THE MICHIGAN AIL
_____ _IGA D~t
Withholding Reward Is Best
Way To Eliminate Bad Habits
By MARJORY FISIiEIR
"Withholding reward is more suc-
cessful than active punishment as a
method of eliminating undesirable
habits," stated Prof. N. R. F. Maier of
the Department of Psychology in an
Individuals displaying normal habit
responses are motiv.ted by the de-
sire for some reward, he pointed out,
and if too much punishment is in-
flicted on tiem they become frus-
trated and develop a fixation with-
out apparent motivation. "Punish-
ment, therefore, is dynamite and
should be handled with care," he
said, "because it may strengthen the
habit rather than remove it." This
explains, he stated, the failure of
Punishment Is Taboo
Fixations are often manifestations
of an actual mental disorder, he
stated, and the guidance method is
the latest corrective technique, where-
by the individual is placed in a situa-
tion which does not permit expres-
sion of the trait, but encourages an
alternative expression. Punishment,
he pointed out, is never included in
such clinical treatment.
Lady Macbeth, with her persistent
"handwashing," he said, is the classic
Of Speec~h Staff
Articles by four members of the
speech department staff appear in
current issues of speech ed'ucation
The April "Quarterly Journal of
Speech" carries an article by Dr.
Louis M. Eich titled "The American
Indian Plays" and an article by Dr.
Kenneth G. Hance on "Public Ad-
dress in a Democracy at War."
In conjunction with Miss Harriet
Dunn, director of the University. of
Pittsburgh speech clinic, Dr. Ollie L.
Backus has written a preliminary
report on research in the clinical
practice of speech correction for the
March "Journal of Speech Disor-
ders." The title is "Experiments in
the Synthesis of Clinical Methods
into a Program of Rehabilitaiotn."
"Simplified Scenery," by Herbert
Philippi, appears in the April "Play-
ers Magazine." It deals with methods
of scene building and shifting that
are within the physical capacities of
the women who make up the greater
part of present-day 'college state
example of a frustrated person ex-
hibiting a fixation: The child who
continually steals money which he
does npt need and may later give
away, he continued, often is display-
ing the same type of abnormality.
Tells of Experiments
Reward and punishment experi-
ments conducted by Professor Maier
were reviewed in an article by G. B.
Lal, entitled "Mental Illness Due to
Habit," which appeared in the No-
vember, 1943, issue of the Science
"Rats were punished and reward-
ed," wrote Lal. "If a rat jumped at
the right signal it received food. If
it jumped at the wrong signal," he
said, "it received a blow on the nose.
Thus it learns to make the correct
Signs of frustration and fixation
appeared; Ll pointed out, when the
rat was punished "one half or all of
Human Reactions Indicated
"Professor Maier's experiments,"
he said, "throw light upon how hu-
man beings are mentally distorted by
undesirable circumstances, including
unscientific education, until they be-
come susceptible to mental break-
Experiments of the same type with
University students as the subjects,
have also been conducted by Dorothy
Marquart, Grad. Relatively the same
results have been produced by both
experiments, according to Professor
Mexico To Send
Dr. Manuel Gonzalez-Montesinos,
professor of comparative literature
and public relations officer of the
National University of Mexico will
visit the University Sunday through
Wednesday, it was announced yester-
It is expected that he will speak on
"French Literary Influence in Mexi-
co" at 4:15 p.m. Tuesday in the,
Dr. Gonzalez-Montesinos is mak-
ing a tour of leading universities in
this country and Canada as a guest
of the State Department to study
organization and relations with grad-
uates and to visit classes in French'
and Spanish literature.
He served during the first World
War in the French Army and has
spent a great deal of time in both'
France and England.
LONDON, May 4, Friday-(P)-The'
Germans tightened up their anti-
invasion defenses in Holland today'
and Propaganda Minister Paul Jos-'
eph Goebbels fed the home folks
soothing syrup as the hour for the
Allied storming of Hitler's Europe'
The entire North Sea province of
Zeeland in Nazi-occupied HollandI
was declared "forbidden territory":
and its remaining few Dutch inhabi-
tants were barred from its highways1
and waterways without specific per-1
mission from German authorities,I
according to the Netherlands NewsI
Fresh Air Camp
Tag Day Drive
To Begin Friday
Michigan Boys Will Get
A Month's Vacation
With Money Collected
The University campus and busi-
ness districts of Ann Arbor will be
taken over by four hundred students
when the University Fresh Air Camp
Committee attempts to raise $1,500
next Friday for the 24th consecutive
Tag Day compaign.
