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January 27, 1939 - Image 4

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The Michigan Daily, 1939-01-27

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THE MICHI GAN DAILY

FRIDAY, JAN.

m

Edited and managed by students of the University of
Michigan under the authority of the Board in Control of
student Publications.,
Published every morning except Monday during the
University year and Summer Session.
Member of the Associated Press
The Associated Press is exclusively entitled to the
use for republication of all news dispatches credited to
it or -not, otherwise credited in this ,n'saper. All
rights of republication of all other matters herein also
reserved.
Entered at the Post Office at Ann Arbor, Michigan, as
second class mail matter.
'Subscriptions during regular school year by carrier,
$4.00; by mail, $4.50.
R~EPRSENTED .FOR NAT1ONA. ADVERTISING FlY
National Advertising Service, Inc.
College Publishers Representative
420 MADISION AYE. NEW YORK, N. Y.
CHICAGO ' BOSTON * LOS ANGELES - SAN FRANCISCO
Member, Associated Collegiate Press, 1938-39

Board of
Managing Editor. .
Editorial Director .
City Editor .
Associate Editor
Associate Editor
Associate Editor
Associate Editor
Associate Editor
Associate Editor
Book Editor
W'omen's Editor
Sports Editor.

Editors
. Robert D. Mitchell
. Albert P. Mayio
Horace W. Gilmore
Robert I. Fitzhenry
S. R. Kliman
. Robert Perlman
. . Earl Gilman
William Elvin
. Joseph Freedman
Joseph Gies
Dorothea Staebler
Bud Benjamin

Business Department
Business Manager. . . , . Philip W. Buchen
Credit Manager . . . Leonard P. Siegelman
Advertising Manager . William L. Newnan
Womlen's Business Manager . . Helen Jean Dean
Women's Service Manager . . . Marian A. Baxter
NIGHT EDITOR: MORTON L. LINDER
The editorials published in The Michigan
Daily are written by members of the Daily
staff and represent the views of the writers
only.

A Code
For Cyclists

T HE APPEAL to motorists to drive
safely and be especially watchful of
pedestrians and bicyclists is one that is issued
repeatedly. However, because many of the bicycle
accidents "are found to be caused by the care-
lessness of the cyclist, officials of the local
branch of the Michigan Automobile Club have
now attacked the accident problem by appealing
to the cyclist, urging him to ride safely always,
using caution and observing traffic rules.
Prof. Roger Morrison of the highway engineer-
ing department, who is chairman of the local
Traffic and Safety Division of the Auto Club,
declares that cyclists, a large number of whom
are University students, have been careless late-
ly, making the accident problem more acute.
At times like the present, when streets are
slippery with snow and ice, bicycles and autos
are not easy to keep under control. This hazard-
ous driving condition plus the tendency of the
bicyclist to ride carelessly deem it wise that he
should keep in mind the code issued by the Aulto
Club. The Club's code points out that:
1. Two on a bike is one too many.
2. All traffic lights and other traffic sig-
nals apply to bicycles.
3. Dismount and walk across a congested
intersection where there are no traffic lights.
4. When two or more bicycles are traveling
together, they should travel in single file
when other traffic is approaching.
5. Always give a signal when turning or
stopping.
6. Do not ride on the sidewalk.
7. Do not zigzag or cut circus stunts on
the highw y.
The cyclist should remember that when an
auto and a bicycle collide, it is the motorist who
is certain to be ableto continue on his way un-
harmed.
-Don Spencer
Wanted: Reform

