Liberalism During A War Crisis:
The Blunder Of 1918 In Repetition
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The editorials pub ished in The Michigan
Daily are written by t embers of The Daily
taf an represent the views of the writers
IRACING the movements, job' and
earnings of more than 500 migra-
families and individual workers roaming the
ricultural regions of the Southwest and Pacific
&st, research workers of the Works Progress
ininistration have 'completed a report often
ralleling current fictional accounts of harsh
The research report, "Migratory Cotton Work-
S.in Arizona," cites examples of exaggerated
Vertising to attract workers, meager pay, un-
kltary living conditions and social barriers
ted against the migrants as typical conditions
sting among refugees from the Dust Bowl.
iegulations of unrestricted recruiting of sea-
al labor is recommended to improve condi-
ns of migratory workers in the Southwest.
o simple solution has been discovered," the
Dort warns, and "even granting that .some
ictical means of attacking the problem at its
krce can be found, progress in all probability
b be slow and difficult.'
The report, based on a field study conducted
the. WPA Division of Research, traces for the
bire year of 1937 the pursuits and earnings of
hmigrant groups, ho wereatork inArizona
rin January and February, 1938. The total
nber of cotton pickers working there at the
e ranged from about 30,000 during January
5,000 or less toward thb end of February. In-
tigators visited about 30 cotton camps. in
ee of the most important producing counties
obtain their material. Interviews were held
stly in the evenings and during Sundays when
picking was being done.
['he migratory cotton pickers came to Ari-
a, it was found, because of the prssure of
rd times in their home communities. A ma-
ity of the pickers reported that Arizona was
sented to them in one way or another as being
romised land which could solve for them the
blems which they could not solve at home.
e most important reason for their choice of
zona as a destination was the advertising
npaign conducted by the cotton growers.
[he report points out that native labor was
.ther adequate to the demand during the
.ght of the picking season nor particularly
er to work in the otton fields, and growers
ociations began exierimenting as early as 1912
h mass importations of cheap labor, usually
xican. At one time Puerto Ricans were
ught in, but this required large expenditures
recruiting and transportation.
5ince 1929 the Arizona cotton growers have
ended largely on migratory-cotton pickers for
western cotton states. By 1930 the reduced
eage, th'e depression and the established flow
western cotton states people throgh Arizonat
de it unnecessary any longer to offer rebates
[he recriting campaign has utilized not only
nt ads, buit also display, advertising, hand-
Is, newspaper publicity, ''a word-of-mouth
apevine" and occasionally radio, the study
ind. The campaign reaches into several states
the east. Invariably, according to samiple
vertisements reproduced in the text, the pick-
were promised good pay, high yield per acre
>d living conditions in the camps and a heal-
, salubrious climate.
Actually conditions were very much different,
By ELLIOTT MARANI'ISS
American liberalism, as it has developed here
in the last century, is largely the painful story of
igi hopes that ended in disappointment and
disillusionment. Beginning with the idealistic
experiment at Brook Farm, and continuing in
one form or another until the present, American
liberals have been travelling along a heaven-
bound trail; and at every sharp turn, at every
acute crisis, thousands of the faithful have fallen
by the wayside, taking refuge either in despair,
cynicism or booze.
The most terrifying aspect of modern civiliza-
tion is war; and, consequently the most painful
choice for men of good will is that between war
and peace. Liberals have always been the most
ardent defenders of a peaceful world. Based
upon a belief in rational, peaceful, scientific pro-
gress, it is only in a peaceful milieu that the
hopeful credo of humane rationalism can be
effective. When the bombs are bursting, men are
not likely to be diverted from the bloody business
of destruction by impassioned appeals to reason.
Yet it is a significant fact that it is precisely
when faced with the terrible dilemma of choosing
between war and peace that "the technique of
liberal failure" has been most manifest.
