" in the Miami and Mi-
ami Beach areas. The inquiry will later be
extended to New York, Philadelphia, and other
such centers. This will be the greatest drive
of its kind which has ever been made.
It does not speak well for the intelligence
and loyalty of a certain portion of the Ameri-
can people that such a drive is necessary. Am-
erica is supposed to be fully conscious of the
exigencies of total war, yet how can we believe
that it is completely so when as much as $10,000
changes hands on one throw of the dice?
One Federal official, not in the Treasury
Department, estimated that between three
and five billion dollars is being wihheld an-
nually by these income tax-evaders. It is not
right that in a country engaged in total war,
a comparative few should ive in nonchalant
luxury, while others are working and dying
that all may be secure.
cTRRENT PICTURES from the pi oto scrvices
show rather clearly 4hat a beating the Ger-
mans are taking as the Allies push deeper into
the Reich and bombings lay ruin to the great
German cities. ,
These ruins will remain for years. Germany
cannot rebuild immediately following the Armis-
tice the homes, cities, and factories that have
By DREW PEARSON
WASHINGTON-The army's promotion policy
on general officers came in for a thorough
raking-over last week, when the Senate Military
Affairs Committee met in a close-door session to
consider recommended promotion of nine lieu-
tenant generals to full generals.
Chairman Elbert Thomas of Utah opened
the discussion by remarking that he had never
before known a single period in our history
to produce so many generals. Thomas was
apparently making a simple observation, but
soon found he had struck a responsive chord.
His commitee refused to vote to confirm the
nine candidates without first having Chief
of Staff Marshall appear before the committee
and explain the promotions,+
Hard-working Happy Chandler of Kentucky
wanted to know how these nine men had been
"Men like Patton, Hodges, Patch and Simpson
--the commanders on the Western Front-are
all lieutenant generals now," Chandler observed.
"Why shouldn't they be promoted just as soon
as these nine men suggested here?"
Styles Bridges of New Hampshire seconded
Chandler's question, referring specifically to
Patton and Hodges. Chan Gurney of South
Dakota pointed out that these four men (Pat-
ton, Hodges, Patch and Simpson) are com-
manders of single armies, rather than army
groups. The generals recommended for promo-
tion are Bradley. Devers and Clark, all com-
manders of army groups-together with Gen-
erals Handy, McNarney, Somervell, Spaatz, Ken-
ney and Krueger who hold various home front
and overseas commands.
"But Patton and Hodges are lieutenant gen-
erals just like the rest of them," Bridges re-
plied, pointing out also that Walter Krueger-
one of those named for promotion-is com-
mander of the Sixth Army, not of an army
Senatorial Pique ...
THE SENATORS then got down to a discussion
of the individual officers whose promotion
they had been asked to approve. They weren't
too happy about General Somervell, head of
Army Service Forces, but where they really
agreed was in their objection to promoting Lieut.
Gen. Joseph McNarney to be a full general.
McNarney is now Deputy Supreme Allied Com-
mander in the Meditteranean area.
As Deputy Chief of Staff until a few months
ago, McNarney succeeded, in his frequent ap-
pearances before the committee, in winning the
dislike of nearly all members. They didn't
care for his personality and never had much
respect for his ability. They remembered
particularly the time during the last Congress,
when Senators O'Mahoney, Chandler and
Bridges went to the War Department to find
By BARRIE WATERS
At the State ,
YOU EITHER like Abbott and Costello or you
don't like them. So you'll either be highly
amused or highly skeptical of the I. Q. of those
who are amused at the State's "Here Come the
For one who wasn't highly amused, I will
admit the film seemed better paced than some
of its predecessors, but aside from this it is
practically indistinguishable from all that has
The pair are this time caretakers in a girls'
school and are successively involved with a
carnivorous oyster, an unorthodox wrestling
match and a runaway sailboat-all in the A & C
To be purely academic about it, Abbott and
Costello display neither the timing of Chaplin
nor the calculated wackiness of the Marx
Brothers. Theyre just a couple of energetic
people trying to earn their salary. All this
doesn't matter one bit to their vast following,
I fully realize.
