E-RIbA-Z AMRUS 1942
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ties to talk to them about the war in effecting this change. They
and what they are looking forward have at their command the
Thinking..tatrthemost "scholastic" manpower needed
to after it is over. For he been to carry out the great educa-
SNOTED for its genuinely liberal part the discussions have been tional program. They have in
editorial policy, The Michigan very disappoihting to me, their ranks many students now
Daily has always fostered the I was formerly under the im- awaiting call to the armed serv-
cause of the minorities when it pression that when a fellow en- ices who can become powerful
deemed them right. In the poll- tered the service and donned a influences in effecting this
tax issue, in the European perse- uniform he would automatically change when they do get in the
cutions, and more recently, in the become impressed with the inime- service.
Negro-faculty problem (I wareyn diateness and importance of his So the brunt of this task falls
sorry to see Jason drop it so task and thereby he would try to the colleges and their students.
quickly) The Daily has shown Un- to figure out just what kind of a It is the job of every college stu-
limited spirit and fight. war we are fighting and what the dent who is preparing himself
issues at stake are. with the knowledge of what this
For this record it deserves But unfortunately that is not war is all about.
the case. I have talked with fel- This knowledge will serve two
However, as far as intelligent. lows who have said that the purposes. It will enable the
farsighted post-war planning is only reason they fight for Amer- prospective soldier when in serv-
concerned, the Daily editorial ica is because they live here and ice to serve as a powerful influ-
writers are proving disgustingly not in Geirmany. Others say we ence in welding the opinions of
weak. In the past month there are sharpening our knives to the armed services into liberal,
have been very few editorials on take on Russia as soon as we constructive thought. It will also
the most important post-war dispose of Germany. Still others serve as a reservoir of faith and
problems. are §o inflicted with that Amer- determination with which to
The approaching United Na- ican disease known as propa- face the difficult times of the
tions food conference, the plans ganda complex that they can't future.
for some type of world govern- bring themselves to see any I realize that already many de-
ment, the NRPB's 700-page re- essential difference between the mands for aiding the war effort
port, and the international eco- ethical concepts of German Nazi- are made on your time. But this
nomic plans have not received ism and Anerlean democracy. is a demand which will result In
their merited discussion from DO NOT think I am being too important and lasting benefit to
the Dal editorialists. Thisi s pessimistic when I say that all concerned. Yours for a better
disastrous when it is considered there are many both in military world,
that these vital topics must be and in civilian life who share A.C.S. Warren R. Laufe,
argued and debated time and these opinions. This is most un- Former Chairman,
time again before any agree- fortunate. These attitudes and Post-War Council
ment can possibly be reached. opinions are going to be fatal ob- : * *
Your duty as a newspaper is to structions to make the results of
advance ideas. Let's have some this war a better world and a last- Slo s Brter Guns
constructive thinking on post-war ingpeace. In addition they pre- The Czechoslovak Press Bureau
policy. -Jane O'Neill vent the whole-hearted coopera- in London says the Nazis have
* * - tion with our allies which is nec- withdrawn two Slovak battalions
Toessary to bring this war to a which were formed to fight guer-
Task of Colleges speedy and successful conclusion. rillas in the Ukraine "because
THE CLASS from the air force They must be changed if we as a most of the Slovak soldiers sold
came and I went. I am now an nation are going to make the their weapons to the partisans and
air-crew student taking my basic maximum contribution to the bartered them for food And cig-
pre-flight training at Catamba United Nations' cause and if we arettes." '
College in North Carolina. In the are going to accept our responsi- Nevertheless, it said, of 30,000
past six weeks I have marched and bility for maintaining the future men drafted in Slovakia and sent
drilled and lived with thousands of peace of the world. to the Eastern front, more than
other soldiers and during that It is the peculiar opportunity 19,000 have been killed, wounded
time I have had many opportuni- of the colleges to play a big part or lost. -PM
DAILY OFFIC BULLETIN
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NIGHT EDITOR: VIRGINIA ROCK
Editorials published in The Michigan Daily
are written by members of The Daily staff
and represent the views of the writers only.
