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May 15, 1941 - Image 4

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The Michigan Daily, 1941-05-15

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THURSDAY, M&15, 1941


Letters To The Editor

Is The Pacifist Position Tenable?

t r- +.


As Others
See It.0...

YES, says Robert Bessey, Grad, - sets forth pacifist precepts
of respect for the individual, compatibility of means and
ends, and willingness to suffer.


m5B4 m L , sfMhLO( y t N i
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Editorial Staff

Emile Gele
Robert Speckhard
Albert P. Blaustein
David Lachenbruch
Bernard Dober
Alvin Dann
Hal Wilson
Arthur Hill
Janet Hiatt
Grace Miller

Managing Editor
Editorial Director
City Editor
Associate Editor
Associate Editor
* . Associate Editor
Sports Editor
Assistant Sports Editor
. . Women's Editor
. Assistant Women's Editor

Daniel H. Huyett
James B. Collins
Louise Carpenter
Evelyn Wright.

Business Staff
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SAssistant Business Manager
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The editorials published in The Michi-
gan Daily are written by members of The
Daily staff and represent the views of the
writers only.

Local CPT Group
Loses {Perfect Record

. . .

versity Civilian Pilot Training Pro-
gram showed a perfect safety record. The sev-
enty students engaged in flight training at Ann
Arbor Airport had undergone instruction with-
out any accidents during the entire course of
the program. But within the last thirty days,
five planes have been damaged in minor -mis-
haps. Although no student was injured in these
accidents, nor in any instruction ever given at
the city airport, the planes involved were laid
up for repairs instead of being in the air.
Time is one of the more important factors in
the plan to provide the United States with a
reservoir of trained pilots. Time needed to re-'=
build a wing or replace a strut is time stolen
from the trainee's logbook. The five primary
and two secondary training planes now available
to the University program cannot be easily sup-!
plemented by factories over-burdened with
THREE of the five accidents have occurred on
the ground, taxiing to and from the run-
ways. Last Saturday, for example, two planes
collided on the field, badly damaging a wing
and ripping out a wing root. All of these acci-
dents, according to Airport Manager Dwight
Reynolds, were not caused by mechanical or
structural failures, but by "thoughtlessness on
the part of the students." Student error was
also responsible for the only flying mishap, a
badly misjudged field approach during forced
landing instruction.
Thoughtlessness of student fliers has there-
fore grounded planes within the last month. A
plane in no condition to fly is useless to the
CPT. The students lose flying time, and the
government waits so much longer for its pilots.
that students are "lame-brained." Experi-'
ence is the basis of good flying, and only through
experience can a student learn to meet every
possible situation. In Saturday's accident, the
student was taxiing into take-off position when
his wheel hit a bump. Thinking one of his
tires was blown out, he pulled back his stick and
opened the throttle. The plane, uncontrollable
without flying speed, rammed another trainer
and then cart-wheeled onto its wing.
Although this accident may show thoughtless-
ness, it also illustrates the danger of entrusting
an airplane to an inexperienced man. There
does not seem to be any advantage in "saving"
time on instruction and then losing the use of
five planes. The instructors and ground crew at
Ann Arbor are men proven by the field's long
safety record and absolute freedom from injuries.
But disabled planes and costly repairs seem to
indicate the need for revision of student time
requirements. When only men with sufficient
experience are allowed to handle planes alone,
there will be an end to "traffic" collisions. There
is such a thing as going too fast, even in a
defense program.
- Dan Behrman
Haile Selassie Returns
Five years ago this month Emperor Haile Se-

