VOL. LIV No. 141 ANN ARBOR, MICHIGAN, SUNDAY, MAY 21, 1944
PRICE FIVE CENTS
Wipe Out japResistance atWakde
Allies Blast West Wall
Planes Hit Defenses
By The Associated Press
LONDON, May 20-In the greatest
mass air attack of the war the allies
hurled 6,000 British-based planes at
Hitler's West Wall defenses today
and blasted a 150 mile strip from
Brittany to Belgium with a total of
at least 8,000 tons of explosives.
Ninteen rail junctions, eight air-
fields and numerous other installa-
tions which Hitler hoped to use in
combatting the coming western in-
vasion were pounded in the gigantic
onslaught which began soon after
midnight and extended twice around
the clock into darkness tonight.
Allied losses announced for all the
operations from midnight to mid-
night amounted to seven RAF heav-
ies, two U. S. heavies, three Ameri-
can mediums, tow American light
bombers, five American fighters and
one American fighter-bomber-a to-
tal of 20 planes.
Everytype of plane based in Bri-
tain was thrown into the unprece-
dented bombardment, with the Allied
expeditionary air force-which will
move into the continent in support
of the invasion landings-flying more
than 4,000 sorties.
An American armada of nearly
1,250 heavy bombers and fighters set
the pace for the daylight blows with
attacks on three airfields and one
rail center- after the RAF had start-
ed the day's cycle with attacks on
four important French rail centers.
The Americans sent out a four-to-
one escort-1,000 fighters accom-
To Visit China
Carries Message of
Good Will from FDR
WASHINGTON, May 20.- (/P)-
Vice-President Wallace left for China
today taking with him a message of
cheer from President Roosevelt to the
Chinese people and accompanied by
aides who include an expert on Rus-
sian munitions supply matters. Sev-
eral stops are planned in Siberia.
His message to the Chinese, Wal-
lace said in a statement, is that
"neither the swamps of Burma nor
the Himalaya Mountains nor Japa-
nese w~arships shall stop America
from bringing all possible and prompt
aid to this great and enduring peo-
A White House announcement of
Wallace's departure disclosed that
one of those traveling with him is
John Hazard, Chief Liaison Officer
of the Foreign Economic Administra-
tion's Division of Soviet Supply.
Quota for UJA
Not Yet Filled
The campus United Jewish Appeal
drive has not yet filled its quota and
response from the Jewish students on
campusis disappointing, Elyse Zeme,
'44, studnt director at the Hillel Foun-
dation in charge of the drive, ad-
Despite the efforts of 50 student
solicitors and the Speakers' Bureau,
the drive, now extended into an ex-
tra week, has not netted the campus
quota of $1,600.
In view of this fact, the directors
of the drive would welcome contri-
butions by any interested persons.
Such contributions, while not solic-
ited, could be either pledged by tele-
phone or mailed to the Hillel Founda-
tion at 730 Haven, the headquarters
for the local drive. Checks should
be made out to the United Jewish
panying a force of approximately 250
fortresses and liberators - in the
principal daylight operation.
Possibly the Air Command sus-
pected strong fighter opposition and
wanted to be prepared by sending
out one of the highest escort ratios
of the war. But the precaution
proved unnecessary. The fighters
went looking for trouble, yet sighted
only a few German planes and no e
of these reached the bombers. i
Two Nazis were downed while the
American loss was two bombers and
five fighters, most of them probably
victims of flak.
Order to .Army
Forces Will Aid in
By The Associated Press
LONDON, May 20 - Gen. Dwight
D. Eisenhower's Supreme Invasion
Headquarters broadcast its first di-
rect orders to Europe's underground
today, telling that huge and revenge-
thirsty army to make careful and
minute note of the Germans' every
move to aid in the coming assault.
"In due course," the broadcast de-
clared, "you will receive advice and
instructions from the Supreme Com-
mander (Eisenhower) himself," who
"counts upon you as part of his force
now being marshalled to inflict de-
feat on the Germans and bring
about the final liberation of your
First Message to "V" Army
This first message to the "V" ar-
my, implying that regular broadcasts
would be made, said the next one
would be on Monday.
"When the Allies come to liberate
you they will rely on your help in
many ways. In no more valuable
way can this be given than by in-
formation about the enemy."
The headquarters spokesman
called on the undergound to note
the strength and movements of
German troops, and guns, and to
spot location of supply dumps.
Allies Battle Enemy Ships
Meanwhile the Allied air offensive
against strategic rail centers and-
by German account at least-
swift sweeps of the Channel waters
by Enemy and Allied ships were fill-
ing out the pattern which Berlin
says will precede "D" day.
Urging everyone to care for his
gas mask, Field Marshal Lord Bird-
wood, "Father" of the British Army,
warned that "although Hitler has
promised that he will not use gas,
he may at the last moment like a
mad and beaten dog release gas.'