U.S. Must Recognize
Negro Economic Rights
AMERICA'S ability to solve her own problems
of racial minorities may well be a test of
her ability to win this war and to lay the founda-
tions of a lasting peace. If we do not recognize
the valid claims of the Negroes now, we shall
have lost the war; for we shall later have to face
another and more terrible war, a war of color..
In June, 1941, one week after the passage of
the Lend-Lease Act, the Negroes, North and
South, were threatening to march on Washing-
ton to get relief from discrimination both in the
armed forces and in industry.
President Roosevelt, realizing they would
make good this threat, listened to the pleas of
A. P. Randolph, head of the March on Wash-
ington Committee, and signed Executive Order
No. 8802, which amounts to a B ill of Economic
Rights for Negroes. It reads, "There shall be
no discrimination in the employment of work-
ers in defense industries or in government be-
cause of race, creed, color or national origin."
The second thing the President did was to
appoint the Fair Employment Practices Com-
mittee, empowered to investigate violations of
Order No. 8802 and to "take appropriate steps
to redress grievances." The Committee is com-
posed of five notable men and two Negro leaders.
THE FEPC is both one of the most significant
and 'one of the frailest of Mr. Rosevelt's
wartime creation. It has continuously starved
for funds, and has, therefore, never been able to
deal with more than a fraction of the violations
reported to it.
Nevertheless, the FEPC, aided by the tight-
ening scarcity of war workers, has made sub-
stantial progress. Between June 25, 1941,
when Order No. 8802 was signed and Janu-
ary, 1943, Negro workers have obtained many
thousands of jobs.
One of the recalcitrant firms called by the
FEPC at its Chicago hearings in January, 1942,
was the Heil Company of Milwaukee, Wisconsin,
which then had only two Negroes among its
2,130 employes. Eight months later there were
1,440 Negroes in the plant. The company's man-
ager reported that the Negroes were taking an
interest in their work and that there was no
friction in the plant.
The FEPC has cracked open a good many
industries, hitherto closed to Negroes, notably
the young, tough aircraft industry. Glenn
Martin declared that he didn't have time for
the job of getting black workers into the
plants; but by August, 1942, the Glenn Mar-
tin plant at Fort Crook, Nebraska, was em-
ploying 300 Negroes.
THE FEPC broke through even stiffer opposi-
tion with the Lockheed Vega Corporation,
which has a closed shop contract with the Inter-
national Association of Machinists, and accepts
no Negro members. But the IAM issued permits
to Negro workers and the Lockheed Company
now employs over 500 of them.
There is rarely any friction because of Ehle
employment of Negro workers. Dozens of per-
sonnel directors who said it couldn't be done
have found themselves doing it, and the ex-
pected black-white trouble has wholly failed
The myth that whites and blacks cannot or
will not work amicably together has long since
been exploded by some of the largest and best
known employers in America. Among these
are the Winchester Repeating Arms Company.
WASHINGTON, April 23.-With American
planes increasing their bombing tempo over Eu-
rope, it is now permissible to lift the curtain and
reveal the true picture of British versus Ameri-
can bombing methods; also to answer the ques-
tion, "Where is the Luftwaffe?"
It is generally known that the British send
out their bombing missions at night, and the
Amiericans, operate in the daytime. But it is
not generally known that the British still
think their methods superior, in the face of
highly successful American performance. Also
it is not known that as recently as the con-
ference at Casablanca, Churchill argued with
Major Gen. Ira Eaker for two hours in an
effort to convert him to night bombing.
Churchill used all his persuasive magnetism
to press home the point that American bombers
require fighter escort for daylight protection,
that they need such heavy armor and armament
that their bomb load is only a third or a fourth
of the British, and that bad weather prevents
precision bombing a large part of the tiie.
But Gen. Eaker held his ground. He has been
fully supported by Gen. H. H. "Hap" Arnold,
Chief of the Air Forces, with the result that
American methods will not be changed.