Reply To Huston-
To the Editor:
G IVEN HUSTON'S "in the long run anything
we do is futile," how can he find any posi-
tion tenable, let, alone the pacifist's position?
I had great hopes of learning the weaknesses in
the pacifist's position from his article, but found
myself weaving through a series of contradic-
tions which demonstrated he has no position
but that of the confused skeptic-and even
this he didn't defend.
Constantly did he resort to a dual set of value
assumptions, using one of the pair to justify his
arguments, and the other to Mock the pacifist's
assertions. For instance, how can "war, . . .
.often as purposeful as anything we do," be
"deplorable in itself" if there is no purposeful-
ness? He believes he doubts the pacifist's asser-
tbn,,"War is evil," by arguing the usefulness of
war, citing the "fact that when Washington de-
feated the British at Yorktown he contributed
the first essential to the development of what
must be the most brilliant society of the modern"
world. Then, to confound the pacifist's belief
in the mutability of human nature he turns
right about, citing "the circumstance that we
have not changed over the last three thousand
years" and that mankind "seems fore-doomed
to scratch over the rubble of this world's ills ..."
How can war be useful, if everything we do is
HUSTON consistently refused to meet the
pacifist on the fundamental issue. He as-
sails the pacifist's structure as carrying an "air
of unreality" because of the absolute principles
which they invoke in thinking through their
value judgments. He shows how difficult it is
to make absolute distinctions between varieties
of force, a point most readily acknowledged by
pacifists and one which helps explain the wide-
spread disagreement among themselves. But he
fails to tackle the problem as to how value judg-
ments can be made. If judgment need be made
upon some set of assumption and, Huston erects
no criteria for what assumptions are "tenable,"
he fails to challenge the pacifists at their very
point of divergence from him.
Huston did not discuss the religious pacifist
per se, but rather argued against the humani-
tarian type of pacifism. Yet a number of times,
even taking into account the divergences among
the humanitarian pacifists, one felt he was
setting up straw men. He posed the false com-
parison: "a stout resistance to a threatening
foe involves less decay of human spirit than
non-resistance and subsequent submission to
tyranny." But he neglected the third alterna-
tive, that an intelligently planned and well-
organized non-violent resistance campaign
against a "threatening foe" would tend to
strengthen the constructivity of the resisters
and might even transform the "foe" himself.
Pacifists don't argue surrender; their conscien-
tious objection is testimony to that assertion.
Again, in arguing that admission that the insane
need be restrained is tantamount to condoning
the use of violent war -against an emotional,
inflamed enemy, Huston straw-manned the
pacifist's notion that force should not be allowed
to degenerate into violence.
vanced here, in as much as it is hoped Bes-
sey's article will demonstrate the tenability of
the pacifist's position.
-Harold Getzkow, Grad.
r' Robert$.Alew ~
WASHINGTON - Yesterday The Washington
Merry-Go-Round revealed how, through war risk
insurance on shipping, the United States was
supplying the Axis with large sums of money and
vital military information on the movement of

HERE IS ANOTHER disclosure of how one
American pharmaceutical alone last year
poured $2,235,000 into foreign exchange chan-
nels readily accessible to the Nazis..
The firm is the Schering Corporation of
Bloomfield, N. J., manufacturers of highly com-
plex biologicals and serums used by physicians
throughout the world. One of these products is
anti-shock serum, an essential for the Army
Medical Corps. Justice Department sleuths,
tracking down sources of German revenue in
this country, have disclosed these interesting
Up to 1936 the Schering firm was German-
owned. But in 1936 the stock held by Germans
was sold to a Swiss banking corporation known
as Chefa, which now holds large interests in
Schering companies throughout the globe. Jus-
tice agents are investigating reports that Chefa
is German-controlled.
When the stock transfer took place, New
Jersey Schering entered into an agreement with
the parent Schering company in Germany not
to engage in the export business anywhere in
the world. It promised to confine its operations
solely to .the United States, leaving the German
concern and its subsidiaries a completely free

Yakhontoff To Speak
To the Editor:
IN BRINGING General Victor Yakhontoff to
this campus, the American Student Union
offers a speaker who will deal in fact, not fancy.
Formerly of the Russian Imperial Army, the
General has devoted himself since the World
War to a study of the Far East. He has pub-
lished four works dealing with Japan, China,
and Russia. An expert on military affairs, he
is chiefly notable today for his incisive analyses
of political and social affairs in the Far East.
He is speaking- on "THE STRATEGY OF THE
SECOND WORLD WAR." As we are well aware,
Far Eastern problems have again and again
proved to be among the most important con-
siderations governing the policies of the various
nations. The General will analyze, these policies
with regard to our own country as well asJapan,
China, Germany, Soviet Union and Great
Many students ask for explanations of why
our government increases oil exports to Japan
while purporting to aid China in her fight
against aggression. Many ask what is the sig-
nificance of the Soviet-Japanese non-aggression
pact? Will the United States fight Japan as
Senator Pepper suggested? Can China win out
in view of the serious internal strife which has.
been developing? And last, what do the Far
Eastern conflicts show about the nature and
causes of the Second World War?
IT IS THESE QUESTIONS, among others, that
the General will deal with in his talk to be
given Friday at 4 p.m. in Unity Hall. We are
aware that what interventionists abhor most
today are facts. General Yakhontoff will bring
a load of facts with him. We invite questions
and discussion following his talk.
- American Student Union
U.S. Should Make Peace
To the Editor:
BEFORE WE SEND OUR A.E.F. this time we