You of M
NOTES and FOOTNOTES
_By Sec Terry
FOREST Evashevski's -letter in Wednesday's
column evoked a variety of responses, some
praising his proposal to create "a more robust
social order," others admiring his wayward wit
and polite joshing. One in particular took us to
task for failure to augment these sometimes
pointless paragraphs with a consideration of an
issue that concerns every thoughtful American.
Evie himself, who was absorbed in football and
nothing else during last fall, felt the impact of
the problem when he heard Dr. Judd speaking
of war in China, and lamented his lack of in-
formation and consequent apathy. But the -letter
argues its own case.
"Dear Sec Terry:
"It was indeed gratifying to read Mr. Eva-
shevski's spirited and convincing defense of the
intelligence of his football associates. This letter
is written in the same spirit: it is intended as a
defense of the intelligence of every reader of
your column. There is nothing more palatable for
breakfast than pungent paragraphs, nothing
more stimulating than clever witticisms and epi-
grams. In this respect the tone and content of
your column are excellent; you are carrying
on the great American tradition of pointed
humor, a tradition that began with the tall
tales that grew out of the trek of the pioneers,
that was kept alive in the crackerbox humorists,
the homespun philosophers, and that reached
its glorius clumination in Mark Twain, Artemus
Ward, Josh Billings, Peter Finley Dunne, Eugene
Field, Ring Lardner, Will Rogers and Michigan's
own Franklin P. Adams.
"This is the point: these men were humorists,
but their humor and their wit had meaning only
because it was oriented toward the vital problems
that confronted the American people, more
specifically, the problems of American democ-
racy. This is the time for you to make your bid
for a place in that, tradition. American democ-
racy is in the midst of serious difficulties; this
is the time for you to take your stand in its de-
fense, to use all your influence among your
readers in making them realize the nature of our
difficulties and what can be done about them.
"American democracy cannot live in a totali-
tarian world. The first battle in the struggle
for the preservation of our own democracy is
being fought today in Spain. So long as the
heroic Spanish people throw back the barbaric
forces of darkness, so long as they resist the
totalitarian tide-so long will American democ-
racy live.
'And now, Sec, just a word about this democ-
racy business. We saw you at the recent Spanish
meeting in the Union and know that you heard
Jay Allen say that the slogan 'make the world
safe for democracy' is still a noble one despite
the rough treatment it has had since the end
of the war. And you will remember, Sec, that
just a few nights ago we heard you rehearsing
a speech for your Speech class in which you
said 'the embargo must be lifted in the name of
justice.'
"And do you remember when you said that we
can't walk on one side, of the street, absolutely
imhpervious to what is going on across the way?
And also when you mentioned the fact that in-
nocent women and children are being butchered
in the streets of Spain by shells and bullets
made in the United States? And, when one of
the fellows also present picked up the paper and
blared: 'Barcelona Falls,' mentioning he was
glad the war was almost over so that all the
killing and bloodshed would,stop, do you remem-
ber how we took him aside and showed him that
when Spain falls, it will be the cue for the
real killing and bloodshed to begin?
"We know that you remember all this. And
we also know that you believe deeply in the
principles of democracy that are now being chal-
lenged by the ruthless scourge of fascism, this
barbaric medievalism now threatening the civil-
ized world. And we know that you agree with us
that to sit back complacently and smugly on
"our side of the ocean" with the attitude, "the
rest of the world be damned; we'll have none of
it," is to admit that our ideals must always be
on the back-pedal, retreating before the aggress

sion of fascism-hoping that soon they will wear
themselves out and leave us to return to the
old order.
"If the fascists believe that totalitarianism,
regimentation, intolerance, suppression, and mass
murder are worth fighting for, then surely dis-
ciples of democracy should hold that individual
liberty, freedom, toleration, and peace are equally
worthy of active militant defense.
"Which simply means, in terms of the Spanish
situation, that our position and attitude should
not be one of indifference simply because 3,000
miles of water separate us. 3,000 miles of water
are not enough to wash away ideals and prin-
ciples necessary for a better life. 3.000 miles of
water cannot dissolve the fact that a sister
democracy is fighting valiantly to preserve our
ideals. To repeat, what we must.realize is that
the Spanish people are fighting our battle. And,
as our aid to them, awe conjured up a mock-
neutrality and installed an embargo on arms.
"In short, Sec. we think you will agree with
us when we say that the Spanish embargo must
be lifted. Perhaps now it will be too late to save
Spain, but at least it will show the world that
at last we realize that America is an organic
part of the entire scheme of things, unable to
remain isolated or neutral.
"Sincerely yours, M. E.L. M."
counters and helpers are eliminated, resulting
in large savings.
A third objective of the club is prompter re-
porting of election returns by city, county and
state canvassing boards. The requirement in ,
some states that the canvassing be postponed
until 24 hours after the polls close has two un-

TODAY i
WASHINGTON
-by David Lawrence-

. V*

The Editor
Gets Told...
Dollar Patriotism

DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
Publication in the Bulletin is constructive Notice to all members of the-University,
Copy received at the office of the Assistant to the President until 3:30 P.M.;
11 00 AM. on Saturday.