Grew Out Of Lassez-Fare
The truth is that liberals (liberalism is here
used as an attitude toward life that grew out of
the nineteenth century doctrines of laissez-faire,
freedom of trade and the competitive system)
have never been able to grasp the fact that the
experimental temperament can be a stimulating
and pOderful one only when it is equipped with
a scientific approach to historical and ideological
factors; when it is supplemented not only with
good will but With a knowledge of the economic
and social revolution that is beating about our
ears, and with the determination to will the
means to the cherished end. The point is
simply this: grounded as it- is in individualism,
negative fears, in independent humane senti-
ments, in an idealism that believes in the self-
sufficiency of ideas, unaccompanied by action, to
assure the triumph of reason, liberalism is not
the stuff out of which a modern progressive
moverment can be organized to meet the very
realistic threat of reaction and war.'
The plight of the liberals in the present war
crisis is a case in point. One would think that
the lesson of last war, when all the liberals
and intellectuals clung to the Wilsonian star
even when it led to war, and offered themselves
for democracy as dished out by George Creel,
would have taught them a few fundamental les-
sons in regard to the nature of the state and of
war. (Suggested reading for modern liberals,
especially the editors of the New Republic: Ran-
dolph Bourne, The War And The Intellectuals)
Apparently, however, the liberals have learned
nothing from experience-an interesting com-
ment, incidentally, on their recent religious devo-
tion to pragmatism, in which they have placed
all their hopes for a radiant democracy. It
should be manifest to all, especially to men. of
intelligence, that the war today is a repetition
of the old imperialist game; and that its continu-
ation will kill any chance of maintaining the,
ideas that the intellectuals share in common
with the great majority of the people. Men who
have presumably pondered very carefully the
forces within our society that are working for
the destruction of democracy have jumped upon
the imperialistic bandwagon; they have, in their
confusion, lost sight of the common enemy at
home and abroad. Our "tough-minded" instru-
mentalists are also very meekly acquiescing to
the war psychology. (Note to John Dewey: have
you re-read Bourne's Twilight of Idols recently?)
Prey To Propaganda-
At a time when it is more necessary than ever
to think coolly, to probe deeply into motives and
causes and effects, our liberal intellectuals of the
universities, the pulpit, the press and the plat-
form have fallen prey to the most shallow form
of propaganda. They have nearly all moved into
the orbit of the pragmatic acquiescence to war
Undoubtedly these men have been moved by
what they consider the highest of ideals andi
the best of motives: no criticism of their inten-
tions is intended here. Harold Laski and Bruce
Bliven and George Soule and the rest have time
and again proven their integrity and honesty.
But so also had Fred Howe and Walter Weyl
to $1.50 cash a day, and from about $6 to $8
total income for the week.
Only one worker in 33 of the 577 interviewed
was found to have made as much as $16 a week,
and less than one-half of one percent earned
more than $21. Half of them averaged $7.95 a
week or less, and almost one-fourth -averaged
less than $6. Large families with four workers
or more average $18.38 a week.
The usual Arizona camp was described as a
crowded filthy, makeshift collection of shelters,
frequently lacking even elementary sanitary
facilities. Some camps were described as good,
but most consisted of tents over floorless wooden
boxes. It is generally believed that the rate of
illness and mortality among migratory cotton
pickers is high, the report says, and their diet
consists mostly of cheap, starchy foods with al.-
most no meat or milk for the children.
The migrants plan for further movement after
the end of the Arizona cotton season reflect
their bewilderment and hopelessness in a situa-
tion where few had enough money to 'go* any-
where. The standard reply to a question about
plans was: "I don't know where we're go-ing, and
even if I did know, I wouldn't have the money
to get there."
Most of the pickers, it was found, eventually
drift into California, where they seek work in
a labor market already glutted with migratory
and William Bullitt and Herbert Croly and Lin-
coln Steffens and the rest of the crew which
followed Wilson to Versailles confident that &
last peace and order were to be permanently
established, only to return disappointed and de-
feated men-except Steffens who quickly dis-
carded his naive optimism in favor of a more
Where Lies The Difference?
In what, exactly, does the difference lie be-
tween Mr. Dies and his witch-hunting outfit and
the deportations delirium of A. Mitchell Palmer?
