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May 24, 1944 - Image 1

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The Michigan Daily, 1944-05-24

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Cloudy and In

VOL. LIV No. 143 ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, WEDNESDAY, MAY 24, 1944'

PRICE FIVE CENTS

Allies

Open

Twin

Offensive

in Italy

* * -~c

M

FDR Vote
In Texas Is
Contested
Georgila GOP To
Name Two Groups
By The Associated Press
Texas Democrats, torn by dissen-
sion over the fourth term and other
issues, yesterday split into two fac-
tions each of which will send delega-
tions demanding to be seated at the
party's national convention.
Amid scenes of turbulence, backers
of a proposal to pledge the state's 48
delegates to the national convention
to renomination of President Roose-
velt withdrew from the regular state
convention after being beaten twice
on test votes. -
Will Go Unpledged
Thereupon, the regular 'convention
proceeded to elect an unpledged dele-
gation and adopt resolutions critical
of the national administration. One
warned that if the "rump convention"
delegates were seated at the national
convention, the electors' chosen by
the regular convention would not be
bound to support the party's national
nominees.
Governor Thomas E. Dewey, mean-
time, picked up still more delegates
for the Republican presidential nom-
ination.
Maryland's 16 plumped into the
Dewey column of pledged or claimed
votes when the state Republican con-
vention adopted a resolution recom-
mending that the delegation support
the New York governor. Technically,
the delegation will go unpledged since
this was .the decision of the voters
in the presidential preference primary
in which Dewey was not a candidate.
Dewey Claims 373 Votes
Maryland's 16 raised the Dewey
total to 373 with 530 convention votes
required to nominate.
A factional Republican fight de-
veloped in Georgia, resulting in two
separate conventions yesterday and
rival delegations to the national con-
vention. One group instructed 14
delegates for Dewey. The other chose
four uninstructed delegates-at-large.
The issue between the groups was
reported to be solely the question of
control of the state party.
By The Associated Press
LONDON, May 23.-German pro-
paganda reached a deep pitch of
gloom today, perhaps in an attempt
to create Allied over-confidence on
the eve of invasion.
In a broadcast from the Nazi-con-
trolled Paris radio, the Fench com-
mentator Robert De Beauplan declar-
ed that as a result of the Allied aerial
offensive against communications
targets, "the French railway system
is in complete chaos."
It was the fifth anniversary of
the formation of the Axis military
alliance, and there was sobriety ev-
en in the message Hitler sent Mus-
solini on the occasion: "I want to
express my unshakable belief that
despite all difficulties that have to
be overcome, at the end of this
struggle the tri-partite powers will
have victory."
Whatever their motive, the Nazis
permitted the French commentator
De Beauplan to draw this gloomy

picture of inside France
"The French railway system is in
complete chaos. The Allies have suc-
cessfully pulver°ized into rubble whole
mashalling yards. They have des-
troyed countless locomotives.
"Saboteurs have also put out of
action the whole hydro-electric sys-
tem of France. The whole problem i
of transpcrt in France is a desolate
sight."
Presi1dential 4Criss'
Will Be Panel Topic
Three faculty members will discuss
"The Presidential Ci isis" in a Post-
War Council panel at 7:45 p.m. today

Mystery Stories Favored
For Outside Reading
Current Literature in Display Cases
Has Largest Circulation, Says Librarian
Student interest in outside reading, according to Miss Fredericka B.
Gillette ,chief circulation librarian of the General Library, is manifested
mainly by the borrowing of mystery stores and by choices from the two
library display cases, one containing the latest books on the war and the
other current fiction and popular non-fiction such as biography, travel
and hobbies.
The display of new books on the war and of other current literature
is designed primarily to encourage outside reading among students and an
effort is made to purchase those books calculated to interest college readers
most. During a ten-month period---- -

v '
nni ,A -Anna
stena~lF r os N. * Are 60.;
, erme o m, _
V e lletist r ,4 ro~ n n eJ- A Y 6 R o cc a se c a r l e 'R °
.
, SezzQ ..TereI.
S-\' - Pi di onno
Ar'zio ;. _ .edn.te
WAY I4od-_L."Aqu no
A Terrancinb wer - drlen -e c
WHIERE A1LLIES RATTLE T OWARD BEACHH EAlD AND ROME --
Arr°owvs indicate points on the southern front in Italy where Amlrerican,
French, British-C: aadi an and Polish forces ar°e attacking. Americans
rcd Terracna, but were drien out by German counterattac . In -
set map shows relation of front at Terracina to beachhead and Rome.
4,000 PLANES:.
Greatest Fighter Force Escorts
Yanks in Raid on Continent