WASHINGTON, Jan. 26-There is something.
so transparently hypocritical about present-day
politics that it would seem permissible to make
mention of just what the debate over the con-
firmation of Harry L. Hopkins as Secretary of
Comerce really means.
The Republicans, almost to a man, voted
against Mr. Hopkins, and the Democrats, with
few exceptions, voted for him. The question at
issue was whether Mr. Hopkins' management
of relief was political. There was no problem of
personal integrity. It is true, many of the Demo-
crats, in voting to confirm Mr. Hopkins, did not
wish to be recorded as approving what he did
in public office.
From the debate, it might be inferred,, however,
that the Republicans and Democrats are against
politics in relief, but there is nothing to show
they object to politics inside the federal Govern-
ment. So ingrained is the political tradition that
it is doubtful whether a handful of votes could
be obtained today for a bill to prohibit any
member oftheCabinet from being an officer or
director or manager of a political party or its
funds.
Thus, James A. Farley has held the office of
chairman of the Democratic National Committee
and Chairman of the New York State Democratic
committee during the entire period of nearly
six years that he has been Postmaster General
in the Cabinet of the President, and there has
been really no substantial objection from the
leaders of either political party.
Can't Object To Hopkins
Maybe someone else wouldn't be permitted to
play such a triple role, and maybe it's a tribute
to the remarkable personality of Jim Farley, but
the fact remains that a Congress that doesn't
object to an active manager of political cam-
paigns in a President's Cabinet can hardly ob-
ject to the retention in public office of another
man in the President's official family whose
contact with politics was confined to incidental
effort. Maybe, if Mr. Hopkins had been known
as the vice Chairman of the Democratic Na-
tional Committee, or had held some .conspicu-
ous office in politics openly, he never would have
aroused the ire of the members of Congress. Per.
haps his sin was in failing to be a part-time
political manager like Jim Farley.
But the fight now is over, and the question
is whether Congress is in earnest or playing a
little politics of its own in the Hopkins contro-
versy. If Congress were in earnest, there would
be legislation on the way to the statute books
now not only prohibiting key executives in the
entire Federal Government from engaging in
political campaigns, but forbidding them to have
any connection with the soliciting of delegates to
any national convention of either party.
The Republicans may be loath to sponsor such
legislation, for they themselves have been in
the habit of considering certain cabinet posts
as political and their Cabinet officers have made
speeches during presidential and congressional
campaigns. The use of a government job to urge
voters to vote a certain way was certainly not
invented by the Democrats.
It is, therefore, important to record these things
lest the impression be broadcast that the debate
over the Hopkins appointment somehow symbol,
ized something more than the customary holier-
than-thou attitude which every now and then
arises in Congress, when, as a matter of fact,
the' opportunity to cut away the abuse and de-
fects in our system has been plainly apparent fo
years.$
Cabinet Appointments Personal
One of the curious things that showed itself in
the debate was the willingness of Congress to
concede that Cabinet portfolios are personal
appointments, and that qualifications for man-
agement of a big Government department are
not to be passed upon by the Senate when asked
to confirm a nomination. This is, to be sure, the
traditional view and on its face there is no reas-
on why Congress should refuse to confirm any-
body the President wants to put in his Cabinet
-that is, if one accepts the view that Cabinet
officers are political appointments. A majority
of the Senate feels that this is so.' Whatever,
therefore, the individual members of the Senate
may have felt about politics-in relief, they really
supported the idea of politics in government
when they accepted the customary contention

that a Cabinet officer is a part of the Presi-
dent's political entourage. And that's why there
has not been any real objection in Congress to
the presence of a Postmaster General who also
is chairman of a national political party commit-
tee in the President's Cabinet.
Politics is still the controlling influence in
government, notwithstanding all the crusades of
fifty years or more for a permanent civil service
and a better administrative service. In Great
Britain, the political nature of the cabinet offi-
cer is accepted, but he is compelled to stand
before the people in an election just as are mem-
bers of Congress. The trouble in America is that
the electorate has no way of forcing out of office
an administration whose key executives or cabi-.
net officers abuse public power. The issue in a
congressional election is the individual Senator
or Representative, and, in a presidential election,
it is the President. Cabinet responsibility to the
electorate, often advocated by the late President
Wilson, is still ea long way off in the American
Democracy.
The Latest Thing
Something new in the line of student-managed
insurance companies has cropped up on the