Inside fact about this friendly Allied argument
is that American methods are rapidly proving
superior to British. Key to the whole question
is the damage done to the enemy. American
planes are not only hitting their targets with
remarkable precision, but they are drawing into
action so many Nazi fighters, and knocking so
many out of the sky, that the Luftwaffe is grad-
War's Most Sensational News
This is no figure of speech. Actually it is the
most sensational news of the war. The Ameri-
can Air Force in Britain has received informa-
tion on Germany's air power-or lack of it-
which indicates that Nazi fighter planes are
being destroyed so rapidly that there must be a
complete turnover just about every four months.
In other words, Allied forces are now de-
stroying the total German fighter stirength at
the rate of about three times a year. This
means that all the German fighters in exist-
ence on Jan. 1 should be destroyed by April
30, and Germany should have left only those
fighters built since Jan. 1.
Obviously it is desirable to strike the aircraft
plants producing the fighters, which may be the
reason behind the recent American raid on the
Focke-Wulf plant in Bremen, a city which the
British have raided a score of times without
knocking out that plant.
Here again is the difference between "area
bombing" and "precision bonbing" The Brit-
ish send over a great weight of bombs and lay
down a blanket which is supposed to cover
everything for acres. But they missed the vital
Focke-Wulf plant, which the American bonib-
ers, with smaller bomb loads, knocked out by
the simple process of turning the bombsight
on the target, in broad daylight, and then
letting go with everything.
"Suicidal" U.S. Raids
This accuracy has amazed the British without
convincing them. They were first amazed last
Aim-,.fims a. ,,nflp mpip ncz onmz. Prfiz
L Be Right
By SAMUEL GRAFTON
NEW YORK, April 23.-One English publica-
tion, The Economist, thinks Hitler is trying to
"polarize" the forces of the Left and Right in
the allied countries.
That is, he wants Left and Right in America,
and in England, and in other countries, to gather
around opposite poles, or standards, of their own,
as compact groups, opposing each other, suspi-
cious of each other, standing in the way of each
France was "polarized" in 1940. And she
fell. There is still an echo of this polarization
in the conflict between the de Gaulle group-
ing and the Giraud grouping. But there is'a
louderecho in the conflict between both of
these, taken together, and the Vichy grouping.
(The thing came into the open in Algeria,
about two months ago, when the playing of the
Soviet anthem, the Internationale, on Radio
Algiers, made a scandal among rightist French
officials, who filed a formal protest with Aieri-
can officers. It was a curiously revealing inci-
dent, for at that very moment Russians were
killing the German enemies of France in quan-
Poland is being expertly "polarized" by the
Germans, with their statement of last week that
they ,had found the graves of 10,000 Polish offi-
cers who were, the Germans swear on their
somewhat tarnished honor, "murdered by the
Russians." Two Polish papers in London have
squared off on opposite sides of this issue, one
attacking the Soviets, the other more or less
defending. When polarization goes far enough
it becomes hard to remember that it was the
Germans who first declared war on Poland, and
set up the business of murdering Poles.
Yugoslavia is visibly "polarized." There are
increasing signs of "polarization" in China.
Soinetimes, when the wind is right, and I hear
an Ainerican Congessman wondering whether
Mt. Roosevelt is not aiming at the creation of
a "radical world," with himself in charge, I
think maybe there are poles being set up in
this country too, and the begining of group-
ments about them.
Over the last week-end, the president of an
American university said to an important audi-
ence that the fight for the four freedoms was
maybe too epkensive to permit'continuation of
the free enterprise system. That statement can
only make conservative opinion sit down and
brood about how the war goes, Which way the
world wags, and so on, from et petera to gloomy
Yet, Adolf ,Hitler plays this "polarization"
game both ways. It had been whispered that
the Hungarian government, if you can call it
that, hates Russia but would, perhaps, welcome
an English-American invasion of the Balkans.
