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September 19, 1939 - Image 4

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The Michigan Daily, 1939-09-19

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A Digest Of The Week's War News
As Printed In The New York Times


A and managed by students of the University of
an under tile authority of the Board in control of
t Publications.
shed every morning except Monday during the
ity year and-um=w Session
Member of the Associated Press
Associated Press Is exclusively entitled to the
republication of all news dispatches credited to
not otherwise credited in this newspaper. All
of republication of an other matters herein. lso
ed at the Post Office at Ann Arbor, Mwhigan, mw
class mail matter,
criptions during regular school year by carrier,
)y mal, $4.30.
National Advertising Service, Inc.
College Publishers Representative
420 MADisoN AvE. NEw YORK, N. Y.
ber, Associated Collegiate Press, 1939-40
Editorial Staff

t Maraniss
M. Swinton
on L. Linder,
pan A. Schorr
is Flanagan
N. Canavan
ess Manager

Managing Editor
Editorial Director
City Editor
SAssociate Editor
. Associate Editor
. Associate Editor
*Associate Editor
Associate Editor
. Women's Editor
. Sports Editor

Business Staff

s Manager .
n's Business Manager
n's Advertising Manager
ations Manager

Paul R. Park
Zenovia Skoratko
. Jane Mowers
. Harriet S. Levy

The editorials published In The Michian
Daily are written by members of the Daily
staff and represent the views o the
writers only.
An Orientation
To Democracy ..
ISTORICALLY, the training of youth
for leadership in public affairs and
the professions has been the peculiar and indis-
pensible function of higher education. In
America, particularly, have college students been
reminded of the organic inseparability of letters
and leadership, of school and society, of democ-
racy and education.
To the class of 1943, more pertinently, than
to any of the classes still in residence here at the
University, does the relationship between educa-
tioli and the broader currents of life need defin-
ing The young men and women who are now in
the midst of the official orientation period, are
likely to be asking questions soon the answers to
which cannot be found in the college catalogues
or in the Daily Official Bulletin. To young
people who have grown up in the depression
years, who have seen all about them shameful
waste of human and natural resources, and who
have emerged from their adolescence to find a
new world war raging in Europe, the University
will loom as a place in which the fundamental
problems confronting the nation as a whole, and
young people in particular, must be rationally and
scientifically probed.
They will raise problems in economics, psy-
chology, biology, philosophy, history, technology:
and in their impetuously youthful manner they
will demand answers that explain the relation-
ships between the individual subjects and the
world in which they live.
They will insist upon the fullest freedom of
expression for themselves and their instructors,
so that they may be prepared for an intelligent
use of the duties of citizenship: without academ-
ic freedom democratic institutions are trans-
muted into autocracies. With Prof. Franz Boas
theywill declare that the highest patriotism, the
greatest democracy, 'demands freedom of speech,
of press and association. In this regard The
Daily will attempt to fulfill the highest service
of which it is capable-that of contributing to
.the enlightenment of the young people who look
to the University and its associations for a key,
to the distracting puzzle of modern life.
They will study the facts of modern science
and will then demand that the methods, atti-
tudes, and philosophy of science become diffused
in the general "climate of opinion." The great
contribution of modern science is the overthrow
of the totalitarian state in the world of thought,
and the establishment of a democracy in which
all the hypotheses are freely elected. With the
hosts of little campus Aristotles and their abso-
lutes and universals, then, the young men and
women of 1943 will have nothing in common.
They will bring with them an acute knowl-
edge of the spread of racial and religious intol-
erance in their home communities, and will in-
sist that the schools must not only teach equal-
ity but, must also demonstrate it in the school,
and social life.
We are moving, reluctantly, perhaps, but
nonetheless steadily, into a new phase of our
cultural history in which we must somehow
manage to re-write our institutions in terms of
community of purpose: and the new college gen-
eration will demand that the universities foster
the symbols of our common sentiment toward
this democratic evolution: they will look to the
universities for a clarification and expression of
our feelings for the deeper purposes and move-
ment of American culture as a whole, and with
+tei ,mmnan rnsa s mmhs nf it