At liMwIch w 9wa .
I F YOU LIE horses yo'll probably be wild
about the Michigan's "Thunderhead," be-
cause I can safely say I've never before seen so
many horses concentrated in one and one half
hours running time.
You see black horses; you see beige horses,
you see white horses; you see such attractive
humans as Preston Foster and Rita Johnson
photographed in juxtaposition with horses. The
technicolor camera indulges in one of its inevit-
able panorama shots of Western scenery and 10
and behold you see a herd of horses scam-
pering across all the greenery at the bottom,
In short, "Thunderhead" has a staggering
amoiunt of horsefleh to offer the paying cus-
"Thunderhead" is a sequel to last year's
'My Friend I 'licka' and may be recommended
to those who enjoyed that earlier effort. For
one like nyself, whose acquaintance with the
aninial kiogIom extends to dats, dogs and a
canary owned by a maiden aunt, "Thunder-
head" often has the function of building up
vleasant anti eiwd tion for "Paramount News"
rather than any great concern over whether
or not jick lowe saves the old home-
stead from debt,
out about the Army's plan to destroy a huge
file of complaints brought against officers
named for promotion.
Not all members are certain that there was
anything wrong with the. Army's plan, but all
remember that they didn't care for McNarney's
reception of the three Senators.
Finally it was agreed that General Marshall
should be brought to appear befpre the com-
mittee before it acted on any of the nominations.
Disgusted with the whole procedure, Senator
Chandler declared: "So far as I am concerned,
I will support a bill to permit Marshall to pro-
mote anyone he wants without Senate confir-
mation. We're just supposed to be here as a
rubber stamp, I guess."
Note: General Marshall, in a super-secret
session later in the week, explained his pass-
ing over Patton, Patch, Hodges and Simpson
by pointing out that they were all subordi-
nates .to Bradley and Devers. Krueger, he
expiained, Is subordinate to MacArthur, who
is a five-star general.
(copyright, 1945, Bell Syndicate)
I'D RATHER BE RIGHT:
By SAMUEL GRAFTON
ANEW ARGUMENT has cropped up against
Bretton Woods. It is said that there is a
great misunderstanding between Britain and
America as to what Bretton Woods means. It
is said that maybe we had better drop the
whole thing, because we and Britain are inter-
preting the agreement in different ways.
This argument is being pushed by the New
York Times, the New York Herald Tribune, and
by those members of the American Bankers As-
sociation who don't like Bretton Woods anyway.
Some of these molders of opinion sometimes seem
to me a little too happy about their discovery
that there is a possible difference of viewpoint
between Britain and America. A good interna-
tionalist should be saddened to find that there
is a serious difference between the two nations.
He ought to have the impulse to minimize the
difference, rather than to enlarge on it for the
purposes of killing an international agreement.
Is there a misunderstanding between Brit-
ain and America on Bretton Woods? I can't
find that there is. The two countries are
talking about Bretton Woods in different
ways; each likes different points in it, and
emphasizes what it likes. But that is not
the same as saying that they disagree on the
meaning of the actual document.
The point at issue is a heavy one, solid pig
iron, but so much has been made of it, that
it might pay to follow it through. And it
goes like this:d
When our American Treasury officials boost
Bretton Woods, they emphasize the fact that it
is an agreement among the nations of the world
to keep their currencies at stable values. We like
stability; we have the gold of the world; we
are the dominant financial power. And so in
all our official talk about Bretton Woods, we
hit hard on the point that Bretton Woods oper-
ates against currency gyrations, it means that
all moneys will have fixed and definite values,
and so on.'
When we read the British press, we are
startled to find officials of the British Excheq-
uer emphasizing the flexibility of Bretton
Woods. The British are much more fearful of
their postwar trade future than we. They
must export or die. They tremble, under-
standably, at the danger of not being able
to reduce the value of the pound, if neces-
sary, to obtain customers. So, in British offi-
cial' talk, we find emphasis placed on the fact
that Bretton Woods allows member nations to
alter the values of their currencies "by as
much as ten per cent, after consultation with
the Fund. We even find Sir John Anderson,
Chancellor of the Exchequer, saying that Brit-
ain will alter the value of the pound,'if it has
to, even beyond the 10 per cent limit, whether
the Fund approves or not.
