been an advance much talked-about, but never
With Germany's decision several years ago to
kindle the home fires with the Treaty of Ver-
sailles, she was faced with the problem of creat-
ing a winged arm of might as cheaply, efficiently
and quickly as possible. For a solution to the
problem, German technicians adapted the car-
a-minute automobile production line methods to
the needs of the aircraft industry.
fl -Heyw ood B ro n
It isn't a very cheerful thought, but it seems
to me that England and France can hardly hope
for victory except in an extended war. German
I and managed by students of the University of
in under the authority of the Board in Control of
shed every morning except Monday during the
ty year and Summer Session.
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NIQT EDITOR: HERVIE HAUFLER
The editorials published in The Michigan
aily are written by members of The Daily
aff and represent the views of the writers
T HAT PRESIDENTIAL booms are
getting a big boost from the embargo
cash and carry" oonflict now facing Con-
was pointed out this week by Pearson and
1 in their "Washington Merry-Go-Round."
nerica wants to stay out of war, and the
eof public opinion toward a desire for peace
wring many a politician's hopes on its crest.
e is an intense focus of popular in-
t on Washington, and the statesman
succeeds in maneuvering himself in-
his limelight has a greater, more at-
ye audience than any amount of peace-
manipulation can bring. It is a time when
.cal careers can be made or broken in one
ch or one vote.
a consequence, the fight for the leadership
e embargo bloc is taking on the appearance
free-for-all. He who gains command of the
p will become the kingpin of most of the
New Deal forces, at least temporarily, and
be able to capitalize on the bouquets tossed
enator Borah, Henry Ford, Colonel Lind-
h, Father Coughlin, et al. Accustomed s
ricans are in sublimating their political \poli-
n the personality of a leader, the fortunate
sman might well find himself riding into
as the white hope of the malcontents.
ndenberg would like to head the parade; "'
ould Bridges' of New Hampshire, banaher
innecticut and Gurney of South Dakota. Not
outdone in this matter of catching the spot-
The result of planning and research was the
design of a limited number of basic plane de-
signs which could readily be adapted to any of
the various military uses required of aircraft in
modern warfare. And, what from our view-
point is more important, these basic types were
designed to incorporate a maximum number of
interchangeable parts, thus providing the key to
mass production application.
Nor is Germany's military production the only
recent noteworhy advance toward the "two
planes in every garage" goal. Working more slow-
ly, and without the impetus of large-scale rearma-
ment, American engineers have recently pro-
posed several noteworthy innovations.
Most unusual of these is the plan to cast air-
plane bodies in a new form of thermal plastics.
The practicability of the proposal has yet to be
proven, but its effect on the industry, if suc-
cessful, would undeniably be revolutionary.
Not as revolutionary perhaps, but certainly
more tanglible at the present time is the design
of a welded stainless steel "air flivver." En-
visioned by William B. Stout, famed designer
of the "unusual", the plane will sell for approxi-
With the possibility of cheaper airplanes in
sight for the near future, the question immedi-
ately arises as to what portion of the population
will be in a position to afford both the initial
cost and the upkeep of these "sky flivvers."
To insure any degree of ,.popularity and the
resultant saving gained through the application
of mass production techniques, we must necessar-
ily achieve an economic equilibrium which will
make possible the market for the airplane tat
engineering is able to produce. Either the priee
of the planes must be set to conform to the
present level of the national standard of living,
or the average national income will have to be
raised to allow the average American family to
purchase one of the planes without foregoing
other more essential needs.