Will the next Versailles result in a new genera-
tion of embittered and cynical intellectuals with
nothing to offer but the rationalizations of their
own impotency or unwillingness to comprehend
forces that are very real and easily comprehen-
sible to less subtle but more vigorous and daring
minds? What will happen, in the next war, to
those cherished ideals that all liberals hold so
dearly? Are civil liberties, tolerance, the dignity
of the individual, the sanctity of human life, to
be preserved and extended under the aegis of a
But, the liberals will tell you (as will the re-
actionaries) that this war is different: this, they
say is actually a war to save democracy, to save
civilization, as we have known it, from perishing.
This argument has been sufficiently exploded, we
think, to warrant any further discussion here.
It takes a pretty strong constitution to be able
to stomach Chamberlain, Daladier or Hitler
along with democracy, civilization, and freedom.
And to a very large portion of the people of the
world civilization, as we have known it, is nothing
but a broad-grooved platitude -devoid of any
meaning. Civilization means one thing for
Chamberlain and another for a Hindu farmer.
It is not synonymous with the English or Ger-
man ruling classes. The fight for a democratic,
humane civilization is not .a fight to preserve the
forces of reaction, wl~ther in Germany, Britain
or the United States. And if the liberal intellec-
tuals who are still riding the tail of Adam Smith
don't catch up on what's going on, they'll all be
yipping from the dog-house that is quartering
all the "old" pre-war intellectuals-or from a
concentration camp, guarded not by a Nazi, but
by a disciple of Coughlin and Dies.
By JAMES GREEN
Paul Vincent Carroll's second dramatic por-
trayal of the battle between the spirit and the
letter of the law, between tolerance and Intol-
erance, the Drama Circle Award play "White
Steed" is this week's attraction at the Cass
Theatre in Detroit. To know that, however, is
not enough. The really important informa-
tion, as far as Ann Arbor is concerned, is that
Whitford Kane is heading the cast in the role
of Canon Matt Lavalle, a role that he played
in Ann Arbor last May during the Spring
During the past four years Mr. Kane's nnmer-
ous performances here, in regular student pro-
ductions as well as professional ones, have en-
deared him to local audiences both as a person
and as an actor. He has been a constant help
to the members of Play Production and has aided
many of them in getting a start on Broadway,
When he is in New York his home is a gathering
place for them. He has been instrumental in
selling to many people in .important places in
the world of the theatre the idea that some
really important work is being done by the Play
Production department of the University of
Michigan. In the last analysis, however, it would
be hard to determine whether he is more sold
on Ann Arbor than Ann Arbor is sold on him.
All this as a preface to some sort of a review
of the play might be said to prejudice critical
judgment. Such is the case.
The play deals with the efforts of a young
priest to force his own strict moral code upon
the inhabitants of a small Irish village. The
opposition to the reign of terror that enforce- '
ment of that code causes is led by the old priest
Canon Matt Lavalle and a girl, Nora Fintry. In-
terwoven into the story are constant reference
to the -ssian myths and it is in terms of some
sort of Irish "consciousness" contained in these
myths that the plot is finally resolved. Carroll
has made no very profound study of intolerance
nor of morality but he has written a play that,
after a slow first act overloaded with expository
speeches, moves rapidly and simply to a well
worked out conclusion. It is essentially a study
in the triumph of home truths.
Kane gives one of his best performances in a
part that is replete with good dialogue. This is,
incidentally the third time that he has played
the part. His first performance was in the
original New York cast. However, he only played
the part for the first week of the run. He is him-
self responsible for the story that he was re-
placed because Carroll did not believe that he
was getting sufficient laughs. Carroll should
have been in the audience last night.
. Tom Bate in the part of Father Shaughnessy,
the crusading priest, was consistently good. Ger-
trude Flynn in the role of Nora Fintry did not
exploit to their fullest the particularly "Irish"
potentialities of the part but as the protagonist-
in-action she gave a strong performance. William
Cragin as the defeated school master was more
juvenile than spiritual but it must be admitted
that a part which calls for the smashing of
dishes to spite the universe is a hard one for
any actor to play. The supporting cast was, on
the whole, excellent and more important, was
IT'S getting pretty id.