Headed by Marge Hall, newly cho-
sen president of Woman's War Coun-
cil, and Jim Plate, representing the
Union, the committee will attempt to
reach every University students, serv-
iceman and Ann Arbor resident.
Boys Sent To Camp
The money collected on Tag Day is
used to send boys from the metropol-
itan areas of Michigan to the Fresh
Air Camp for one month. Since the
boys, between the ages of eight and
13, are chosen by 25 social and case-
working agencies, the camp has a
double purpose: it gives the boys a
month's vacation in the country with
good food and recreation, and it
serves as an aid in helping the n-
dividual to -work out some of his own
Other members of the committee
include Charlotte Haas, tag string-
ing, Peggy Morgan and Nancy Reber,
solicitation of stores, Virginia Rock,
publicity, and Orris Mills. Prof F. N.
Menefee of the engineering school
is the faculty director.
Already more than $3,800 has been
subscribed by interested individuals
and organizations. The University
faculty has contributed $1,776; the
Ann Arbor townspeople and factories,
$568; Detroit organizations and in-
dividuals, $1,363; and miscellaneous,
This year, as usual, a total of 240
boys will be sent to the camp, located
on Patterson Lake near Pinckney,
Mich. Each group of 120 campers
will spend one month away from their
homes, from June 26 to August 26.
"More than ever there is a need
for the maintenance of the University
Fresh Air Camp, since the problems
of juvenile delinquency and super-
vision of children in metropolitan
areas are becoming increasingly dif-
ficult. It is not the boy's fault that
he is neglected," Prof. Menefee point-
Known as the Workshop in Ad-
justment Problems of Late Childhood
and Early Adolescence, the course
gives educators, social workers, visit-
ing teachers, group leaders and re-
search workers a first-hand experi-
ence in the study, observation and
treatment of boys who have experi-
enced difficulties in their adjustment
to their home environments.
Staffed with Experts
The camps is staffed with experts
in education, psychology, psychiatry
and sociology. Graduates or students
who have had the necessary prelim-
inary courses in sociology and edu-
cation may apply to the Summer Ses-
sion office in Angell Hall for the
pamphlet outlining the plan.
University faculty members on the
committee include Prof. Robert C.
Angell, sociology; Dr. Edward W.
Blakeman, religious counselor; Prof.
L. M. Carr, sociology; J. K. Doherty,
athletics; Dr. W. E. Forsythe, public
health; Prpf. H. Y. McClusky, educa-
tion; Dr. G. A. May, physical educa-
tion; Clark Tibbitts, Institute for Hu-
man Adjustment; Dr. H. A. Towsley,
medicine; H. P. Wagner, accounting;
and Prof. L. J. Young, forestry.
BULLSEYE- SPAR Lieut.
'(ig) Charlotte Wallace otfIn.
dianapolis lines up the sights on
a .38 revolver during small
arms practice at the Coast
Guard's base at Boston.
D R Y L A N D I N G F O R S E A P L A N E-Forced down by motor trouble above the Arizona
wastelands. this' U. S Navy Martin Mariner was landed on a dry lake with only minor damage.
L O O KI NG O V E R A JU MPOE R-Two New York Boys'
club youngsters confer with Alfred Jermy, jumping frog expert
from Angels Camp, Calif., about one of their entries in the Mark
Twain frog jumping championship. Police Athletic League and
YMCA organizations also entered "jumpers" in the meet.
C H I E F S WATCH TRAINING - Three chiefs of
northern territories of the African Gold Coast, clad in pictur-
esque raiment, watch natives of their tribes training in modern
warfare at a base somewhere in India.
2- and 3-Piece Play Suits
in Seersucker and Spun Rayon
3.95 - 4.95 - 5.95
in Gabardine and Twill
2.25 and 2.95
in cotton and Rayon
1.59 and 2.25
Michigan Theatre Bldg.
r.. , I
I ~ ~ ~ i1
yfe " emsaladprty..mk o
TR A V E L E R - The nation's
first lady and one of its first
travelers, Mrs. Eleanor Roose-
velt arrives at Washington air-
port from a southern jaunt, car-
rying a sweater and some of the
handbags and knitting bags for
which she is .noted.
S T A L K I N G T H E U - B O A T-In a heavy North Atlantic sea a U. S. Coast Guard combat
cutter hunts for enemy undersea marauders and guards eastbound Allied supplies.
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