,(A Digest of an article in the Review of the Week
section of The New York Times.)
Over vast battlegrounds where the armies of
Kaiser and Czar marched in the World War, and
where Polish patriots clashed with Bolsheviks in
an aftermath that for Poland lasted until 1921, a
German juggernaut moved swiftly and devastat-
ingly last week.
The German invasion, unleashed at Adolf
Hitler's word in the early morning of Sept. 1, was
carried by mechanized units with phenomenal
speed. Apparently no second or third line of de-
fense had been prepared by the Poles. Once
their first line was cracked, the Polish divisions
retreated, only to be continually outflanked and
turned by their swift-moving, motorized pm'-
The invaders had more to cope with than the
regular army, however. Stray soldiers and civil-
ians who remained behind after the main exodus
found vantage spots and harassed the flanks
of the Nazis. In many cases, the Germans re-
tired from these sniper-infested towns and then
fired them.
Civilian Defense Important
Civilian defense played its most prominent
role at Warsaw, the capital city evacuated by
the government early in the struggle. German
troops reached its outskirts, last weekend, and
there was expectation of its early fall. But the
Poles of Warsaw, like the Loyalists of Madrid,
rallied with rifle and shovel. Giving up attempts
to storm the city, the Nazi troops adopted their
earlier tactics and sent motorized units to the
east of the city, intending to cut it off from the
principal Polish armies.
Front lines, in the usual sense, hardly existed
in the Polish campaign. Speeding German
forces on wheels outdistanced refugees who
thought they were fleeing from the battle zone.
Around Lwow and Brest-Litovsk the German
push to the east had covered more than 200
Rain came to Poland late in the week; the
Poles had prayed for it, hoping that the mud
would bog down the invaders. -But the raifl
came too late; German armies already occupied'
more than half the country, the half richest in
industry and resources.
The Polish army retreated toward the Pripet
marshes for a last stand against what Berlin
had forecast as "the 'fourth and final partition
of Poland." Interest centered on whether Russia
would demand a share in the new partition, and
with Sunday's invasion by divisions of the
Soviet's Red Army, this speculation began to look
more likely.
The Communist paper Pravda editorialized
about alleged Polish oppression of White Rus-
sian and Ukranian minorities, who number some
7,000,000 among Poland's population of 35,000,-
000. If Russia takes these under her wing, and
Germany retains her present gains, the remains
of the Republic of Poland would be a small and
helpless state, cut off from the sea.
Through air made bumpy by a high wind and
low-hanging clouds, the 70-yeafr-old British
Prime Minister flew last week across the channel
to an unspecified spot on French soil. With
Premier Daladier of France and military chiefs
of both nations, Mr. Chamberlain attended a
meeting of the Supreme War Council of the
Allies. By plane again, Mr. Chamberlain flew
back to London where he told the House of
Commons that "our French allies . . . are no
less convinced than we that there can be no
peace until the menace of Hitlerism is removed."
Mr. Chamberlain's action, as leader of a nation
at war, contrasted grimly with his plane trips of
a year ago. Three times in September of last
year, always carrying the rolled-up umbrella
that was to become a cartoonists' symbol of his
mission, Mr. Chamberlain flew to visit Adolf
Hitler-at Berchtesgaden, at Godesberg and fin-
ally at Munich--as a man of appeasement. The
Munich agreement staved off for a year, at the
expense of Czecho-Slovakia, the European war
that broke out over the issue of a similar fate for
British Troops Land
After days of secret transporting, it was re-
vealed last week that,hundreds of thousands of
British troops were on French soil. Extreme

secrecy was invoked to lessen the danger of
German submarine and air attacks on the trans-
ports. The transfer was effected without hin-
The fighting on the western front contrasted
sharply with events in Poland. The French at-
tack, to use football technology, was like a center
rush for a one-foot gain, compared with the
German Army's open-field running for a touch-
down in Poland. The difference was inevitable,
for Poland had poor defenses, either natural or
The French have had to clear out pillboxes,