It seems that Mr. Q.'s column
isn't serious enough to suit some
people. Which, of course, makes
Mr. Q. very unhappy because he
certainly is very muen concerned
'about these sour-pussed individuals
who mope around and think if they
get their mind off the plight of the
world for even a half-minute, .well,
there's just no telling what night
happen. Now, as- it happens, Mr. Q
is, as much cognizanit of the "rotten
economic and social maladjustments
that are sadly in need of attention as
these guys that shoot their mnouths
off at the drop of a dialectic. And
he is just as anxious to substitute
humanity and equality and security
for the forces and creeds that seem
to have the upper hand in the world
today as these extremely humane
people who can't seem- to decide just
how to go about establishing a real
humanity or justice.
So when Mr. Q. devotes all these
valuable inches that might be used
to cry a little to such stuff as finding
'the Bremen in the Union pool, or
typewriters that write of their own
accord, or an Ann Arbor Peace Treaty
or of football Saturdays and a few of
the big names involved, he is accused
of being inconsequential and advised
to "get hep" and worry along with
the rest. Well, Mr. Q. has, made
no strained effort to write of this so-
called small talk; it wasn't a case of
snubbing the big issues of the day
and crawling into a columnar shell.
It was just that Mr. Q. thought a few
of these thigs interesting to write
about on the theory that it might also
be well to think a little about reader--
interest. And Mr. Q. is perfectly
satisfied to allow his column to "de-
grade" to the point of futn-making
and non-social issues-on the theory
that the editorial page gives readers
enough to really think about, and it
would do no harm (that Young Gulli-
ver couldn't remedy) if this space
"horsed around" a bit and told of
things, perhaps not of vital impor-
tance to a revamping of our social
structure, but nevertheless that pro-
vided a few light moments to a very
Now, Mr. Q. isn't trying to be a
Pagliacci or a brave soul who is big
enough to laugh in the midst of
ruins and shambles and all that, but
he does think a lot of these people
take themselves and their own atti-
tudes much too seriously. And when
they try to extend their own serious-
ness into Mr. Q.'s column, he doesn't
like it very much, because he is per-
fectly satisfied-that what he is doing
is just as valuable as if he would
point out the many obvious social ills
that are so much in need of correc-
* * *
O from this little bit, which is by
no means any sort of a justifica-
tion for what follows, Mr. Q. swings
into what follows.
It all started last Thursday when
*a freshman named Lee Grant, who
hails from Joliet, Ill., (he, incidental-
ly, was the chap who hit the jack-
pots in the Union coke and telephone
machines last week) called up the
Kappa Alpha Theta sorority and, with
the aid of a feminine voice, faked a
long-distance call The out-of-town
end of the wire was supposed to be
upper Michigan somewhere and Lee
asked to speak to the head of the'
house. When she came to the phon,
he gave her a line that sounded
something like this:
"I am a member of the Ohio
Wesleyan football team that
plays - against Northern State
Teachers in the Upper Peninsula
Friday night, and we are coming
down to see the Iowa game Satur-
day. There are five boys besides
myself on the varsity team who
ar members of Pi Kappa Alpha
led. note: this fraternity has no
chapter at Ohio Wesleyan or
Michigan). We also have four
men on the second team. Now, it
has been our custom to invite
some chapter of the Thetas to
our school every year for a huge
dinner dance and we §hould like
to talk it over with you when we
get in town. Could you arrange
for some dates Saturday?"
So the Theta boss said she'd need
a little time and could he call back.
So, in about an hour and a half, he
called again (with the long-distance
operator) and was told that after
much difficulty she had gotten ten
women and they would be delighted.
In the meantime, Lee, who is rapid-
ly assuming Bunyanesque propor-
tions on the campus because of his
remarkable stunts, had rounded up
nine other freshman huskies and they
prepared to descend on the Washte-,
nawterie after the game. So came
five o'clock Saturday afternoon and
the ten "Ohio Wesleyan, football
players" advancedonthe gals, who
saw visions of a lovely trip to Ohio3
for a big-time dinner-daiwce if they
could only be nice enouah to Ifhcse
(Continued from Page 2)
The make-up examinations for Ger-
man 1, 2 and 31 will be given on
Saturday, Oct. 21, from 9 to 12 a.m.
in Room 306 U.H.