/e -Karl Kessler
)y Youn~g 9ulliver
After spending a sleepless night trying to
figure how to wriggle out from under Professor
Slosson's blanket of statistics, Gulliver composed
the following letter, straight from a tortured
soul. Dear Professor Slosson: All right, so we
sell automobiles to Canada. All right, so we
import rubber from British Indo-China. I've
got an answer ready. First thing. we have to
do is dispose of the eighteen thousand cars Iy '
won't be exporting. Simple.. We raise the auto
ban in Ann Arbor, and every student buys a car
As for the rubber, instead of covering the
wheels of the cars with rubper, we cover them
with velvet. Me personally, I've always wanted
to have the sensation of riding on velvet. Yours,
Seriously, however, Gulliver thinks that Pro-
fessor Slosson has overlooked the most vital fac-
tor in the rationale of the "new isolationists,"
namely, that non-intercourse with warring coun-
tries would necessarily be accompanied with an
almost complete regearing of our economy. Now
Professor Slosson has been far more frank than
those advocates of cash and carry who declare
that they are really neutral; he thinks that it's
our job to help Britain and France beat Hitler
because (1) Britain and France have the moral
right on their side and (2) if we let Hitler win,
we'll only have to fight him ourselves some day.
Gulliver agrees with neither (1) nor (2). He re-
fers cash and carriers to Professor Lovering's
excellent letter in yesterday's Daily, to Maraniss
and Petersen's editorial in tomorrow's Daily, and
to the articles by Charles Beard and John Cham-
berlain in this month's Harper's.
Meanwhile Gulliver humbly suggests that we
plaster our shirts to our backs and begin boning
up on economic facts and figures, as Professor
Williams suggested at the ASU meeting the other
night. As a starter, we might all get busy study-
ing Tansill's America Goes To War, Grattan's
Why We Fought, and, Lenin's Imperialism. In
other words, maybe we ought to be a little less
hysterical and a little more historical.
Before Gulliver lets fly with another collegiate
fable, he must coney some interesting informa-
tion to prospective purchasers of the Student
Directory. There is now a freshman on campus
named John Keats. This shoud be good news
to all those who use the Directory for cheap fun
on cold winter evenings, when it's too much
trouble to go down to Flautz's. You just sit
around in a circle and thumb through the Direc-
tory, looking for literary personages and his-
torical characters. There are plenty of them
there. Sometimes a University catalog will do
just as well. Example: it was an Ohio State
catalog which told nie that Professor Bull teaches
Animal Husbandry there . . .
Anyway, welcome to Michigan, John Keats.
And if Christoher Marlowe shows up on cam-
pus as a prospective major in Play Production,
Gulliver will blow him to a Hillbilly hamburger
We will conclude our sermon for today with aft
anecdote, again apocryphal, about Professor
Carnap, the eminent German logician now at
the University of Chicago. He was at Princeton
efficiency tends to defeat it-
self in the long haul. There
is pretty general agreement
among all the soldiers I ever
met that the German army
in the last war was the finest
military machine the world
has ever known. And yet it
was finally shattered.
Much has been said by
Hitler and others about the
Reich's having been betrayed by the promises of
Woodrow Wilson. Indeed, there is a widely cur-
rent belief that Germany consented to lay down
its arms at a time when it was still capable of
effective resistance. According to all the testi-
mony I have ever heard, this is erroneous. In
spite of the fact that the cities and towns of
Germany had felt' the effect of the war only
slightly on the surface, the army was through.
The soldiers did not in any literal sense lay down'
their arms. Their weapons were knocked down.
It was true that there was a sizable force in
being, but morale had been shattered. The
efficient machine was something which no
longer functioned. And the failure, in a curi-
ous way, grew out of the very perfection of the
organization. The German is a good soldier be-
cause almost more than any other man he has
learned to take orders. As casualties grew it
became necessary to move men up from the
ranks to take the place of officers who were
gone. As a rule, the German private does npt
make a good leader. The gulf between the priv-
ate and the officer has been greater among the
Germans than in almost any other arIty.
* * *
One must admit that Hitler has succeeded
to leadership in spite of the fact that as a fighter
he did not move beyond the rank of corporal.
Still, in spite of the success of the Reich in the
Polish expedition, it remains to be discovered
whether the Fuehrer is a military genius.