Mihailovic Is Ousted
By Yugoslav ing
LONDON, May 20.-(AP)-King Pe-
ter of Yugoslavia has ousted Gen.
Draja Mihailovic as War Minister in
an attempt to appease Marshal Tito
and it was considered possible the
Cabinet post might be offered to the
Whether Marshal Tito would ac-
cept the post was questionable, since
this might strengthen the position
of the monarchy for the post-war
period-a subject which the head of
the National Army of Liberation has
said must be decided by his people
after victory is won.
It seemed possible, however, that
Tito (Josip Broz) might agree to
some compromise under which he
would name his choice for the Cab-
inet position which Mihailovic has
Raid Java Naval Base
Allies Sink or Damage 18 Jap Ships;
Manokwari and Paramnshiro Attacked
By LEONARD MILLIMAN
Associated Press War Editor
American soldiers, killing 34 Japanese for every doughboy lost, have
wiped out enemy resistance on Wakde Island in the Southwest Pacific,
Gen. Douglas MacArthur reported today (Sunday).
Only a small number of Japanese were taken prisoner. Five hundred
and fifty were killed on Wakde and the nearby shores of northwestern New
Guinea. MacArthur listed American losses for the entire operation at only
16 killed, 83 wounded and two miss- --
Yanks Closing In On Anzio
* * *
Complete control over Wakde, 1,000
miles from MacArthur's goal on the
Philippines, was established Friday
afternoon. But enemy artillery fire
help up the advance on the coast.
Overcome in Three Days
Three days after Yanks of the 6th
Army began the amphibious opera-
tion, the enemy was overcome. A
sizeable beachhead was taken on the
Dutch New Guinea mainland oppo-
site the two islands of the Wakde
group Wednesday. The smaller of
the twoislands was taken the same
day. On Thursday the Yanks storm-
ed the larger of the two islands, which
has the Wakde airfield. The next
day it was controlled entirely.
Five hundred Japanese were killed
in the three-day operation, compar-
ed to 16 Americans killed, 83 wound-
ed and two missing, a MacArthur
spokesman said. A small number of
Japanese were taken prisoner.
Bombers Clear To Philippines
Meanwhile, Allied bombers struck
farther out, clearing the road to the
Philippines up the Dutch New Guinea
coast. Liberators left the airfield
at Manokwari, on the head of the
island 475 miles northwest of Hollan-
dia, so pocked by bombs that it was
considered unserviceable. Boston at-
tack bombers sank three Japanese
frienghters in Manakwari harbor.
In other actions repo ted yesterday
and today Allied war planes striking
at the northern and southern tips of
Japan's defense destroyed 21 enemy
aircraft and sank or damaged 18
Aleutian based Army and Navy
bombers wrecked two Nipponese ves-
sels as they struck for the seventh
time this month at Paramushiro.
25 Year Party Life
Ended by Browder
By The Associated Press
NEW YORK -- The Communist
Party of the United States, in exis-
tence for 25 years, voted Saturday
to dissolve as a political party. A
new party organization will be
Earl Browder, the party general
secretary, made the motion to dis-
band prior to delivering a national
convention keynote speech in which
he called for the re-election of Presi-
dent Roosevelt. The motion was
Party Affairs Liquidated
The motion called for the appoint-
ment of a committee to liquidate
the party's affairs and dispose of its
property "and to turn over any sur-
plus that may remain to any organ-
ization or organizations as, in their
opinion, are devoted to our coun-
try's winning of the war in which it
is presently engaged and in the
achievement of a durable peace."
National Chairman William Z.
Keynoting the party's national
convention, Browder, who sought the
presidency himself in 1936 and 1940,
said in his address that the Presi-
dent's retirement now "would be a
disaster for our country."
"Our enemies in the war would be
encouraged to new efforts, our Allies
in the war would have deep misgiv-
ings, and our own country would be
launched upon an uncharted sea of
uncontrolled factionalism,"' he said.
"That is why the demand for
Roosevelt to succeed himself has
swept the Democratic party so com-
pletely as to silence even most of
the disloyal Democrats who have
sabotaged the President's program.
That is why the labor movement
is almost unanimously demanding
Roosevelt as a candidate. That is
why 'Republicans for Roosevelt'
clubs are springing up all over the
country. That is why this conven-
tion will support Roosevelt."
YANKS' MESS HALL-Because all parts of the Allied Anzio beachhead
south of Rome are within German artillery range, these mess quarters
for evacuation hospital personnel are dug well into the ground.