barbed wire, all at great expense. The French
tanks had to beware of hidden tank-traps and
concealed anti-tank guns; and the infantry had
to hold the ground gained in defiance of shell-
fire from the big artillery of the German West-
The Battle of the Saar, as historians in future
may remember it, was fought on three levels-
in the air, on the ground and in the many under-
ground tunnels. No air photograph could show
the many reserves rushing through the tunnels
of the Maginot Line and the Westwall. The vast
coal mines of the Saar, with their miles of deep
tunnels and entries through which German
soldiers deployed in place of coal-diggers, added
to the third-dimensional aspect of the battle,
French And The Saar
Even if the gains made by the French were
small, they represent a distinct set-back to the
Reich. For the 738 square-mile Saar Basin on
which the attack centered is industrially rich.
Not only did its mines produce seven per cent of
Germany's coal before the war began, but it had
important plants, manufacturing steel, ceramics,
glass and chemicals. These industries were
brought to a standstill by the attack.
France has a special interest in the Saar. The
first battle of the Franco-Prussian War was
fought here in 1870. After the World War, in
compensation for the destruction of mines in
Northern France, the coal deposits of the Saar
were turned over for exploitation for 15 years.
Temporarily, the district was ruled by the League
of Nations and in January, 1935, a plebiscite wal
held. Overwhelmingly, the Saar people, Ger-
man by language and tradition, voted to return
to the Reich. The peaceful return of the Sa
was the first territorial gain of the Hitler regime
-to be followed, without blessing of plebiscite,
by the absorption of Austria, Czecho-Slovakia
and Memel Last week, as the Nazi military
machine moved devastatingly across the Polish
plains, the Saar suffered the brunt of the first
Allied effort to stop German expansion by force.
The naval tactics of the World War were re-
newed last week as U-Boats sank shipping and
British destroyers halted neutral vessels suspect-
ed of carrying contraband.
Two general types of blockade were made
familiar in the last war: 1. Germany sought t6
blockade Britain into surrender by sinking with-
out warning all ships approaching the British
coast; 2. Britain prevented shipping from reach-
ing Germany and also halted neutrals at sea
looking for contraband.
Neither blockade was sanctioned by interna-
tional law. Both violated the freedom of the seas
-the right, traditionally asserted by the United
States, to navigate both in peace and war waters
outside the territorial limits of any nation.
Blockade And Counter-Blockade
Last week both blockades were again in effect.
Neutral ships were being searched by the Bri-
tish. The American freighter, Warrior, bound
to Germany with a cargo of phosphate, was
halted, her cargo seized as prize of war. All
neutral ships were asked to halt for inspection
at various control stations. Off the southeast
coast of England an observer last week counted
70 ships awaiting inspection.
Germany answered this blockade with a
counter-blockade, proclaiming arms, munitions,
chemicals and fuel contraband. Last week, al-
though the British were rapidly instituting con-
voys, subs were taking heavy toll of shipping.
Most of the vessels sunk were at sea when war
broke out. None of the lost ships were American.
To European belligerents came American
warnings reminiscent of those in 1914-15. Charles
Edison, Acting Secretary of the Navy, warned
belligerent submarines that they "would be tak-
ing a long chance" if they attacked American
While the guns of the belligerents roared last
week on the eastern and western fronts, the posi-
tion of Europe's many neutrals became increas-
ingly important. The larger nations-Russia
and Italy-remained the imponderables, waiting
apparently for the opportune moment to take
sides and reap advantage in the game of Euro-
pean power politics. The smaller nations,Ewith
much to lose, struggled to maintain neutrality..
Russia's move over the weekend under the
guise of protecting the Ukranians and White
Russians living in Poland, remained an enigma.

The real purpose can not be known. To stop
fugitive Polish soldiers driven toward Russia by
the invading Germans? To counter-balance
the Germans approaching Russia? Or to grab
part of Poland for keeps? No one knew, except
the rulers in the Kremlin. More enigmatic was
the Russian position made by the announcement
that she had concluded an accord with Japan,
to settle border disputes.
Italy, though less active diplomatically than
Russia, is also a question mark. Premier Musso-
lini insisted that his country conduct itself as a