Drive Endangers
Nazi 10th Army
Clark Directs Attack from Beachhead
,Twenty Miles from Hliy City Outskirts
By EDWARD KENNEDY
Associated Press Correspondent
ALLIED HEADQUARTERS, NAPLES, May 23.-Massed Allied
armies on the Anzio beachhead and on the main Italian front launched
simultaneous offensives today, touching off a great battle which may
determine the fates both of Rome and of the German Tenth Army within
the next few days.
Paced by a terrific aerial onslaught which rained thousands of bombs
on Nazi troop concentrations and communications, American and British
troops of the Fifth Army dashed out from the beachhead less than 20
miles from the outskirts of Rome under the personal direction of Lt.
Gen. Mark W. Clark, who had -established field headquarters in the
battle zone.
Veteran American infantrymen struck toward Cisterna in order to cut
the Germans' principal line of communication with the main Italian front,
and British tommnies hit directly toward Rome.
(The Swiss radio reported that Allied troops also were attacking at
the eastern extremity of the beachhead and had reached Lake Di Fogliano,
------ ---r south of Littoria and only 20 miles

from July, 1943, to April of this year,
the total circulation of books from the
two display cases was 6,156. Of this
number 1,736 were from the war
shelf.
That a large proportion of these
Lauc Attack
11.. Navy Is Silent on
Marcus Island Assault
By The Associated Press
Chinese forces have cut the old
Burma Road.
This striking development in the
Asiatic war theatre was announced
by the Chinese High Command yes-
terday, almost simultaneously reports
from the field said Chinese troops
had launched a major counter offen-
sive far to the north in Honan Prov-
ince. There they were said to have
regained some strategic positions from
the Japanese.
Meanwhile the U.S. Navy main-
tained strict silence concerning.the
Japanese-reported American task
force aerial strike against Marcus
Island, less than 1,200 miles from
Tokyo, but announced continued
bombing attacks against Nippon po-
sitions in the Marshalls.
Japs at Chefang Wiped Out
The Chungking High Command
said the Chinese offensive from the
Salween River district of Yunnan
Province carried one spearhead across
the old Burma Road at Chefang, only
28 miles east of the Burma border.
The Japanese garrison at Chefang
was encircled and wiped out. More
than 200 Japanese died there and
much war material was captured. The
operation left the Japanese with only
an inferior trail supply line to South-
ern China.
Heavy monsoon rains, general
throughout the Burma area, delayed
Allied operations against the Jap-
anese Myitkyina base. Previous re-
ports pictured house-to-house fight-
ing in the city with the Allies holding
a third of the place.
Imphal Reinforced
The Chinese were making progress
on other Yunnan and Burma fronts.
The Allied Southeast Asia Com-
nand announced there were indica-
tions that the Japanese in the Imphal
sector of India, 220 miles west of
Myitkyina, received some reinforce-
ments and were attempting to' take
the initiative. The Japanese were
repulsed when, with artillery support,
they counterattacked against the Al-
lied road block on the Riddim Road.
In the southwest Pacific, reinforce-
ments of the Sixth Army, presumably!
flown in transport planes to the re-
cently-seized Wakde airfield, have
extended a river bridgehead on the
nearby Dutch New Guinea mainland.