To the Editor:
A short while ago Brigadier-Gen-
eral of the Ordance Department vis-
ited the University and before a
group, mainly composed of R.O.T.C.
students, delivered a short address
on the purpose and significance of
the peace-time mobilization .that has
been now going on for several years.
At several points in the address he
stressed the fact that the army offi-
cers have found industry to be very
willing to cooperate with the plans
of the military. However, this cooper-
ation is placed not on any patriotic
basis but on cold cash; for industry
is only to be taxed 50 per cent of
capacity in the manufacturing of
war material, so that the remaining
equipment could be us'ed in the usual
production to fulfill the requirements
of the industry, and the portion that
goes to mobilization is to be at a
profit, which, no doubt, will be sub-
stantial. Besides, the War Depart-
ment at the expense of the govern-
ment is to install the machinery nec-
essary to produce the armaments,
and all that industry furnishes is
space at a profit during a time when
the youth present at the meeting and
millions like them will be called upon
in the name of patriotism to sacri-
fice everything that they have
struggled for. They will have given
up their education and positions, not
in return for any profit as industry is
so cheerfully accepting, but for $21
a month with the pleasure of being
shot to bits, or being a permanent
resident in some veterans' hospital.
If wartime requires extreme sacri-
fices why must industry be exempted?
If the youth are to be called upon
to aid in the preservation of the
Ameridan system, which necessarily'
means the preservation of the indus-
tries for those now in control, it
seems reasonable that those who are
to benefit by the death of many of
us should not be given a ,handsome
profit under the false name of co-
operation. Their patriotism is found-!
ed on the dollar, and the abundant
praise of the speaker was not only
misdirected but seemingly perverted.
In justice to those who must bear
the heaviest burden in a conflict,
a system that permits the accumula-
tion of profits for the manufacture
of war equipment is vicious and re-
quires change.
-Elmer Cherinsky
Lift The Ebargo
To the Editor:
As the mechanized columns of,
Italians, Moroccans and Germans
converge on Barcelona, it becomes
obvious that the fall of Loyalist Spain
may mark the end of parliamentary
government in Europe!
The danger is strictly defined, the
time is strictly limited, and the
nature of our action is clear.
Congress and the President must
be overwhelmed by one message: Lift
the embargo on Loyalist Spain!
- H. M. Pudy
Rat Race
To the Editor:
Exams? Phooooey! If you want to
see a real merry-go-round that'll
make you dizzier than any Ec. final
you ever took, come to the Arch.
School and walk over the writhing
bodies of prospective 1939 seniors.
The biggest Rat Race of the cen-
tury, folks!-yeah, to graduate be-
fore they change the rules. What
makes it tough though is that it
takes more than ten minutes to gradu-
ate. (Nothing like a little free'ad-
vertising to insure the Arch. School
plenty of elbow room for next year
and for God knows how long.)
And still seriously, something has
got to be done if the students are
going to accomplish anything in the

line of work. Periodically the "Board"
decides upon a new "catch rule" for
the seniors-then, as soon as every-
one has raced up and down from the
1st to the 4th floor and back again
seeing advisors, they change their
minds-or at least one or two of the
more powerful of the politicians do
and that's all that counts-and where
are we?
Gentlemen of the Arch. School:
(if they may be termed as such).
With all due respect (interpret to
taste) we beseech you to make up
your minds once and for all and to
make public announcement of the
requirements for graduation. It's no
fun being told your last semester that
you can't graduate this year because
someone suddenly decided to change
the rules and you find it's too late
to make any revision in your schedule.
Momma and poppa have been paying
our bills long enough and I've an
idea my parasitic stage has reached
an end at last,'more school or no
more school. Have a heart for the
poor stooges who want to get out of
the coop next year too. Give 'em a
break-it won't hurt you.
Gosh! to think people have gradu-
ated from this school for 30 years.