A FIRMER HOLD:
Chinese Take Rai City
By The Associated Press
CHUNGKING, May 20 -Chinese
troops clamped a firmer hold on
their:re-won section of the Peiping-
Hankow Railway today, capturing
the rail city of Kioshan, 110 miles
south of Chenghsien, the High Com-
In the north, field dispatches re-
ported the encircled defenders of
Loyang were doomed to massacre if
they failed to bleak the Japanese
Kioshan, 43 miles north of the
Japanese southern Honan base of
Sinyang, was taken early in the day
after the Chinese cut enemy com-
munications between the city and
Mingkiang, 22 miles to the south,
a communique said. More than 500
Japanese were killed or wounded in
the fierce engagement and enemy,
remnants fled southeast with Chin-
ese forces in hot pursuit, the bulle-
The Chinese previously had re-
ported cutting the Japanese hold on
the railway at Suiping, 25 miles
north of Kioshan, and to have encir-
cled the enemy at Chumatien, 12
miles south of Suiping.
Heavy Fighting in Loyang
Heavy fighting and fierce counter-
attacking were reported in the Loy-
ang area where the Chinese Central
News Agency claimed the defenders
since last Monday inflicted more
than 2,000 casualties and destroyed
about 50 tanks.
The main fighting in northern
Honan continued to center around
Tayang, a Lunghai railway town 45
Be Held Today
Constituting the largest orchestra
ever heard in Hill Auditorium, 160
instrumentalists from the School of
Music and the Michigan Civic Or-
chestra Association, will present the
fourth annual Michigan Massed Or-
chestra Festival at 4:15 p.m. today.
Under the baton of George Dasch,
well-known director of the Chicago
Business Men's Symphony, musicians
from Flint, Monroe, Dearborn, Wy-
andotte, Detroit and Ann Arbor will
present compositions of Bach, Friml,
Tschaikowsky and Strauss.
Featured on the program will be a
series of selections by five harpists,
Elizabeth Masters, Margaret Wardle,
Virginia Werner and Esther Morgan,
with Lynne Palmer directing.
Among the selections to be per-
formed by the orchestra are the stir -
ring Triumphal March from "Sigurd
Jorsalfar" by Grieg, overture Fan-
tasia from Tschaikowsky's "Romeo
and Juliet," "Morning Journals
Waltz" by Strauss, Jr., a selection
from Friml's popular "The Firefly,"
and Moussorgsky's "The Great Gate
of Kiev" from "Pictures at an Exhi-
The concert is open to the public.
miles east of Tungkwan, funnel to
the great Chinese northwest.
In an attack on the Japanese at
the Yellow River bulge near Suichen,
American and Chinese bombers and
fighters were reported to have killed
1,000 of the enemy, and to have in-
flicted 3,000 casualties.
Deciding that the foreman is a
part of management, and that he
must raise his level of intelligence
and understanding or be left behind,
a nine-man panel on "The Foreman's
Place in Industry and Management"
opened the Sixth Annual Foreman's
Sponsored by the University Ex-
tension Service, the conference feat-
ured as discussion leaders M. A.
Clark, manager of industrial rela-
tions, Motor Products Corporation,
Detroit, and Dr. C. Copeland Somith,
representative of the National Indus-
trial Information Committee of the
National Association of Manufactur-
Speaking on "America's Challenge
to the Foreman" at 1:30 p.m., Dr.
Smith declared, "It is not true any
longer that top management asso-
ciaed, indifferent to the cause and
problems of foremen."
"The Benefit of the Foreman's
Club" was discussed in one of the
conferences on general topics yester-
d Floyd Rhoad, assisted by P. B.
Bailey and Otto Henton, all of Jack-
son, outlined the main benefits to be
gained, and pointed out that the de-j
velopment of leadership was most
Col. G. E. Strong of the Army Air
Forces maintained that "you can
make. a success of the man who has
been a leader in the army, if you
make him a worker once more."
Speaking with Col. Strong was Dr.
Orlo L. Crissey, education director,
AC Spark Plug Division of General
From Itri; Offer
By The Associated Press
WITH THE AMERICAN FIFTH
kRMY FORCES IN ITALY, May 20.
-Yankee doughboys, pushing after
retreating Germans from Itri, ad-
ranced to within 35 miles of the
knzio beachhead today without meet-
Ing more than casual opposition.
(An earlier broadcast by the Lon-
Ion radio, recorded by the Blue Net-
work, said the Fifth Army was a
ittle more than 20 miles from the
beachhead. The broadcast did not
Indicate the location of the advance,
however, and later dispatches from
A.llied headquarters in Naples and
from the front-Feder's story was
filed at noon, Eastern War Time-
ailed to bear out that report.)
Enemy Retreating Fast
The enemy, retiring the last two
days so fast before the rush of the
American forces as they stormed.
Into new emplacements, left piles of
equipment all along the route.
Tanks, vehicles and even two big
German cannon with 20-mile range
had been abandoned along the road.