The same American and British military men
who mentioned the German army of the last
war as the best military machine did note one
exception. When put upon his own in some
unexpected situation the German was less able
to decide for himself than the American, the
Australian, the Britisher or any other soldier
of the allied nations.
An exploit such as that of Sergeant York's
would be almost impossible for a lone German
private. Democracies begin slowly. The French
and the .British make their worst mistakes at
the beginning of a war. The German blunders
come more commonly toward the end. When a
perfect machine begins to give way it caves in
PQilus Aren't Showy
In this sense the English and the French will
be wise if they try to hand the offensive over
to Germany along the Western Wall. Any great
sacrificial push upon the part of the Allies at this
moment would be a piece of fatal tactics. Al-
though the French are less showy in the field
than some of the other armies, many Americans,
who served in the last war think that in one
essential they are the best of all. They profit
by being a nation of shop-keepers.
In the last war the pressure of politics led the
French upon a few occasions to make reckless
experiments. Particularly the offensive of Vin-
elle proved almost fatal. The French fight best
when they keep in mind the principle of so much
for so much. They retreat superbly and live
to fight another day under more auspicious
circumstances. In spite of French romanticism,
the army functions best when it discourages
heroes and plays for conservation of man pcwer.
Even in the trenches the French are good waiters.
The secret of the final outcome may lie in the
histrionics of Hitler himself. Wars are not won
by the raising of hands and the breathing of
defiance. Victory may come at last to quiet,
bearded men who keep to shelter as long as they
can. An" army or a nation can afford to lose
all the battles if only it can win the last one.
This blase capital of the United
States has seen all kinds of lobbies,
from bonus marches to midnight par-
ties featuring chorus girls and bibu-
lous Congressmen. But never in all
history has it seen such an incon-
gruous mixture of wire-pullers and
high-pressure boys as the motley
army now storming the doors of
Congress to oppose lifting the arms
In that crowd are thousands of
Coughlinites pulling shoulder to
shoulder with the Quakers; Quakers,
in turn, hand in hand with the du-
Ponts; and Ernest Weir, labor-bait-
ing steel magnate, in sympathy with
Bob LaFollette, the champion of
Also in the embargo lobby are such
incongruous partners as Henry Ford;
Norman Thomas, the Socialist; lddie
Rickenbacker, the war ace; Charles
A. Beard, the historian; John Haynes
Holmes, the preacher; John T. Flynn,
the columnist; and Roland Hayes,
the Negro tenor.
Behind the scenes, the peace bloc
is organized along military lines.
They have pulled against each other
in the past, but now they are work-
ing together under a "General Staff"
Chief of staff in the Protestant
part of the army (the Catholics
operate separately) is Frederick J.
Libby, who runs the National Coun-
cil for the Prevention of War. Its
officers are in Gen. U.S. Grant's for-
mer headquarters, directly opposite
the State, War and Navy Building,
where Mr. Libby can look across at
Secretary Hull's young mn who vig-
orously oppose him. I
Other members of the peace bloc,
working under Libby's General Staff,
include: Fellowship of Reconciliation,
Women's International League for
Peace and Freedom, World Peace-
ways, The American Friends Service
Committee, and The Methodist World
Then there are the War Registers
League, headed by John Haynes,
Holmes; the Youth Committee against
War, +headed by Fay Bennett; the
Keep America Outof War Congress,
headed' by Norman Thomas; the
Peace Committee of the Mennonites;
the People's Lobby; the School of
Liveable Christianity of Chicago, and
the Peace House of New York.
For the first time in their lives,
some of these organizations now find
themselves allied with the name "du-
Pont". During the munitions investi-
gation, the duPont firm was bitterly
attacked, day after day.
But now Mr. Libby refers to the
duPonts as being "on our side," and
has mimeographed a "duPont edi-
torial" which appeared in one of the
All of the above organizations op-
erate frankly, openly as pressure
Big Business Lobby
Operating more quietly behind the
scenes are certain big industrialists.