"SO YOU ARE A PACIFIST! Well I was too, untilv
" the invasion of Norway and the low countries, but
now I see that before we can have peace we must defeat
the dictators. Pacifism is a pipedream." But in this
dismissal of us as dreamers, we hear the confession that
the speaker never was what he had thought he was;
for pacifism-the philosophy of non-violence-is more
than a cloak rto be worn or discarded, at the dictates of
political exigency. Pacifism is a -.philosophy-a, way of
life-founded on certain principles which remain con-
stant, even in this changing world.
These constants are few; many pacifists reduce them
to just three: respect for individual personalities, and
the belief in its ultimate goodness; the conviction that
no end can ever be achieved by a means not compatible
with that end; and the willingness to suffer rather
than to inflict suffering. Let us examine these princi-
ples and their implications.
First, is the respect for individual personality. This
implies the evaluation of all persons, including ourselves,
on the same, basis, regardless of race, creed, nationality,
or position. A priori, then, our ideas, our actions are no
better or no worse than those of anyone else. So, if we
disagree with someone, we cannot seek to impose our
opinions on him by any means except that of his volun-
tary acceptance of them after fully considering both
his and ours. That is, rather than use force of any,
kind-physical, mental, or other-we will seek to use
the method of reconciliation; we must work jointly to
solve the problem, starting from common ground. This,
you may say, is a beautiful but impractical ideal. We
believe, however, that it is practical. The method of
reconciliation will succeed. It may be slower than other
methods, but in the long run it will be more effective.
The mills of the gods grind slow but they grind exceed-
ingly fine. In this is our basic faith. And don't forget:
if you accept this principle you not only will not use
physical violence, but you will not argue with an ad-
versary until, exhausted, he coinpletely acquiesces to
your point of view, nor will you depend on eloquent ora-
tory, nor take advantage of any other clever political
maneuver. Huston was right when he said "there is no
distinct division of force into 'physical force and other
compulsive factors in human living'."
Holds For All Groups
THIS PRINCIPLE must also hold for groups, as group
relations are merely a manifold of individual rela-
tions. It is equally true for small groups or large,
groups within a nation or nations themselves. The im-
position of one nation's will upon another by force-that
is, war-is no more justifiable than individual violence,
even though the nation legalizes the one and not the
other. Might does not make right, and the mere fact
that a majority advocates a certain action does not
prove that action to be right. For this reason, the
rights of minorities mint be maintained-to place a
check on the majority' and to remind that majority of
an opposing and possible truer view.
Again you may say, "Good. I agree. But to attain
a state where such relations are possible we must first
achieve some semblance of order in the world, which
with the existent powers of totalitarianism is impossi-
ble. We must stop Hitler first, then build wisely for
the future." Let us look at the second principle.
Ends And Means Compatible
O END can ever be achieved by a means not com-
patible with that end. That is, all consequences,
however remote, of an action must be considered and
must be compatible with the end sought, else w4 cannot
hope to achieve the end. That we cannot predict all
the consequences of our actions is obvious; but we can
predict with some accuracy certain immediate conse-
quences. With our eventual end in mind we must