were taken out by servicemen was
evidenced by a decided drop in cir-
culation in March when many serv-
icemen left the campus. Circulation
of fiction, biography and other books
in the general display case also drop-
ped at , this time. The figures and
estimates given include those books
circulating among members of the
faculty although Miss Gillette said
that faculty members withdraw few-
er books than formerly, perhaps be-
cause of their heavier wartime sched-
ules,
Spring Brings Reading
Very heavy circulation of books not
assigned for class reading occurs in
March, April and May, Miss Gillette
said. The month in which this cir-
culation is heaviest depends to a
This article appears in connec-
tion with the current pgll on stu.
dent reading habits being con-
ducted by The Daily. Twin ques-
tions in this week's poll are:
1. Can you honestly say that you
read beyond the scope of your as-
signed class readings?
2. Do you follow the current
news?
Another article related to the
general question of students' "ex-
tra" reading will appear in tomor-
row's Daily. The results of the stu-
dent opinion poll will be printed
in Friday's paper.
large extent on the dates of mid-
semesters, term papers and finals,
she added.
Mystery novels formerly were giv-
en a special shelf in a display case,
and the shelf was always empty be-
cause of a large turnover, Miss Gil-
lette commented. This type of book
is now kept only on the stack shelves,
where there is a widely varied col-
lection,
Mystery in Demand
Approximately a thousand volumes
of mystery stories were presented to
the Library several years ago, but
most of these volumes have been
worn out.
Some especially popular books, now
on the reserve list are: Dancing
Saints by Leslie Cameron, Cartoon
Cavalcade by Thomas Craven, Under
Cover by John Roy Carlson, The Robe
by Lloyd Douglas, Citizen Tom Paine
by Howard Fast, Der Fuhrer by Con-
rad Heiden, For Whom the Bell Tolls
by Ernest Hemingway, Between Tears
and Laughter by Lin-Yutang and So
Little Time by John P Marquand.
Among the approximately 200
books in the war display case are:
An American Diary by Samuel Graf-
ton, D-Day by John Gunther, As I
See It by Stephen S. Wise and Jour-
neys Between Wars by John Dos
Passos.
A Tree Grows in Brooklyn by Betty
Smith, Toward a Better World by
Jan Christian Smuts, Roger Fry by
Virginia Woolf and The Human Com-
edy by William Saroyan are included
among books in the general display
case.

By Tlie Associated Press
LONDON, May 23.-American hea-
vy bombers escorted by the greatest
fighter force ever sent on a single
mission blasted Nazi airfields, freight
yards and other targets in occupied
France and military objectives in
western Germany today, rounding 18
hours of assault in which more than
4,000 Allied planes rained 5,500 tons
of bombs on the enemy.
The attack .was carried into its
third straight night, by RA1bombers
which were heard roaring toward
fortress Europe. Later the German
radio repqrted "nuisance raiders"
over Brandenburg province territory.
Berlin lies in Brandenburg province,
1,000 Escort Planes
More than 1,000 Thunderbolts,
Lightnings and Mustangs, some of
which did double duty by descending
to strafe ground targets, accompanied
a force of Liberators and Flying
Fortresses about 750-strong on the
daylight offensive into France and
Germany. The escort force was de-
scribed officially as history's greatest.
As the tonnage in five days of a
great pre-invasion onslaught mount-
ed to 22,000, the German air force
summoned only a token force to
oppose the daylight blows, which the
German-controlled Paris radio said
were "systematically pa ralyzin g"
communications. One Amer ic an
bomber and three fighters were lost.
Weather' tmproved
The weather, which had provided
cloud cover ,for the American Libera-
Post-War Nursing .
Is Lecture Subject
In the fourth of a series of five
School of Public Health dedicatory
lectures, Miss Marian Sheahan, di-
rector of public health nursing, New
York State Department of Health,
will present a~n address at 2 p.m.
tomorrow in the publie health au-
ditorlun.
"Post-War Planning for Public
Health Nursing" will be the subject
of the address. Miss Sheahan is
Thairman of the National Nursing
t ommittee on Post-War Planning
and is a candidate for the presidency
of the National Organization for Pub-
lic Health Nursing.