(Continued from Page 2)
will assign you another locker the
first week of the second semester. All
locks will be cut of after the above
date so that the lockers can be as-
signed for use the second semester.
Mrs. Mariquita Dygert, Home Light-
ing Director of Detroit Edison Com-
pany, will come to Ann Arbor to ad-
dress the Interior Decoration Group
of the Faculty Women's Club on "Ef-
ficient Lighting in the Home." This
lecture will be held at 3 o'clock on
Thursday. Feb. 2, in the Michigan
League.
Engineering Students: Any student
who has changed from one program
department to another since October
should locate his photostat record
and take it to the department in
which he is to be classified for the
second semester. This does not ap-
ply to freshmen or other students
who entered in September, 1938.
Fraternity Disciplinary Action: The
following fraternities were warned
or otherwise penalized by the Ex-
ecutive Committee of the Interfra-"
ternity Council in meeting of January
25, 1939.
Pi Lambda Phi-Illegal pledging of
freshmen and initiating without per-
mission.
Kappa Nu-Initiating without per-I
mission.
Sigma Nu-Illegal pledging of
freshmen.
Kappa Delta Rho-Illegal pledging
of freshmen.
The Committee requests that all
House Presidents read the Rushing
and Initiating Rules as found in the
Interfraternity Handbook.
The Congress Cooperative House, at
909 East University, is accepting ap-
plications for boarders for the new
semester. Applications will be re-
ceived at the Rochdale Cooperative
House, 640 Oxford Road, at the Rob-
ert Owen House, 922 State St., and
at the Guild House, 438 Maynard St.
The Bureau of Appointments has re-
ceived notice of the following civil
service examinations. Last date for
filing application is given in each
case.
New York City Service. Able Bodied1
Seaman (Labor Class). Applicants
must file in person.
Michigan Civil Service:t
State School secondary Teacher of
HomeEconomics. Salary: $140-160.
Jan. 26.
Nursing Classes. Salary: $115-150.
Jan. 30.
Psychiatric Social Worker. Salary:
$140-160. Feb. 4.1
Sanatorium Physician. Salary:
$200-310. Feb. 6.
United States Civil Service:
Senior Field Representative. Sal-c
ary: $3,800. Feb. 14.x
Field Representative. Salary: $3,-1
200. Feb. 14.
Scientific Aid (Graphic Arts). Sal-
ary: $1,800. Feb. 13.
U.S. Nat'l Museum, Smithsonian
Institution.
Assistant Wool Technologist. Sal-
ary. $2,600. Feb. 13. ,
Supervising Inspector. Salary: $3,-
800. Feb. 14.
Senior Inspector, Salary: $3,200
Feb, 1"4.
Inspector. Salary: $2,600. Feb. 14.
Wage-Hour Division, Dept. of La-
bor.
Complete announcements are on
file at the University Bureau of Ap-
pointments and Occupational- Infor-
mation, 201 Mason Hall, office hours:
9-12 and 2-4. ,
University Bureau of Appointments,
and-Occupational Information. 201
Mason Hall. Office Hours: 9-12 and
2-4.
Academic Notices
Aero 1. General Aeronautics: Sec-

tions I and II in this course will be
combined to take the final examina-
tion which will be given on Saturday,
Feb. 4, from 2 to 6 p.m., in Room 445
West Engineering Building.
Aero 3, Theory and Design of Pro-
pellers: The final examination in this
course will be given on Wednesday,
Feb. 1, from 2 to 6 p.m., in Room
1042 East Engineering Building.
Aero. 6, Experimental Aerodynam-
ics: The final examination in thisl
course will be given on Monday, Jan.
30, from 2 to 6 p.m., in Room 3046
East Engineering Building4
Aeronautical Engineering Students:
Classification numbers for sophomore,
junior and senior students in Aero-
nautical Engineering will be given out
in Room B-47 East Engineering Bldg.
at 10 a.m., Friday, Feb. 10. In the
case of students who have board jobs
or other employment during the se-
mester, early classification numbers
may be obtained from the Secretary
in the Department of Aeronautical
Engineering before Feb. 10.
Biological Chemistry 123: The course

