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Full Navy Report Of Pearl Harbor
Congress Shaped for
Nation the Greatest
Military Program in
All of Our History pp
By The Associated Press
Death whistled down through the
sky on Pearl Harbor Just a year ago
tomorrow and, with the swift transi-<
tion from peace to war, a suddenly
unified Congress shaped for the na-
tion one of the greatest military pro-
grams in all history.
In the wartime measures written;
with unanimous accord, in the bil-
lions speedily alloted for the warf
effort came democracy's determined
answer to the challenge of the diL -
There still remained the aisle -di-
viding the Democrats and the Repub--
licans in Congress. But there was4
no division of intention. Republican,
Deiiocrat, farmer, industrialist, pre-
war isolationist, long-time interven-
tionist-they had but one goal: wins
From that spirit, by Administrative
request and by Congressional con-
sent, slowly but surely came a belt-
tightening, wartime economy of new
taxes and rationing as the nation's price Contrcl
lawmakers began cutting down on ci ity of which
vilian needs to provide the military tioned and pi
Congress Declared War
In swift succession, Congress de- March 27:
dared war, first on Japan, then on seond War
Germany, Italy, Rumania, Bulgaria, Pesident in
Hungary. There were few speeches as
Congress took those historic steps. March 28
The time for talk had passed. debt limitf
The legislative branch looked then $125,000,000,
to the nation's arms. From the ap- May 14: C
proprations committee came bill aft- en's Auxliai
er bill for an Army designed to reach the WAACS
a strength of 7,500,000 men next year,
for a Navy building to two-ocean di- June 5:
mensions, for an unsurpassed Air garia and R
force. common en
War appropriations since p-karl tions of war
Harbor alone piled up to the stag- lites.
gering sum of approximately $93,000,- June 16:E
000,000. Since the fall of France in enlisted me
June, 1940, they have amounted to from $21 to
close to $220,090,000,000, or more creases also
than six times this nation's share of June 23:
the cost for World War No. 1. of drafting m
On Home Front acted legisla
There was the home front to con- eral allowan
sider, also. Early in the war, Con- ments made
gress passed one Price Control Bill dependents.
to curb inflation, and as the drain June 30: C
upon normal supplies increased, iary for the
found it necessary to clamp down an known as th
even tighter lid.
Unprecedented powers were grant- September
ed to President Roosevelt to free his in the armed
hands for the swift action essential by mail, reg
to modern, global war. A record high states provid
tax bill, dipping deep into -the cash and prohibi
registers of the nation's industries poll taxes on
and into the pocketbooks of its work- October 2:
ers, was passed after nine months legislation to
study. A Wage Control Act won Con- bat inflation
gressional approval. bilization.
The conflicting needs of the Army October 6:
and the Navy for manpower began and sailor's
to raise its problems too. Slowly and guard the r
solemnly, the lawmakers voted to service men
lower the draft age to bring in 18- their rvi
and 19-year-old to meet the Army's "beaig ,
cry for the "fire and vigor of youth." charge to rea
Women Soldiers Too fairs.
Women found a place in the armed October 2
forces. First the WAACS-the Wom- breakingerev
en's Army Auxiliary Corps-and then addapproxi
their Navy and Coastguard counter- add apprn'ir
parts, the WAVES and the SPARS- war on a pa
were created by Congress to handle
behind-the-lines assignments and re- November3
lieve men for active service. age from 20
Ahead, as the anniversary of this November1
country's entry into the war rolls auxiliary for
around, there are many new assign- the unofficia
ments for the new Congress. In all In between
likelihood, there will be heavy new gress kept pa
appropriations, legislation to control with regular
manpower, a new tax bill. to the war1
Here's How whittling do
In chronological order, here is how grants.
Congress responded during the past Some of th
year to the challerige6f Pearl Har- i the war a:
December 8: Declared war against 1) $29,000,
December 11: Declared war against ships and me
Japan's Axis partners, Germany and 2) $43,000,
Italy. largely for n
Three Battlewagons Struck by Japanese Bombs
Dl Act under the author-
scarce articles were ra-,
'rice controls were estab-
Supplemented, with the
Powers Act, the unprece-
gency powers given the
the December 18 act.