One day Senator Vandenberg had
been receiving many calls from
Michigan asking him to support the
President. Suddenly came a call
from Ernest Weir of the Weirton
Steel Company, and Vandenberg pre-
pared to resist a similar plea to lift
"How do you stand on this neu-
trality matter?" asked Weir over the
long distance telephone.
Vandenberg braced himself and
replied, "I am strictly following my
conscience and I intend to oppose
removal of the embargoes."
The Senator waited for the expect-
ed blast of disapproval. Instead
Weir said, "Excellent! I'm back of
ou in that. Will you stick?"
The Michigan senator assured hiref
that he would.
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLE
Publication in the Bulletin is constructive notice to all membersaof tb
Copy received at the office of the Summer Session until 3:30 p.m.; 11;00a
(Continued from Page 2)
ceive a Certificate of Eligibility a stu-
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hours of academic credit in the pre-
ceding semester, or 6 hours of aca-
demic credit in the preceding ,um-
mer session, with an average of at
least C, and have at least a C average,
for his entire academic career-.
Unreported grades and grades of
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until removed in accordance with
University regulations. If in the
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Affairs the X or I cannot be removed
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Students who are ineligible under
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Special Students. Special students
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Committee on Student Affairs only
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the Rules Governing Participation in
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order that receipts and membership
cards may be returned to them in
time to avoid the inconvenience of
enrollment at the association con-
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The University constitutes one dis-
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$3.25 per year except for those with
salaries below $1,000, who pay $2.25.
Enrollment cards may be obtained
from Mrs. Olga Vedder, Universiy
J. M. Trytten.
Phi Lambda Upilon: All faculty
and student members of Phi Lambda
Upsilon who are affiliated with, the
University of Michigan for the first
time, or who are returning after an
absence, please get in touch with me
by phone or post card.
C. W. Zuehike,
Secy. Delta Chapter
.727 S. Stat. Mt.
A cademic Notices
Orientation Seminar, for beginning
graduate students in mathematics.
Preliminary meeting, Monday at '3
p.m., in 3201 A.H.
Geography 171 will meet Monday,
Oct. 2, 1939, in Room 209 Angell Hall,
at 3 p.m.
Sociology 51: Make-up examination
for those who missed the June ex-
amination-on Friday, Oct. 6, 2-5
p.m., Room 115 Haven Hall.
Political Science 51 will not uneet
on Monday, Oct. 2.
German 11: Will meet from 5-6 in
Room 225 Anggl Hall.
Frank X. Braun.
Freshmen Round Table: Prif. 'A-
thur VanDuren will speak on the sub-
ject "For What Are We Educating?"
at Lane Hall tonight at 7:15 p.m. All
freshmen men and women are wel-
come to take part in the discussion.
The Outdoor Club invites you to
attend a bicycle hike this afternoon.
The group will meet at Lan
Hall at 2 p.m. A limited number of
bicycles will be available for renting*.
Open meeting, everyone welcome.
Hillel Foundation: All f 6 0an
and .transfer students are cordially
invited to attend the party fr new
Ast4t'at the illel. nd o
tonight begi g at 8 p.m. Daneing
The Graduate Opting Club will
meet at the northwest entrance of
the Rackham Building at 3 p.m. Sun-
day, Oct. 1. The group will go for. a
hike which will end at the Island,
where a wiener t-oast will be held.
All graduate students are cordialy
invited to attend.
Eta Kappa Nu: There will be a
meeting of the officers and members
in the Michigan Union, Sunday eve-
ning, Oct. 1, at 7:1^ p.m.
varsity Men's Debate: There will be
a meeting of all men interested in
Varsity Debate, Monday, Oct. 2., at
4 o'clock in Room 4203 A.H.