had better be sure that any future peace
will be strictly along American rather than
British lines. Not that our hands have always
been clean, but in comparison with most Euro-
pean nations they've been lily-white. There is
no immutable law .establishing war as an instru-
ment of national policy. It can be abolished,
and although we bungled once we can profit by
those past mistakes. As the prospect of open
war with the Nazis turns from theory into fact
it becomes especially important to consider the
future. After all, we're going to have to fight
Hitler sometime. We might better mess up
Italy or France in the process than pretty, little
The first step in any realistic program to build
a better world for our children would be for the
United States to immediately assert its right to
make the peace. We now hold the balance of
power; upon our course depends the fate of
Europe. Therefore, we are in a position to tell
Mr. Churchill that from here on in we are going
to run the show. What could he do but acqui-
esce? This sounds, I know, like some sort of
super-nationalism, but what other scheme would
be as effective?
CONSIDERATION at this time should also be
given to some plan for federal union among
the surviving democracies. Or, as second
choice, a League of Nations backed by an up-to-
date, formidable army. Plans should be started
along these suggested lines now, for it will be
impossible to propose them on the 19th and ex-
pect to see them included in the peace terms
on the 20th.
If Roosevelt would take the above generalities
and combine them into a few concrete proposals
it would serve to clarify our cause and guarantee
its final worth.
- Art Carpenter
of the parent Schering firm in South America.
2. That all labels be printed so that the
packages and trade marks exactly resemble
those formerly supplied from Germany.
3. That the profits of this business be split,
the lion's share going to the Swiss holding com-
As a result, New Jersey Schering, with a
total capitalization of less than $500,000, last
year turned over a net profit of $2,235,000 to
Note - Key man in the Justice Department's
war industries investigation is Edward P. Hodges,
brilliant young anti-trust attorney who will
shortly publish his first book, "The Supreme
Court and Section One of the Sherman Act."
Steel Shortage .
THOSE "business as usual" chickens of the
$1-ayear men are still coming home to
roost - and to plague the progress of armament
Everybody now knows about the grave short-
age in aluminum, due to failure to get new plants
started in time. Recently this column also re-
vealed that an.800,000-kilowatt power shortage
was expected by 1942, when defense production
is scheduled to reach its peak.
Latest inside word is that a similar situation
is developing in steel - a commodity vital to
every phase of the defense program. A serious
steel shortage would be disastrous to both the
United States and Britain.
Like aluminum, the question of steel capacity
has been a hot behind-the-scenes controversy
for months. As early as last summer, some defense
experts urged immediately exansion of ulant

Several Pacifist Groups
pACIFISTS, like most other people, are gregarifdus;
as a result several pacifist organizations have been
formed. Out of the Catholic Worker Movement has
sprung Pax in the Catholic Church. Several Protestant
churches have denominational organizations. Of long-
er standing are the historic peace churches, among
them the Church of the Brethren, the Mennonites, and
the Society of Friends (Quakers). Outstanding among
these are the Quakers, who through the American
Friends Service have performed remarkable service:
throughout the world: reconstruction work after World.
War I, refugee relief, particularly in Europe in the last
few years, rehabilitation in needy areas of this country.
Cutting across religious lines is the Fellowship of Re-
conciliation. Formed in England during the early
stages of World War I, and shortly afterwards extended
to the United States, the Fellowship, according to its
statement of purpose, is composed of "men and women
of many nations and races who recognize the unity of"
the world-wide human family and wish to explore the
possibilities of love for discovering truth, dispelling an-
tagonisms, and reconciling people, despite all differ-
ences, in a friendly society. They believe that love, suck,
as that seen preeminently. in Jesus, must serve as the
true guide for personal conduct under all circumstances;
and they seek to demonstrate this love as the effective
force for overcoming evil and transforming society into
into a creative fellowship."
pressed the same thing:
"No man is an Iland, intire of it selfe; every man i§
a peece of the Continent, a part of the maine; if a Clod
bee washed away by the Sea, Europe is the lesse, as well
as if a Promontorie were, as well as if a Mannor of thy
friends or of-thine owne were; any mans death dimin-
ishes me, because I am involved in Mankinde; And
therefore never send to know for whom the bell tolls;
It tolls for thee."