Doughboys ran into a self-pro-
gelled gun at one spot and called
for a tank for help. The gun was
Mounted Tanks Used
The foot soldiers tangled with an
88 mm. gun mounted on a tank in
another spot, and were going so fast
they chased the Jerries from it.
Having swept the Tyrrhenian coast-
al areas of Formia and Gaeta, both
of which were smashed to bits by
Nazi demolition and American artil-
lery and air bombings-even the.tomb
of the poet Cicero outside Gaeta was
damaged-the Yanks still were on
the move westward.
* * *
By Thie Associated Pres
ALLIED HEADQUARTERS IN
NAPLES, May 20.- American and
French troops, smashing through the
crumbling Hitler line, pounded the
whole southern half of the German
front back today in a wide swing to-
ward a new wall anchored at Terra-
cina-only 25 miles from Allied might
massed on the Anzio beachhead.
Nazis Lose Heavily.
The Germans lost heavily in men,
tanks and guns as they were being
forced back in disorder up to 15 miles
to a new "switch line" from Pico to
Terracina, headquarters declared.
The Eighth Army successfully as-
saulted the fortified line farther
north, and the French punched deep-
er into the mountains in the center.
The Nazi "switch line" runs from
Pico in the middle of the Italian
front 21 miles southwest through a
horseshoe-shaped mountain ridge to
Terracina on the sea. The lower half
of the Hitler line originally had run
through Pico to American-captured
(The German High Command ac-
knowledged loss of Campodimele,
southwest of Pico and within a few
miles of the Pico-Terracina line.)
In nine days of this offensive in-
tended to crush the German Tenth
Army, 5,500 Nazi prisoners have been
taken, with more coming in, and the
Germans have suffered considerable
losses in dead, innumerable guns and
tanks and vast supplies.
To Be Discussed
A panel discussion on "The Presi-
dential Crisis" will be presented by
the Post-War Council at 7:45 p.m.
Wednesday in the Union, Harvey
Weisberg, program chairman, an-
Those taking part in the panel will
be Prof. H. M. Dorr of the political
science department, Prof. Shorey Pe-
terson of the economics department,
and~e Prof. Kenneth G. ~Hnce of the
Michigan Teams Win in Tennis, Track, Golf
Michigan's title-bound teams continued their winning ways yes-
terday as the Wolverine tennis squad won their sixth Big Ten victory
over Northwestern, 51/-31z here in Ann Arbor.
At Lafayette the varsity trackmen swamped Purdue, Minnesota
and Western Michigan with a total of 65 7-12 points in a quadrangular
Climaxing their season with a lopsided win over the University
of Detroit, 17 - , the golfers are tuning up for the Conference
championships next week.
The University of Illinois and Michigan stayed to a 4-4 tie at
Champaign in a game which was called after seven innings because
Daily sports writer and special reporters bring you a complete
coverage of these events on today's sports pages. See pages 6 and 7.
AND THE OPPOSITE SIDE:
Professor Criticizes Statements Made in Article on Nigeria
Proves 'A Hit'
"One hundred per cent successful"
was just one of many comments
made by the 3,500 people who at-
tended the second Victory Varieties
show held last night at Hill Audi-
The program, which marked the
farewell appearance of Bill Sawyer,
The position of Dr. Mbonu Ojike in
reference to British policy in Nigeria
which was carried in an interview in
Tuesday's Daily was severely criti-
cized and its "accuracy and ade-
quacy" were strongly questioned by
Prof. William Kynoch of the depart-
ment of wood technology yesterday.
Prof. Kynoch said he would oppose
1iirAlHnn nf the statements made
Ojike didn't state," he said, "that be-
fore Nigeria came under British con-
trol human sacrifice was rife, canni-
balism was practiced and the slave
trade was rampant."
He said he doesn't profess to be an
authority on the subject, but that he
has a British friend who has lived in
Nigeria in an official position. Indi-
cating an article in "The Outpost,"
that the Nigerian estimate of the
population there is 33,000,000.
She states that "less than 50 years
have passed since the territories of
East and West Africa came under
British protection" and that in the
early days "trade in Africa usually
meant the slave trade... (but) . . . by
the early days of the nineteenth cen-
tury, Britain had pledged herself to
fied and order produced out of
She states that in Nigeria, "where
conditions were at their very worst,
an Englishman, Colonel (now Lord)
Lugard achieved something little
short of a miracle" in subduing the
northern Moslem rulers and the
southern Negro sovereigns in three
years. She says, "It was obvious with
British officials "to play an ever-
increasing part in government." She
states further that Indirect Rule "has
brought a considerable measure of
local responsibility to the 'Native
Mrs. Kamm says that "Britain's
policy is to encourage and instruct
Africans to take the fullest possible
share in the direction of all branches