: Raised the national
from $65,000,000,000 to
'reateci the Army's Wom-
xy, familiarly known as
Brought Hungary, Bul-
Lmania into the field of
emies through declara-
against those Axis satel-
Boosted the base pay of
n in the armed forces
$50 monthly, with in-
Foreseeing the possibility
nen with dependents, en-
tion providing for Fed-
zes to supplement allot-
by service men to their
reated a women's auxil-
Navy, an organization
16: Extended to all men
forces the right to vote
ardless of- whether their
led for absentee voting,
ting the imposition of
control wages and com-
through economic sta-
Enacted the soldier's
Civil Relief Act to safe-
ights and property of
during the period of
and to give them a
spell" after their dis-
djust their financial af-
1: Enacted a record-
enue act estimated to
mately $8,000,000,000 to
tax bill to help put the
13: Lowered the draft
to 18 years.
23: Set up a women's
the coast guard, with
l name of "SPARS."
those dates, the Cop-
ssing appropriation bills
ity, giving unstintingly
program while sharply
wn normal peacetime
ie more important items
ppropriations field were
000,000 to build new
et other naval needs.
000,000 for Army needs,
000,000 for miscellane-
Testifying to the extent -of the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor are these three U.S. battleships hit
from the air. Left to right: USS West Virginia, severely damaged; USS Tennessee, damaged; and USS
Arizona, sunk.- Battleships, -these vessels are the most potent and hard-hitting of all the Navy's equipment.
Their cost of building is tremendous, amounting to hundreds of millions.
* * *
*: * *
* * -
Gobs Rescued from Flaming Battleship
Ravaged Navy Vessels in Process of
Repair, Scrapping or in Commission
WASHINGTON, Dec. 5-(AP)- The Navy, in the first full re-
port of its losses at Pearl Harbor, revealed today that the surprise Jap-
anese blow sank or damaged every American battleship - eight in all -
in the Hawaiian area, ten other ships and a large floating drydock.
Yet the job of raising and repairing these ships has been rushed
at such a furious and successful pace that over half have rejoined the
fleet and only one, the torpedoed, bombed and burned battleship Arizona,
is accounted a total loss.
The Navy's Pearl Harbor anniversary summary divided the ships
hit there into two classes:
DAMAGED BUT SOON REPAIRED AND WHICH REJOINED
THE FL EET "MONTHS AGO:"
Battleships Pennsylvania, Maryland and Tennessee.
Cruisers Helena, Honolulu and Raleigh.
Seaplane Tender Curtiss.
Repair Ship Vestal.
SUNK OR DAMAGED "SO SEVERLY THAT THEY WOULD
SERVIE NO MILITARY PURPOSES FOR SOME TIME:"
Battleships Arizona, Oklahoma, California, Nevada and
Destroyers Shaw, Cassin and Downes.
- Minelayer Oglala.
Target Ship Utah.
A large floating drydock.
MANY NOW IN SERVICE'
A number of these vessels, the Navy said, "are now in full service
but certain others, which required extensive machinery and intricate elec-
trical overhauling as well as refloat-
ing and hull repairing, are not yet ship Arizona, the destroyers Shaw,
ready for battle action." . Cassin and Downes, the target ship
Which of these ships are back in Utah, and the mine-layer Oglala with
service was not disclosed in the Navy some other ships damaged. The Okla-
summary. It had been announced home, he said, had capsized. As for
earlier, however, that the Shaw, for
one, was back with the fleet. . the- extent of the damage to other
The Arizona, as announced in the ships, pe said this information must
first week after Pearl. Harbor, was be withheld as it was of value to the
listed as "permanently and totally enemy.
lost," and it was made known that How valuable that information
the Oklahoma, which capizd, still might have been was made crystal
lies on her side, on the muddyharborclear by today's report. Hawaii, its
bottom. air defenses riddled, lay virtually
"Preparations for the righting of helpless. The Pacific fleet, without
the Oklahoma are now in process, al- a battle line and made up of units
though final decision as to the wis- which survived the attack and those
dom of accomplishing this work at which were at sea, was badly out-
this time has not been made," the weighed by the Japanese main fleet
Navy said. and, had it been engaged, might have
On this point, it was understood, been destroyed.