No student will be allowed to take
this examination unless he presents
a written permit from his instructor
at the time of the examination,
Botany I Make-up Final Exam for
students who were absent from the
examination in June will be given
Mionday, October 23, at 7:00 P.M. in
Room 2004 N.S.
Geology 11 and Geology make-up
examinations for the finals of sec-
ond semester of last year will be given
this afternoon in Room 2054 N.S.
at 3 p.m. This is the only time .at
which these examinations will be
Exhibition by Ann Arbor artists,
under the auspices of the Ann Arbor'
Art Association. Alumni Memorial
Hall, open until October 26 on Sun-
day afternoon, 2-5 p.m., Oct. 15 and
An Exhibit of Southwest Indian
Pottery and Painting will be shown in
the Central Galleries, on the Mez-
zanine floor, of the Rackham build-
ing. The exhibit will be open daily
until Oct. 21
University Lecture: Dr. Maximo M.
Kalaw, member of the Philippine Na-
tional Assembly, will lecture on
"American-Philippine Relations and
the Present Crisis" in the Natural
Science Auditorium on Thursday,
Oct. 26, at 4:15 p.m.
American Chemical Society. Dr. 0.
E. F. Lundell, Chief of the Chemistry
Division, U.S. Bureau of Standards,
will lecture on "Chemical Analysis,
its Services to Science and Industry,
its Problems, and its Role in the Fu-,
ture" at 4:15 P.M. on Thursday, Oct.
19, in Room 303, Chemistry Building.
The lecture is open to the public.
The Rev. Mr. Marley of the First
Unitarian Church, will lecture on "I
Believe" in the East Lecture Hall,
Rackham Building tonight at 8 p.m.
International Center: Program of
Recorded Music. The following all-
Russian program of recorded music
will be presented this evening from
7:30 to 9 p.m. in the Lounge of the
I. Polovetzki Dance No. 17 from
Prince Igor .........Borodin
II. Capriccio Espagnol.........
III. Symphony No. 4, in F Minor.,.
Algebra Seminar: Today at 4 p .M.
in Room 3201 A.H., Dr. Eilenberg will
speak on "Topological Ideals," and
Mr. Komm, will speak on "Ideals in
a Quadratic Field." '
Chemical and Metallurgical En-
gineering Seminar: Mr. Richard E.
Chaddock will be the speaker at the
Seminar for Graduate Students in
Chemical and Metallurgical Engin-
Gering today at 4 p.m. in Room 3201
E. Eng. Bldg. His subject is "Liquid-
Vapor Equilibrium in Hydrocarbon-
A.S.M.E. There will be a meeting'
tonight at 7:30, at the Union. Mr.
Earl Kropscott, of the Cellulose and
Plastics Division of the Dow Chemi-
cal Co., will speak on "Important
Modern Plastics," their uses, proper-
ties, and manufacture. All engineers
are invited to attend.
The Student Chapter of the ASCE
will meet tonight at 7:30 p.m. in the-
Natural Science Auditorium, instead
of the Michigan Union as previously
announced. Professor Wisler will
speak, and sound pictures of the
Boulder Dam will be shown. A busi-
ness meeting will be held afterwards.
Cercle Francais: There will be a
meeting' for the old members this
evening at 7:30 p.m. in Room
408 R.L. Dues will be payable.
Research Club will meet this
,nvening at 8 p.m., in the
Amphitheatre of the Rackham Build-
ing. Election of officers. Professor
C. F. Remer will speak on "Interna-
tional Research in a Year of Ten-
sion." The Council will meet in the
Assembly Hall at 7:15 p.m.
Upper Peninsula Men: The Hiawa-
tha Club cordially invites you to the
first club activity of the year, the
annual U.P. Men's Smoker. This
will be. held at 8 p.m. this eve-
ning in Room 319of the Union. A
splendid program has been planned
including movies of the Michigan
State game and a lunch of cider and
The first Monthly meeting of the
Anatomy Research Club of the Cur-
rent ,school year will be held today
at 4:30 p.m. in Roin 2501 EaM MVedi-
Dr. J. H. Ferguson will present a
paper entitled: "A Review of the Cur-
rent Status of Blood Problem*s."