What of it? Such action would not be illegal,
under Bretton Woods. The agreement specific-
ally allows member nations to alter their cur-
rencies as they please, under pain, of course,
of losing certain privileges. The "difference of
viewpoint" between Britain and America seems
to me to make Bretton Woods even more vital.
For it means that Britain and America will at
least make a try at stability. It means they agree
on certain methods by which to make the at-
tempt. No agreement among nations is per-
fect; and none is self-enforcing into perpetuity.
But at least under Bretton Woods, there will
be consultation; there will be no surprise cur-
rency manipulations; there will be time for
talk, a place for talk, and a method for talk.
The method may fail, in which case there will
ultimately be o, currency war, But why kill
Bretton Woods, and provoke an immediate cur-
rency war? Why welcome the danger we fear?
Bretton Woods ( wrote on February 15) is
a proposal that the nations shall try to live in a
house, together; and it is dangerous to live mn
a house; one may fall downstairs, or slip its
the bathtub. But the alternative is to live in a
tent, and tents are dangerous, too; worse than
houses. The fact that there is no perfect
international agreement makes the level of
agreement we have managed to reach all the
(Copyright. 1945, New York -Post Syndicate)
(EDITOR'S NOTE: This week the subject
for student and faculty discussion is
post-war compulsory military training.
The first in the series is an outline of an
address delivered by Dean Edmonson of
the School of Education at a meeting of
the Michigan Council of Education. He
reviews the present interest in peace-time
compulsory military training and lists
the points pro and con9
THE AMERICAN people are great-
ly concerned with proposals for
a required year of military training
for all boys. A report on the opin-
ions of school administrators as pub-
lished in the Nation's Schools for
January 1944 reveals strong support
for compulsory military training. The
issue of Fortune for July, 1944 gives
results of a nationwide survey of pub-
lic opinion on the following ques-
tions: "After the war do you think
the United States should draft all
young men for a certain amount of
army training during peacetime?"
To this inquiry 69.1 percent answered
"yes," 21.1 percent said "No," and
9.8 percent were undecided.
The arguments advanced in sup-
port of a year of required national
service or military training are
those implied in the statements of
desired educational and social out-
comes submitted herewith. In ad-
dition, the need is stressed for a
large reserve of trained men in
the event of another war, 'which it
is feared may come without as
much warning as the last two ma-
jor wars. It is also argued that
the country must choose between a
large professional armed force or
a well-trained reserve of civilians.
In any consideration of proposals
relating to compulsory military train-
ing it is desirable to identify some
of the educational and social out-
comes that advocates appear to be
seeking. Among these are the follow-
1. THE PROMOTION of a higher
standard of physical well-
being among the youth of the coun-
try through the examinations and
instruction that might be given dur-
ing the year of service.
2. An increase in the vocational
competency of young people through
programs of guidance and instruc-
tion that might be given during the
year of service.
3. The discovery and correction of
marked deficiencies in the educa-
tion of youth caused by the back-
wardness of some communities.
4. The return to a program of train-
ing of the thousands of boys-who had
left school at early ages.
5. The development of work habits
on the part of these boys coming
from an environment where actual
work is not possible.
6. The discovery and redirection of
boys of marked ability who have be-
come submerged in a retarded com-
munity or an unfavorable home or
7. A decrease in juvenile delin-
quency by providing more signifi-
cant purposes and more strict con-
trol for youth.
8. A decrease in the number of
boys exhibiting flabbiness and soft-
9. The increase in the typical boy's
knowledge of vocational opportunities
at an early age.
10. A reduction of unemployment in
a period of re-conversion or depres-
sion by the removal of about one mil-
lion potential workers.
11. The development of a genera-
tion of boys that have had the bene-
fits of the exacting discipline of an
12. The promotion of tolerance
through a year of association with
boys from various social, economic,
py uff Oixon
WITH REGARD to LaGuardia's one
hour extension of New York's
curfew, the general opinion seems to
be that he is one of the few curs
that won't do as he's told.
t- = * *
A few new houses in town are
sporting brand new fire escapes.