tors and Fortresses in their attacks
on airdromes, freight yards and other
military targets, improved tonight
and air lanes across the straits again
were clogged with attacking Allied
planes.
American Marauders were seen
heading across the channel and an-
SMOOTH SAILING
LONDON, May 23, -/P)-The
weather of Dover Strait tonight
was clear and cool, with the water
smooth and visibility fair.
There was some low mist, after
a mid-day shower.
A northwest wind swung to the
southwest at dusk, blowing lightly.
A high barometer climbed a few
more points. The temperature at
10:30 p.m. (4:30 n.m., Eastern
War Time) was 41 and tending
downward.
othlerforce, believed also to be Mar-
auders, winged toward Boulogne lat-
er. The Vichy radio network left
the air early tonight and the German
radio still broadcast warnings of
Allied planes over western Germany.
* *
Radioman Risks
ifeT o SaveCrew %
A U.S. FLYING FORTRESS BASE
IN ENGLAND; May 23. -U(})-.Sgt.
Raymond Allen, 21, Penns Grove,
N.J., radioman on a Flying Fortress,
swung by his legs for nine minutes
in an open bomb bay door today and
held the spinning arming vane on a
bomb to prevent it from exploding
prematurely.
The Fortress was on a bombing
run over the railyards at Epinal when
Allen noticed the arming wire and
fuse coming out of a bomb at the
bottom of the bay. He grabbed a
portable oxygen bottle and hung head
down in the bomb bay with his legs
entwined in the catwalks and grabbed
the spinning vane, In peril of being
pulled out of the open bay by the
suction of the wind or of having an
arm mangled, he held his position
over the gaping doors for nine min-
utes until the bomb was released.

Streamlined
Income Tax
Bill Is Passed -
Unanimous Vote Sends
.Measure to President
WASHINGTON. May 23.-- (P)-
The streamlined income tax bill, de-
signed to bring about "taxation with-=
out irritation" for 50,000,000 persons,
was approved finally by Congress
today, and sent to the White House.
The measure passed unanimously
in both houses-the first time in the
memory of lawmakers that a major
tax bill has received such emphatic
approval. It went to the President
as the House, on rWotion of Chairman
Doughton (Dem., N.C.) of the Ways
and Means Committee, accepted
technical Senate changes,
Affects 50,000,000 People
The legislation re-shuffles the en-
tire income tax structure, repealing
the wartime "victory" tax and set-
ting up new normal arid surtax rates
and exemptions-while keeping ac"-
tual tax burdens at substantially
their present levels for most people.
However, it did not pass without
a floor fight. Rep. McLean (Rep,
N.J.) renewed his assertions that it
is not merely a simplification bill but
a revenue-raising measure. McLean.
a member of the Ways and Means
Committee, previously had said it
would increase individual income
taxes by $2,000,000,000.
FDR Anproval Seen
The measure, virtually certain of
presidential approval, would:
1. provide that some 30,000,O0
wage and salary earners, with in-
comes up to $5,000, no longer will be
required to file income tax returns.
2. Change completely the with-
holding levy against wages and sal-
aries-effective next Jan. 1-to de-
duct currently the full tax liability
thus beginning in 1945, these tax-
payers would owe the government
nothing at the year end. (There
would be no change in the payroll
deductions for taxes this year.)
3. On 1944 income, a short-cut is
provided for these 30,000,000 tax-
payers. The government would com-
pute their taxes for them.