This week Hitler called Hungary's regent, Ad-
miral Horthy, into conference, and a press state-
ment Was later 'issued, saying that "Hungary
as well as Italy and Rumania . . . are making
no distinction between the Soviet Union and the
Soviet Union's western allies, who are both
pursuing the same aim.". ... We of-the United
Nations are all the same, you see. No polariza-
tion allowed, in Hungary.
Hitler does his best to build up,' in us, the
feeling that we must recognize deep differ-
ences between ourselves and Russia. and in
FRIDAY, APRIL 23, 1943
VOL. LIII No. 146
All notices for the Daily Official Bul-
letin are to be sent to the Office of the
President in typewritten form by 3 :30
p.m. of the day preceding its publica-
tion, except on Saturday kwhen the no-
tices should be submitted by 11:30 a.m.
War Bonds: Buy your War Bonds for
April at University Cashier's Office. Or-
ders may be sent through campus mail.
University War Bond Committee
Note to Seniors, May Graduates, and
Graduate Students: Please file application
for degrees or any special certificates (i.e.
Geology Certificate, Journalism Certifi-
cate, etc.) at once if you expect to receive
a degree or certificate at Commencement
on May 29, 1943. We cannot guarantee
that the University will confer a degree or
certificate at Commencement upon any
studentwho fails to filesuch application
before the close of business on Thursday,
April 29. If application is received later
than April 29, your degree or certificate
may not be awarded until next fall.
Candidates for degrees or ceitificates
may fill out cards at once at office of the
secretary or recorder of their own school
or college (students enrolled in the College
of Literature, Science, and the Arts,
School of Music, School of Education, and
School of Public Health, please note that
application blanks may be obtained and
filied in the Registrar's Office, Room 4,
Please do not delay until the last day,
as all diplomas and certificates must be
lettered and signed, and we shall be great-
ly helped in this work by the early filing
of applications and the resulting longer
period for preparation.
The filing of these applications does not
involve the payment of any fee whatso-
Shirley W. Smith
Commencement Tickets: Tickets for
Commencement may be obtained on re-
quest after May 10 at the Information
Desk in the Business Office, Room 1,
University Hall. Because Hill Auditorium
will be used for the exercises, and because
of its limited seating capacity, only three
tickets will be available for each senior.
Please present identification card when
applying for tickets.
Herbert G. Watkins,
If you wish to finance the purchase of a
home, or if you have purchased improved
property on a land contract and owe a
balance of approximately 60 per cent of the
value or the property, the investment Of-
fice, 100 South Wing of University Hall,
would be glad to discuss financing through
the medium of a first mortgage. Such fi-
nancing may effect a substantial saving in
to become the "pole" of extremely
rightist opinion in the West; actu-
ally, Spanish fascism has long per-
formed that function for Hitler,
creating divisions among us as
early as 1936.
School of Education Faculty: The regu-
lar meeting of the faculty will be held
on Monday, April 26, in the University
Elementary School Library. Tea will be
served at 3:45 p.m. and the meeting willI
convene at 4:15 p.m.
Ground for Victory Gardens provided
by the University on the Botanical Gar-I
den site cannot be plowed and made' I
available until next week. Watch the
DOB for further notice.
0. E. Roszel
Seniors in Aeronautical Engineering:
There 'will be available in the Department
of Aeronautical Engineering, for the Sum-
ner Term of 1943, two Frank P. Sheehan
3cholarships. The selection of candidates
for these scholarships is made very largely
on the basis of scholastic standing. Stu-
dents wishing to make application should
address a letter to. Dr. A. M. Kuethe,
B-47 East Engineering Building, giving aj
brief statement of their qualificationsI
and experience in regard to both their
scholastic work and Any outside experi-
once they may have had. A statement
should also be made giving their plans
for further study in Aeronautical Engi-
neering. Applications will be received up
to May 5, 1943.
Juniors and Seniors in Aeronautical En-
gincering: There will be available in the
Department of 'Aeronautical Engineering
for the Summer Term of 1943 student
assistAntships. The selection of candi-
dates for these assistantships is made very
largely on the basis of scholatic standing.