choose those means, all consequences of which are as
close to the end as possible. For example, to attain
peace by war is as inconsistent as to bury our heads in
the sand and let the war go by unheeded, for the very
hatreds roused by the war will prevent its lasting set-
There is no pacifist panacea for saving the world.
Rather, each situation must be judged by the basic
principles of pacifism. For instance, to what extent is
the use of force justified? The answer depends on cir-
cumstances. Ultimately, the answer must be, "No force."
Long ago we passed the time when unlimited force was
permissible. At present the answer must lie between
these two. In general, physical violency of any kind
would be excluded. Other more subtle forms of vio-
lence-peaceful picketing, for example-might be al-
lowed. Rather than accept the hypothesis of Huston
that "force is totally evil only when employed in an
atmosphere \of reasoned calm," we would say that only
then can it avoid being evil. Force must be accom
panied by the realization of the consequences which
will follow it, and, perhaps more important, used only
with the attitude that in this instance it is to the bene-
fit of the recipient of the force as well as others. It
must lead to reconciliation between the parties in-
volved. Even here its use is open to suspicion-there is
probably a better way to accomplish the end without
the use of force if only we were clever enough to see it.
And here the third principle is pertinent: be- willing to
suffer rather than inflict suffering. This does not
mean the purposeful seeking for martyrdom. On the
contrary, martyrdom should be avoided if possible.
However, regard for ourselves should be so small that
the question of whether or not we will suffer does not
color our decision when another person's suffering is

Robert Bessey, Grad, in spring issue of Controversy, Student Religious Association publication
Editor's Note: This is the second of two articles by students on the question, "Is The Pacifist Position Tenable?" Yes-
terday's article was written by John Huston, '41, editor of Controversy, who maintained that the absolute position of the
pacifist was logically untenable, though he admitted the general truth of the proposition.



(Continued from Page 2)
(no residence requirement)
Materials; Chemist, salary $175,
May 25, 1941. .
Complete announcements on file
at the Bureau, 201 Mason Hall.
Office hours: 9-12 and 2-4.
Academic N otices
Biological Chemistry Seminar will
be held Saturday, May 17, at 10:00
a.m. in Room 319 West Medical
Building. The subject to be discussed
is "The Biological Synthesis of Poly-
saccharides-Starch and Glycogen."
All interested are invited.
Carillon Recital: A special feat-
ture of the carillon recital to be pre-
sented from 7:15 to 8:00 tonight
in the Burton Memorial Tower will
be a duet by John Challis, guest
carillonneur; and Percival Price,
University Carillonneur. They will
play the "Second Rhapsody for Two
Carillonneurs," composed by Profes-
sor Price. The program will also in-
clude German and Chinese folk songs
and a composition by Debussy.
Student Recital: Kathleen Rinck,
Grad., SM, will give a piano recital
it 8: - n.m. Monday. May 19. in the

Art Association and the Institute of
Fine Arts.
University Lecture: Dr. J. Allen
Scott of Ohio State University, will
lecture on the subject, "Manson's
bloodfluke, a public health problem
in Venezuela," under the auspices of
the Department of Zoology at 4:15
p.m. today in the Natural Science
Auditorium. The public is cordially
University Lecture: Dr. Elmer A.
Culler, Professor of Psychology at the
University of Rochester, will lecture
on the subject; "The Limiting Form
of the Learning Curve" under the
auspices of the Department of Psy-
chology tonight at 8:00 in the W. K.
kellogg Foundation Institute Audi-
torium. The public is cordially in-
Events Todayp
Women Transfer Orientation Ad-
visors for next fall: Meeting at
League today, at 5:00 p.m. Room
will be posted. Names to be dropped
from list if advisors have not seen
me about being excused. Professor
P. E. Bursley will speak promptly at

Hostel Meeting will be held this
afternoon at 4:30 at the Women's
Athletic Building for all interested in
biking to, Saline this week-end. If
interested but unable to attend, con-
tact Dan Saulson (2-4401) or Libby
Mahlman (2-447).
The Guide Service Committee will
meet this afternoon at 4:30 at the
League in the room posted.
Archery Club will meet today at
4:15 p.m., rain or shine.
Coming Events
The Research Club will meet in the
Rackham Amphitheatre Wednesday
evening, May 21, at eight o'clock. The
papers to be presented are as follows:
"The Hazard of Overweight with Spe-
cial Reference to Diabetes Mellitus,"'
by Professor Louis H. Newburgh, and
"Problems of Population and Settle-
ment in Latin America," by Professor
Preston E. James. The annual elec-
tion of officers will be held.
Visual Instruction Institute: The
Bureau of Visual Education of the
University Extension Service is spon-
soring a program dealing with prob-
lems relating to the use of visual aids
in public schools, on Friday and Sat-
urday, May 16 and 17, in the Horace
H. Rackham School of Graduate


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