from the main battleline near Terra-
cina.)
Liri Valley Defenses
On the main Italian front Britons,
Canadians and Poles of the Eighth
Army at the same time smashed fur-
iously at the main Hitler Line de-
fenses in the Liri Valley, 35 miles east
of the beachhead, and American and
French divisions battered ahead on a
rugged front extending from Pico
down to Terracina on the sea.
It was the greatest Allied striking
force yet thrown into battle in this
war outside the Russian front,
The foe, 17 divisions strong, was
known to has been committed to
battle by Field Marshal den. Albert
Kesselring in the hope of staving off
the disaster which Gen. Sir Harold
Alexander promised him.
No Nazi Reserves
For the enemy it was the show-
down. The Nazis were left without
any reserves close at hand to throw
into the battle. Kesselring could
obtain reinforcements only by moving
new divisions from far to the north
over railroads and highways already
badly battered by Allied air might.
The final battle fo Rome might
not be long delayed. Newly-prepared
German defense lines along which
the Allied command predicted the
enemy would make his last stand
before yielding the Eternal City is
roughly only seven miles north of the
beachhead perimeter.
Powerfully reinforced during the
past week, Allied men and armor on
the beachhead struck out savagely an
hour before dawn in the direction of
Cisterna on the ancient Appian Way.
Daniel De Luce of the Associated
Press wrote from a forward field
post:
"Trained especially with tanks for
the past month the doughboys
swarmed across the flat, green no-
man's land in the wake of scores of
Shermans, their guns blasting Ger-
man foxholes and weapon pits at
point-blank range. With a heavy
advantage in armor and artillery, the
cooped-up beachhead troops went
into battle vowing they would fight
through to Rome before they fin-
ished.
"Despite scattered clouds and a
low mist which combined with the
smoke from guns and chemical ma-
chines to reduce visibility to less' than
a mile, Allied planes flew in at almost
strafing height to bomb the en-
trenched enemy."
Japs Approve
Relief 'Stpplies
For Internees
WASHINGTON, May 23.- (/P-
The State Department announced
Tuesday that the Japanese had ap-
proved the purchase of $25,000 worth
of relief supplies monthly for Ameri-
can civilian internees and prisoners
of war in the Philippine Islands. The
American Government for months
had long sought such approval.
American funds for this purpose
already have been made available.
Meanwhile, American diplomatic
officials are "continuing to press the
Japanese government" for full reci-
procity in granting permission for
neutral insnection of civilian and
r~ricnricr n r. t°,-. ,, lni.' IiJ1".T Vnf lr "+Ol

THE PATTERN OF THE FUTURE LIES IN OUR HANDS:
Post- War Depression Is Not Inevitable, Declares Dean Griffin

Editor's Note: This is the first in a series, of three articles on various
phases of post-war planning in the economic field. The views presented are
not necessarily those of any department of the University and The Daily does
not intend to imply that they are the only acceptable vIews on these subjects.,
Tomorrow's article will be a discussion of the national debt.
By MARGARET FARMER
"Depression at the end of .this war is not inevitable unless we allow
ourselves to be overcome by unwarranted fear of the future," Dr. Clare E.
Griffin, dean of the School of Business Administration, declared yesterday.
"Depressions are largely of our own making," he said. "Businessmen
are influenced by public attitudes. A general fear psychology and obsession
with the possibilities of depression induces them to cut down payirolls and
expansion-and we have depression. " *lhl A 'itvl,11 T°,Cgriffin 'pointed
O l ble~J'~ is smal- Dr-' Gri' -o d -

perity is that the war on the two
fronts will probably end at different
times. The shut-down on war pro-
duction will come gradually, making
the transition period much easier
than if it all came at the same time."
Dr. Griffin did not belittle plan-
ning of post-war public works to
counteract possible temporary un-
employment,
"Such planning is necessary as a
form of insurance," he stated. "We
should hold public works in reserve
so the government can tide us over
+Ff ii'fi 1 . a t u f t h - -

willing to expand old business or es-
tablish new ones.
"The business enterprisers are the
men who decide whether to hire, to
build a new wing or put in a new
showcase, to invest money, or not.
How they feel about the future is
what determines whether the coun-
try has 'good times' or not.
"The biggest difficulty in the past
has been that the situation hasn't
been such to lead businessmen to take
risks. Enterprisers have been fear-
ful of heavy taxes, of labor demands,

"As to the national debt-the
government should make clear its
intention of reducing It, especially
during periods of high employment
and national income." Hie further
favored elimination of inter-state
and foreign trade barriers,
Referring to the labor-management
situation, he said, "What we need
most as far as labor is concerned is
recognition of common interests by
both management and labor
"The divergent interests of labor
and capital have been over-empha-

i

"But there's no reason why we

nut tThat this ianer calls for tem-

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