The only thing that confuses us
is that they seem to be made of
And they are so small that a re-
spectable fire would have a hard time
We like the story about the sol-
dier who got drunk in the region
west of the Rhine. Seems he was
in Sarry with a Binge on Top. 7
All of these forecasts we are be-a
ing bombarded with by self-styled
experts seem about as futile as count-
ing the exact number of words in
and occupational classes, as well as
racial and religious groups.
13. The development of those atti-
tudes and viewpoints that will con-
tribute to national unity and loyalty.
THOSE who are opposed to the
year of compulsory military
service advance such arguments as
1. A nation usually achieves that for
which it prepares, and conscription
as a national policy is likely to tend
toward war rather than peace.
2. In a year of required national
service, all other objectives but the
military would be subordinated, and
the educational and social outcomes
listed in Part II would not be stress-
3. Compulsory military training is
an inadequate substitute for the con-
tinuing program of health that the
country needs for children, youth,
4. While millions of young men
have enjoyed health benefits from
military training, the 4-F's, who were
most in need of health services, have
5. The program would delay occu-
pational and professional choice by
many young men, with resulting
6. The claim that military train-
ing will make up for a lack of dis-
cipline among American youth has
not been effectively demonstrated.
The splendid loyalty, marked ini-
tiative, and unusual resourcefulness
of the men and women in the arm-
ed forces give convincing evidence
that much effective civic and dis-
ciplinary education has been pro-
vided in our schools and by other
community agencies in past years.
7. A part of the large sums of
money required for a program of com-
pulsory military training could be ex-
pended to better advantage in the
support of expanded services of
schools and social agencies.
8. Compulsory regimentation in
peace times is a weapon used by fas-
cist countries, and it is contrary to
the principles of American democ-
9. An elaborate program of com-
pulsory military service might lead to
the development of an army officer
caste such as has cursed Germany.
10. More effective ways of building
adequate defenses in peace time could
be developed through comprehensive
programs involving educational agen-
11. A program of compulsory mili-
tary service with educational and so-
cial objectives would lead to the de-
velopment of a new educational
agency under complete federal con-
12. Compulsory military training
should be planned in terms of na-
tional defense and not as a panacea
for social deficiencies.
13. A year of compulsory military
training will directly affect the sons
of the men who are now fighting in
our armed forces, and those men
should have a voice in determining
the desirability of such a policy.
On the basis of their foreign experi-
ences they will have definite ideas
regarding this country's proper role
in world security.
-Dr. J. B. Edmonson
Dean of the Education School
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
TUESDAY, MARCH 27, 1945
VOL. LV, No. 105
Publication in the Daily Official Bul-
letin is constructive notice to all mem-
bers of the University. Notices for the
Bulletin should be sent in typewritten
form to the Assistant to the President,
1021 Angell Hall, by 3:30 p. m. of the day
preceding publication (11:30 a. m. Sat-
To the Members of the University
Senate: A special meeting of the
University Senate is called for Mon-
day, April 9th, at 4:15 p.m. in the
Rackham Amphitheater for the pur-
pose of receiving and discussiig the
report of the Senate Advisory Com-
mittee, "The Economic Status of
To the Members of the University
Council: It is planned to hold the
April meeting of the University Coun-
cil on Monday, April 16, at 4:15 p.m.
in the Rackham Amphitheatre.
Attention Pre-Medical Students:
The Medical Aptitude Test of the
Association of American Medical Col-
leges will be given at the University
of Michigan on April 13. The test
is a normal requirement for admis-
sion to practically all medical schools
and will not be repeated until next
spring. Anyone planning to enter a
medical school in the fall of 1945 or
in the spring of 1946 and who has
not previously taken the test must
write the examination at this time.
Further information may be obtain-
ed in Room 4 University Hall.