University of Michigan Glider Club
will hold its first meeting Tuesday,
Oct. 3, from 7-9 p.m., 348 West 9n-
gineering Building. Dues payable
at that time. Let's have everyone
out to start in on the ftn.
Freshmen Men's Glee Clb:. Try-
outs for Freshmen Glee Clul will be
held Tuesday, Oct. 3, 4 p.m., third
floor, Union. Rehearsal at the same
time for the new men and for those
who have already tried out.
The Michigan Christian Fellowship,
student organization, invites all Chris-
tian students to its meeting in the
fire-place room at Lane Hall, Suni=
day, Oct. 1, at 4:30 p.m.
The Ann Arbor Hockey Club will
meet at 9 o'clock Sunday morning
at the Women's Athletic Building.
All Graduate Students and towns-
women wishing to play field hockey
are cordially invited to be present.
First Congregational Church, State
and William Streets.
10:45 a.m. public worship. Dr.
Parr will preach on "What the World
6 p.m. The Student Fellowship will
meet at the church for supper.
7 p.m. Prof. John L. Brummn of tihe'
School of Jour ii~sm will address
the group on "The Menace of Educa-
Varsity Glee Club: The
men will' report for Glee
hearsal Sunday afternoon
third floor, Union. Bring
the. LaFollette brothers, Phil
stole the show.
LaFollettes may still be pla'ying
party movement, which was a
n in the last presidential race.
ican aspirants are, therefore,
to Phil LaFollette's plan to
set up a
nwide neutrality organization, with branches
ery city and Phil doing the master-minding
rally any laggards in their forces, the
rgoists and the "cash and carry" votaries
heightened their arguments until it woi;;
Congress. is choosing between peace and
Each side. maintains that it must have its
that war is the alternative. Such alarmist
ments are merely scareheads to draw atten-
It is important to select the safest and
t neutrality law, but there is not enough
rence in the relative merits of the two pro-
is for anyone to conclude that the defeat
ae plan or the other places us on a road
:g irrevocably to war.
spite their emotional appeals before the
and their Cassandra-like forebodings that.
follow, the losers, whichever side it will be,
d not be able to convince us of the inevit-
y of America's entrance into war. Behind
' overstatement and every croak of presenti-
there' may be a personal axe a-grinding.
4 0 +
To the Editor:
Passed almost unnoticed, unheralded and un-
sung in the whirl of the beginning of another
college year in Ann Arbor, was the withdrawal
of the compulsory Saturday class provision
for Lit school students this semester.
This repeal of a requirement, perennially de-
nounced as No. 1 Wrecker of Student Weekend
Happiness, coming in accordance with a Univer-
sity program of mapping out things in general,
ten years in advance (proclaimed last year when
everyone was moaning for a four-day Thanks-
giving Day vacation), surely demonstrates for
us the great foresight of the University offi-
cials of almost a decade past.
If the Big Boys back in 1929 really had their
thinking caps on as to how to revamp the Uni-
versity program, we can expect things to start
popping any day now.
Shale. t, .
/ Tobin, R.
Henry Ford Lobby
Vandenberg also got word from
Henry Ford that he would back him
to the limit in the neutrality fight.
The Senator welcomed this and later
called Ford on the phone to ask how
much he would be willing to con-
tribute to pay initial expenses in or-
ganizing the fight.
"I do' not contribute to causes,"
snapped back the auto magnate.
It turned out that Ford meant he
would help Vandenberg in a .politi-
cal way if he got into trouble in the
next election as a result of his em-
Explanation given for the opposi-
Lion of Weir, Ford, and the duPonts
to lifting the embargo is:
1. They fear a third term for
2. If the United States should get
ery Ga rage
. . .
A S THE SAYING GOES, "'tis an ill
wind . . ." and the present cyclone
ring over Europe seems to be no exception,
a the line of bringing us cheaper transport
private aircraft, it appears to have made a
First Presbyterian Church,