Tea will be served in Room 3502 at
4 p.m. All interested ai*e ordially
All those hiteiested in trying out for
sophomore track Managers' positions,
come to a meeting at 5 p.m. today in
the Coaches' Room at lost Field
Sigia Eta, Chi will have a regular
meeting this evening.
All old members please be present
for a business meeting at 7:30. Pledg-
ing of new members will be at 8 p.m.
Seminar ill Physical Chemistry will
meet in Room 122, Chemistry Bldg.,
at 415 p.m. today.
Prof. G. I. Uhlenbek will speak
on "The Heavy Electron (Mesotron)."
Chicago Club Meeting: At 7:30 p.m.
this evening in Room 302 of the
Union there will be another meet-
ing of the Chicago Club. A short
business meeting will be followed by
an interesting tal. All men from
the Chicago area are invited to at-
tend and become members of this"or-
ganization. There are no fees of any
Scabbard and Blade: Important
meeting of F Company, Fourth Regi-
ment at 7:30 tonight in the Union.
All members are urged to come and
help on the voting of new men. Uni-
bormitery Board of Assenbly
There will be a meeting today
at the League. The room num-
ber will be posted on the bulletin
The Social Committee of te Ameri-
can Student Union will hold a meet-
ing in the Union at 4 p.m. this after-
noon. Bring ideas for a dramatic
The Theatre Arts Committee will
have a meeting for contacting schbols
and civic organizations, at 5 p.m.,
today in the League.
A 11ible Discussion Gro p will meet
this evening in the Michigan. League
at 7 p.m. The group is, sponsored by
the Lutheran Studetit AsOclation
and is open to all students. Look on
the Bulletin Board in the League for
the room assignment.
Hfllel Clsss: First mieetingsof the
following classes will be held at the
Class in Yiddish at 4 p.r.
Jewish History, led by Ir. Isaac
Rabinowitz, at 715 p.m.
All applicants for the Honors
Course will meet with Dr. Isaac Ra-
binowitz at 5 p.m. to schedule prvate
Avukah, student Zionist, organiza-
tion, will hold admeeting at 8:15 to-
nigh t. All Hilel members are wel-
Wives of Students and Interns are
invited to a reception tea at the home
of Mrs. A. G. Ruthven, 815 . Univer-
sity, from four to six today, sponsored
by Michigan Dames. The wife of
any student or intern is welcome to
come, whether she has been person-
ally asked or not. Former Michigan
Dames are requested to assist the
newcomers in becoming acquainted.
Notice of the first regular ieeting
with outline of the year's atfivties
will be announced before Oct. 25.
-Unversity "Gils'Gxle" C'" :7A gu-
lar rehearsal tonight at 7:15'in the
League. Attendance is compulsory
and all members are urged to be
Choral Union Ushers: Will the 'fol-
lowing men please report at Hill Au-
ditorium Thursday, Oct. 19, 'betteen
4:30 and 5:30 p.m. for the first bal-
Jerome Arfa, Ted Balgooyen; Rob-
ert P. Bell, Houston A. Brice, Donald
M. Cohn, Archibald Cowan, Bruce
Fennell, John L. Frost, Joseph M.
Gornbeln, Louis Green, L. Green, Du-
ane Kenaga, Stoddard Kinney, Ar-
thur Klein, Laurence G. Kraus, J.
Leonard Brandt, Frederick lechty;
Thos. McKinley, John S. Myers,
Gerald Nitzberg, Alfred Reitman,
Kenneth W. Rhoads, Daniel J. .Rob-
ertson, Melvin Schlemenson, Nelson
V. Seeger, Richard J. Seitner, George
F. Shepard, John S. Stamm, Elgar
E. Stanton, Jr., George P. Stein, Rob-
ert J. Stoll, Frank Strunk, Wimburn
L. Wallace, Harry White, James C.
Wills, Bernard M. Wolpert, tobert
Choral Union Ushers: Will the
folnnnr marl n1F. ,P -- r u. L il