And The War
President Roosevelt's casual man-
ner in discussing American problems
arising out of Europe's war probably
would prove less disturbing to sin-
cerely troubled citizens if they would1
remember that Mr. Roosevelt, in
handling delicate issues in his press
conferences, is compelled to general-
That does not mean that he is
recklessor careless or casual. It
simply indicates that he knows every,
phrase he utters will be dissected and
analyzed and that he had better be,
cautious in making sharp, definite
assertions lest he find he has said
too much.
The President took occasion a few
days ago, for example, to reaffirm the
ancient doctrine that this country
would not permit the establishment
of any European power (save Britain,
naturally, which already is estab-
lished) in the Dominion of Canada.
Sound Principle
That is a sound principle, in line
with all our traditional policies. Im-
mediately, however, alarmists began
to speculate on whether Mr. Roose-
velt would send our navy into action
to prevent the shelling of Canada's
maritime provinces by German ships.
Obviously, he would not. Canada
has chosen to follow London in de-
caring waroneGermany. If a Ger-
man submarine rises off Canada's'
shores and starts shooting at a do-
minion city, that is the problem of
the Canadian navy and coast guard.
But "domination" of Canada,
which is what Mr. Roosevelt dis-
cussed, would be a different matter.
It may seem unfair to Britain's ene-
mies that Canada can enter war and
still run no risk of serving as the
spoils of war. But this country could
not tolerate the penetration of any
European power which would sub-
stantially change the status quo along
our northern border. We know what
to expect from Canada; she knows
what to expect from us. It would be
folly for us to allow, any change
bringing a new European intrusion
to this continent.
That fact is that if Britain herself
attempted to change the Canadian
status quo in any serious way, we
would defend Canada from England.
If Canada's people chose not to go to
war and Britain tried to coerce them,
we would defend the dominion
against the British as vigorously as
against the Germans, Italians or Rus-
Territorial Waters
Mr. Roosevelt in his press confer-
ence yesterday made another broad
remark to the effect that a nation's
"territorial waters" can extend just
as far as its interests require them to
extend. Then he remarked that no
one had ever used such a definition
before but that it was a pretty good
Does that mean that our armed
ships, now cruising hundreds of miles
off shore, would interfere between
British and German ships to prevent
fighting or even perhaps to help the
British vessel?
It does not. Such interference
would be an act of war-unjustified
and inexcusable. It could not be ex-
plained under Mr. Roosevelt's defi-
nition" of "territorial waters" any
better than under less radical defini-
The President's remark undoubt-
edly was merely an informal gener-
alization, reserving all rights on the
seas which we might later claim
through proper diplomatic channels.
It was a broad statement intended to
postpone the issue while State De-
partment and other experts tried to
solve successfully the problem no

American government ever previous-
ly has solved-what sea policy we
should maintain during European
A good deal of hysteria has been
manufactured by those who imagine
that Mr. Roosevelt's purpose is to
intervene in Europe. It is not a bene-
ficial service to the country. If those
responsible will give the President
and his aids a chance to work out
sound and concrete policies during
the first few weeks of conflict, the
chances of our entanglement can be
greatly reduced.
St. Louis Star-Times.

The Special Session
When Congress adjourned, this
newspaper pointed out that attempts;
to legislate a foreign policy had left1
the United States in a very unsatis-.
factory and dangerous position. Three
weeks ago we urged a special sessions
to revise so-called "neutrality" legis-1
lation. Now naturally we welcomea
President Roosevelt's call, and trust
that the debate which opens nexta
week will repair national policy with-;
out damaging the national unity1
which is so needed at this time.
The President has provided a good
lead by asking leaders of Congress
to come a day ahead for consultation.
Anything more that can be done to
encourage a non-partisan view will
be helpful. Full and frank debate
is desirable. There can be no neutral
attitude; by public or legislators, but
no hateful, bitter political wars are
necessary to America's settlement of
this question.
The people of the United States
have two chief desires: To keep out
of war, and to aid the resistance to
Hitlerism. There are also some
Americans who wish the Nation to
be completely impartial. But it has
now become clear that the effect of
the arms embargo is to favor Ger-
many, even as repeal would in effect
favor France and Britain. Thus
there is no 'genuine impartiality, and
in this sense no neutrality.
If the chief interest in neutrality
legislation is to keep war out of
America, the present laws are !ss
useful than a cash-and-carry plan
would be. For they do nothing to
stop the bulk of war trade or keep
American ships out of war zones.
Those who wish to insulate the United
States have no real plan to stop trade
in supplies which are just as neces-
sary to war as arms and which con-
stituted three-fourths of American
war trade in the World War.
If the main purpose is keeping out
of war, then cash and carry, send-
ing no American-owned goods and
no American-owned ships into war
zones, would be preferable to the
present status, under which all war
materials (except arms) and ships
are free to go anywhere. And cash
and carry would clearly serve the
second purpose of Americans-to aid
the resistance to Hitlerism. Some
may feel that it would promote peace
since they are convinced there will
be no genuine peace if aggression is
allowed to go on.
Certainly the times are forcing on
every individual a reexamination of
his thinking. The usual concepts of
peace and war do not apply. 'Britain
and France sought peace at Munich;
today they have decided they cannot
cry peace, peace, when there is no
peaceful way of living with Hitlerism.
More and more Americans are likely
to come to the same conclusion.