Students wishing to' make application
should address a letter to Dr. A. M.
Kuethe, B-47 East Engineering Building,
Letters should include a statement of
courses taken in Aeronautical Engineering.
Applications will be received up to May
Seniors in Aeronautical Engineering.
and Mathematical Physicists: A repre-
sentative of the McDonnell Aircraft Cor-
poration, St. Louis, Missouri, will inter-
view May and September graduates for
positions on Friday, April 30. Interested
men will please sign the interview sched-
ule posted on the Aeronautical Engineer-
Ing Building. Interviews will be held in
Room 3205 East Engineering Building.
University Lecture: Professor W. Carl
Rufus Of the Department of Astronomy
will lecture on the subject, "Copernicus,
Polish Astronomer, 1473-1543" (Illustrated)
in commemoration of the 400th annivers-
ary of the death of Copernicus, under the
auspices of the Department of Astronoiy,
today at 4:15 p.m. in Rackham Amiphi-
theatre. The public is invited.
Lecture: Dr. Jose I. Perdomo, from Col-
ombia, will give the sixth of a series of
talks on Latin America on the subject,
"Survey on Colombian Folk-Music," un-
der the auspices of the Latin American
Society of the University of Michigan, on
Tuesday, April 27, at 8:00 p.m. in the
Rackham Assembly Room.
Faculty, students 'and townspeople are
welcome to the lecture, which will be de-
livered in English and without charge.
day. May 1, at 1:00 p.m. Students will
meet in the auditorium of the University
High School. The examination 1ill con-
sume about four hours' time; promptness
Is therefore essential.
Teacher's Certificate, May 1943 Candi-
dates: The Comprehensive Examination
in Education will be given on Saturday,
May ,l from 1:30 to 4:30 in the auditorium
of University High School. Printed irifor-
mation regarding the examination 1nay be
secured in the School of Education Office.
Doctoral Examination for Frank Jones
Lockhart. Chemical Engineering; thesis:
"Liquid-Liquid Extraction: Effect of Time
and Concentration on Over-All Transfer
Coefficients," will be held today in 13201
East- Engineering, at 3:0 Op.m. Chairman,
fa. G. Brown.
By action of the Executive Board, the
chairman may Invite members of the
faculties and advanced doctoral candidates
to attend the examination and he may
grant permission to those who for suffi-
cient reason might wish to be present.
C. S. Y oak
The Annual Good Friday Organ Recital
will be heard at 4:15 p.m. 'today in Hill
Auditorium. It will be given by' Palinner
Christian, University Organist, and will
iholude music in keeping with the day.
Dr. Christian will be assisted in the pro-
gram by Sara Titus, violinist, and a wom-
en's chorus from the Madrigal Singers.
The general public is invited.
harp Recital: Lynne Palmer will direct
tier students in a recital of music for the
harp at 8:30 p.m. on Easter Sunday, April
25, in Lydia Mendelssohi Theate. The
p)rogram will consist of works by'Salzedo,
Chopin, Pierne. Bach and Clementi.
The public is cordially invited.
The twentieth annual exhibition of
work by artists of Ann Arbor and vicinity
Is being presented by the Ann Arbor Art
Association in the Exhibition Galleries
of the Rackham Building, through -today.
The public is cordially invited.
Exhibition, College of Architecture and
Townsite projects and housing plans
for the Willow Run area showiPg photo-
graphs, drawings, models, and cost data.
Both professional projects and student
studies are shown, Third floor Exhibition
Room, Architecture BuildIng. Open daily
9 to 5 except Sunday through April 30.
The public is invited.
House athletic managers or - exercise
managers will meet today at 5:00 p.m. in
the Dance Studio at Barbour Gymnasium.
If the manager is unable to be present.
please send a substitute, since an impor-
tant announcement will be made and
every house should be represented.
Surgical Dressing Unit .willbe open to-
day ,from 1:00 to 5i00 p.m. in the Game