Students who are planning to peti-
tion the Hopwood committee for per-
mission to compete in the contests
should read paragraph 18 on page
9 of the Hopwood bulletin and sub-
mit their petitions before April sec-
There is a very urgent need for
-Mrs. Ruth Buchanan
Eligibility Certificates for the
Spring Term should be secured before
April 1 in Rm. 2, University Hall.
All Veterans interested in a re-
fresher course in the mechanics and
grammar of English Composition are
asked to call or contact Mr. C. M.
Davis, Veteran's Advisor, Rll.19,
Angell Hall. Telephone 4121, Exten-
American Red Cross War Fund:
If you have not been solicited in
regard to your contribution toward
the American Red Cross and wish to
make your pledge, please call at the
Cashier's Office, 104 South Wing,
and receive your membership card
City of Detroit Civil Service An-
nouncements for Junior City Plan-
ner, $2,415 to $2,760, Intermediate
City Planner, $3,036 to $3,450, Junior'
Publicist, $2,760, Identification Tech-
nician, $2,415 to $2,898, Intermediate
Social Economist, $3,164 to $3,450,
Junior Social Economist, $2,484 to
$2,760, Intermediate Publicist, $3,-
AMA --r Tt icl r 0,,":n:, A ,JA fl A . n.
201 Mason Hall, Bureau of Appoint-
State of Michigan Civil Service
announcements for the following
have been received in our office:
Typist Clerk CI, Stenographer Clerk
CI, $115 to $130 a month, Bridge
Engineer II, $230 to $270 per month,
Water Resources Control Engineer
V, $440 to $550 per month, General
Clerk C, $110 to $125 per month, and
Housemother B, $125 to $145 'per
month. For further information re-
garding these examinations, stop in
at 201 Mason Hall, Bureau of Ap-
- Professor Antoine Jobin, of the
Department of Romance Languages,
will give the sixth of the French Lec-
tures sponsored by Le Cercle Fran-
cais today at 4:10 p. m. in Rm. D,
Alumni Memorial Hall. The title of
his lecture is: "Souvenirs de France."
University Lecture: Dr. George L.
Clarke, Associate Professor of Zo-
ology, Harvard University, and Ma-
rine Biologist of the Woods Hole
Oceanographic Institute, will speak
on the subject "A Consideration of
Oceanographic Methods for Great
Lakes Problems" on 'Wednesday,
March 28, at 4:15 p.m. in the Amphi-
theater of the Rackham Building.
The lecture is under the sponsorship
of the Departments of Geology and
Zoology. It will be illustrated with
both motion pictures and lantern
slides. The public is cordially invited.
Language Examination for L. A.
Degree Candidates in History: This
examination will be held on Friday,
March 30th at 4 p. mn, in Room B
Haven Hall. Students should bring
their own dictionaries and are re-
quested to sign up in advance in the
Candidates for the Teacher's Certi-
ficate for June: Please call at the
office of the School of Education,
1437 University Elementary School,
on Wednesday, Thursday, or Friday
afternoon, March 28-30, between 1:30
and 4:30 to take the teacher's oath.
This is a requirement for the certifi-
Candidates for the Teacher's Cer-
tificate for June: A list of candidates
has been posted on the bulletin board
of the School of Education, Rm. 1431
University Elementary School. Any
prospective candidate whose name
does not appear on this list should
call at the office of the Recorder of
the School of Education, 1437 U.E.S.
College of Literature, Science and
the Arts, Schools of Education, For-
estry, Music and Public Health: Stu-
dents who received marks of I or X
at the close of their last semester or
summer session of attendance will
receive a grade of E in the course
or courses unless this work is made
up by April 5. Students wishing an
extension of time beyond this date in
order to make up this work should
file a petition addressed to the ap-
propriate official in their school with
Room 4, U. H. where it will be trans-
. . . It's only in stories that Pixies B
meddle in the affairs of humans, But Mr. O'Malley, my
Barnaby. And even so, I've never Fairy Godfather is
heard of one of them becoming a very unusual. And-
I'_L _. - -I
Hello, Barnaby. Hello, Ellen. . . Say, we
heard big news at the plant today ...
By Crockett Johnson
The factory's being sold!
To the O'Malley interests! J