the question is one of drydock space:
whether it would be better to right Two Task Forces at Sea
the Oklahoma and put her in drydock Happily, there were some aspects
for repairs or use the limited drydock that were not so bad as they might
space for other purposes. have been. When the Japanese at-
Was Half of Navy's Strength tacked, there were 86 ships of the
fleet moored in Pearl Harbor. Two
almTs eight ateshps repesented task forces were carrying out missions
tat category. When he wa gn None of the vessels in Pearl Harbor
the United States had 17 dread-wsa aicftarean the
naughts. Others have since peen wa narrft carrier, and thes
a t Oships, it has developed, are essential
added. t rsn a aa prtos
Besides ships, losses were given as day naval operations.
80 Naval and 97 Army airplanes and Losses of cruisers and destroyers
the following personnel casualties: were light, and these categories were
2,117 officers and enlisted men of most needed for the immense convoy-
the navy and marine corps killed, ing job the war forced on the Navy.
960 missing and 876 wounded who Personnel responded to the chal-
survived. (The Navy lists as dead only lenge magnificently.
those whose bodies are recovered.) The first Japanese blow was struck
226 Army officers and enlisted men at the naval air station at Kaneohe
killed; 396 wounded "most of whom Bay, 12 miles across Oahu Island
have now recovered and have re- trom Pearl Harbor. Seconds later
turned to duty." Hickam Field, the Army air bas.,
All these terrible losses, the Navy Ford Island (naval air station: in
estimated, were inflicted by 105 Jap- Pearl Harbor) and the fleet were un-
anese planes which, winging from ler attack.
carriers at sea, slipped under the easy daps Used Torpedo Planes
peacetime American guard to make "Torpedo planes, assisted effective-
their treacherous and deadly attack ly by dive bombers, constituted the
at 7:55 a.m., Hawaii time--just as major threat of the first phase of
the watches were changing on the the Japanese attack, lasting approxi-
fleet units and while many of the mately a half-hour," the summary
personnel were at Sabbath services. said. "Twenty-one torpedo planes
Conceding there was a large pos- made four attacks, and 30 dive bomb-
sibility of error, it estimated the ers came in in- eight waves during
Japanese raids were carried out by this period. Fifteen horizontal bomb-
21 torpedo planes, 48 dive bombers, ers also participated in this phase
and 36 horizontal bombers. of the raid.
202 U.S. Craft on Island "Although the Japanese launched
The Navy alone had 202 aircraft their initial attack as a surprise, bat-
on the island and the Army additional tleship ready machine guns opened
numbers, but many were destroyed or fire at once and were progressively
disabled on the ground. Thirty-eight augmented by the remaining anti
naval planes got into the air, includ- aircraft batteries as all hands
ing 18 which took off from a carrier promptly were called to general quar-
which arrived off Pearl Harbor while ters. Machine guns brought down two
the attack was in progress. Four were and damaged others of the first wave
shot down. of torpedo planes. Practically all bat-
How many Army planes got aloft tleship anti-aircraft batteries were
was not stated except that they were firing within five minutes,rcruisers
"few" but shot down "more than 20 within an average time of four min-
Japanese planes." By Navy action, utes, and destroyers, opening up ma-
the enemy lost 28 planes and three chine guns almost immediately, av-
small, two-man submarines. These eraged seven minutes in bringing all
submarines also took part in the sur- anti-aircraft guns into action."
prise attack but are believed not to New Photos Released
have inflicted any damage on the Along with its statement, the Navy
fleet. made available to the press some
(The Army issued no separate photographs of damaged ships which
A Navy launch pulls up to the blazing USS West Virginia to rescue a sailor (lower circle) from the
battered battleship. Note the two men (upper circle) on the superstructure. Fire on board ship is as dan-
gerous as it is hard to control. Men caught behind closed steel doors are often found when the fires stop.
* * *
* * *
S * *
Sailors Battle Heavy Flames on Ship
against the use
of United States
ous war agen
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