Botany) lectures will be held in 2042
Natural Science Building instead of
4014 Natural Science Building as
heretofore announced.
Education C154 will not ".e offered
the second semester.
History 11, Lecture II. Mr. Wheeler's
sections will meet in Room E, Haven,
for the final examination Wednesday,
Feb. 1, F-5. All other sections In this
lecture group will meet in Natural
Science Auditorium.
Geology 11 make-up bluebooks will
be given on Friday, Jan. 27, at 9 a.m.
in Natural Science Auditorium. At
no other time will\ they be given.
Geology H Final examination (Feb.
3, 9-12 a.m.) will be held in the same
rooms as usual. A-M, Natural =4c-
ence Auditorium; N-Z 231 Angell Hail.
Graduate Students may now obtain
registration material in the Admin-
istrative Office, Rackham Building.
Payment of fees and classifications by
alphabetical sequence will commence
Thursday, Feb. 9, and continue
through Saturday noon, 'Feb. 11, in
Waterman Gymnasium.
C. S. Yoakum, Doan,
History 11. Lecture Group III. Final
examination, Feb. 6, 9-12 a.m. Sec-
tions 21 and 22 in Room C, Haven,
Sections 23 and 24 in Room B, Haven.
History 47: Final examination,
Wednesday, Feb. 1, 2-5. A-G, 35
A.H.; H-Z, C Haven.
Mathematics 215. Modern Algebra.
Will not be offered the second semes-
ter.
Mathematics 239. Aigeoraic Geom-
etry. Will be offered the second se-
mester instead of Course 215 by Dr.
Thrall, TTS, 8, 3011 A.H.
Psychology 31. Lecture Section I,
(Dr. Thuma). The regular final ex-
amination will be held Saturday, Feb.
4, from 2 to 5 p.m. Students with
initials of last name A through 'K,
go to Room B, Haven Hall; students
with initials L through Z, go to RooWi
C, Haven Hall. Students in this lec-
ture section who have a conflict wth
the examination period, will takce
their examination on Thursday, Feb.
2, from 2 to 5 p.m. in Room 1121 N.S."
Psychoiogy 103: Students intending
to elect this course next semester
should make application for entrance
before the registration period in
Rooms 2134 or 2125 Natural Science
Bldg.
Sociology 51: The final examintion
in Sociology 51 is scheduled for Tues-
day, 2-5 p.m., Jan. 31. The assign-
ment of students to rooms is as fol-
lows:
A-F--1025 Angell Hall.
G-0--25 Angell Hall.
P-S-1,035 Angell Hall.
T-Z-35 Angell Hall.
Scientific German. A course, Ger-
man 36, "Scientific German" wll be
offered in the second semester. It is
designed for and open only to atu-
dents who are concentrating or pre-
paring to concentrate in one of the
natural sciences.
Prerequisites: Courses German 1
and 2 in the University (or equiva-
lent in high school), and German 31
or 35. MTWF, 9. 203 U. H. Nord-
meyer. Four hours credit.
All Students: Registration for sec-
ond semester. Each student should
plan to register for himself during
the appointed hours. Registrations
by proxy will not be accepted.
Robert L. Williams,
Assistant Registrar.
Registration Material, Colleges of
L.S.&A., Education, Music. Stu-

dents should call for second semes-
ter registration material at Room 4,
University Hall as soon as possible.
Please see your adviser and secure all
necessary signatures.
Robert L. Williams,
Assistant Registrar.
Registration Material, College of
Architecture. Students should call
for second semester material at Room
4 University Hall at once. The Col-
lege of Architecture will post an an-
nouncement in the near future giving
time of conference with your classi-
fier. Please wait for this notice 'je-
fore seeing your classifier.
Robert L. Williams,
Assistant Registrar.
Notice to Seniors: Seniors expect-
ing to teach in the state of New York
are notified that the examination in
French, German, Spanish and Italian
will be given here on Feb. 17. Those
expecting to take this examination
will have to notify this. office im-
mediately so that we can inform the
"Division of Exammations" by Feb. 1.
Professor Hugo P. Thieme, Chair-
man, Department of Romance Lap-
guages.

In Election Procedure .

. .

W ITH CONGRESS and most of the
state legislatures in session this
month, the National Get-Out-the-Vote Club
is intensifying its nation-wide campaign ;or
modernization and reform in elections, ballots
and registration.
The first of the club's objectives is repeal of
the poll-tax as a requirement for voting. The
poll-tax was common in the early years of
United States' history, but it had largely dis-
appeared before 1860. However, mainly to de-
prive the Negro of his vote, it was revived about
three decades after the Civil War. The, poll-
tax, called a "relic of barbarism," spread through
the South and is still retained in ten states. Laws
require that each voter must bring his tax
receipt in order to vote. The tax ranges from $1
to $5 and keeps many Negroes and whites from
voting.
A second objective of the club is to have the
use of automatic voting machines adopted in all
of the states. These machines tabulate the total
vote as soon as the precincts are closed. In New

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