Millions of them have been urging
Britain and France to stand firm.
They believe that American interests
as well as ideals will be served by
throwing every possible weight into
the scales against aggression.
There is in the United States to-
day a strong feeling against sending
troops to Europe. If it be true that
America could not tolerate a defeat
of Britain and France, then aid given
now might be the best insurance
against later entry into war. The
biggest battles at this hour are being
fought in the diplomatic field. Ac-
tion by the United States which
might sway Italy and Russia, and
possibly some of the smaller coun-
tries can be of greater value than
arms. And itp might so shift the bal-
ance that fewer arms would be need-
-Christian Science Monitor
(Reprinted from the New York
Times of Sept. 17)
As the war moves on, American
exporters already are looking toward
Latin America. With the major in-
dustrial nations of Europe no longer
able to compete with us, a greatly
increased demand for American goods
from the countries to the south ap-
pears imminent. Last year, accord-
ing tp the Department of Commerce,
Germany sold $238,000,000 of goods
to Latin-America, or 17 per cent of
total Latin-American imports, and
Great Britain and France together
another $219,000,000, or nearly 16
per cent more. These goods are now
either no longer available or else
available only in much curtailed
quantities. -'Latin America will look
largely to us to replace them. The
United States, furthermore, is far
better prepared than in 1914 to take
advantage of the opportunity. Our
merchant marine is much larger, our
exporters far more experienced and
our industrial plant much more de-
veloped than twenty-five years ago.
Nevertheless, we shall do well not
to entertain extravagant hopes in
this direction. Thanks to the steady
cevelopment of her own industries,
- Latin America is less dependent on
foreign manufacturers than in 1914.
More important, however, is the prob-
lem of payment. It may be that
higher prices for her exports of raw
materials and foodstuffs, together
with the increased demand for cer-
tain of her raw materials as a result
of further business revival here, will
somewhat pffset the curtailment of
Latin-Ameiican exports to Europe
and make possible larger purchases
from the United States. But: in gen-
eral it remains true that Latin
America can only buy more of our
goods to the extent that we are pre-
pared to accept more of hers-and
the prospects for our taking more of
hers are definitely limited.



* w

5. D.O.B.



A Statement Of Policy
European statesmen once more have sent their state in the headlines whether the news is "re-
nations to war with ideologies and peoples in the ported" or is the first-hand knowledge of the
balance. So great are these stakes that to secure writer. Rumors will be credited as such. On
friendly neutrality oi, if possible, actual aid from
the rest of the world, propaganda machines have the reader's part, close perusal of the lead para-
been thrown into high gear. graph for sources is suggested.
To those accustomed to handling teletype copy 3. The Daily will avoid the use of propaganda
the treacherous words "It was reported in will symbols. It will use "Reich" or "Germany" in
informed circles," "A government communique place of "Nazis." It will not use the word "Reds",
declared" "the propaganda ministry charged" for the U.S.S.R. It will not use the word "Allies"
play an important part in handling foreign dis- for the British, French and Polish armed forces.
patches. To the average reader they too often It will strive to remain neutral in news treat-
are meaningless. ment.
It is for that reason that the policies estab- Because of space limitations and the fact that
lished by the senior editors of The Daily and The Daily is served by only one of the great

strict and peaceful non-intervention-
ist. But behind the scenes diplomacy
was busy. Foreign Minister Ciano
beld almost daily talks with the
French, British and German ambas-
sadors. From Berlin came the re-
port that the Reich still counted on
Italy, "if need be," according to the
terms of their military alliance. The
flow of Italian foodstuffs into Ger-
many increased.
It was apparent that Il Duce was
listening to both side, biding his time,
fully realizing the precarious mili-
tary position of Italy, bordered on
the Brenner by her mighty axis
partner and confronted in the Medi-
terranean by the combined military
and naval forces of Britain, France
and perhaps Turkey.
From the Week's News
LAW: "What we who oppose repeal
are contending for is now the law of
the land. * * * No arms, munitions






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