THE MICHIGAN DAILY
WEDNE SDAT, r. iPI26,
Propaganda In The Press
No. 5: Glittering Generalities;-Foreign Policy Concealed
By Slogans: Freedom Of The Press A Catch-Phrase
Edited and managed by students of the University of
Michigan under the authority of the Board in Control of
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CHICAGO BOSTON .S ANGELES - SAN FRANCISCO
Member, Associated Collegiate Press, 1938.39
Associate Editor .
Book Editor r. .
R ob~ert D. Mitchell
. ..Albert P. Maylo
Horace W. Gilmore
Robert I. Pitzhenry
m. R. Kleiman
* . Robert Perlman
. . . Earl Gilman
S. William Elvin
. . Joseph 'reedman
* . . .Joseph Gies
. . Dorothea taebler
. . Bud Benjamin
Business Manager. P s . , Philip W. Buchen
Credit Manager . . . Leonard P. Siegelman
Advertising Manager . . . William L. Newnan
Women's Business Manager . ele Jean Dan
Womaens,,Servie Manager . .:.~arianA. Sater
NIGHT EDITOR: MORTON L. LINDER
The editorials published in The M.chgan
Daily are written lay members of the Daily
staff and represent the views of the writer.
The Chicago Daily News
And America's Press ...
IN A MUCK-RAKING article on the
American press which Lincoln Stef-
fins wrote for Scribners in tie lineties, he made
the point which is so frequently repeated at the
present time: namely, that American news-
papers have become big, business and that, in
the future. this identification with, business in-
terests and an increasing dependency upon
natioial wire services will result in a decreasing
degree of editorial independence.
That theme has been repeated often in recent
years by critics of the press, especially by
George Seldes, author of "Freedom of the
Press" and "Lords of the Press." And in the
handling of national news it is extremely diffi-
cult to gain-say the declaration. But among cer-
tain sectors of the American press a notable
independence in regards to foreign news has
been shown. The Chicago. Daily News is perhaps
the outstanding exaniple. Its foreign staff in-
cludes Michigan ,graduate Edgar Ansel Mowrer,
former Pulitzer. Prize winner; William Stone-
ham, another Michigan graduate; Frank Smoth-
ers; M. W. Fodor, once-called the "wisest man
in central. Europe;" A. T. Steele, and others.
It has .consistently reported the news without
regard to pressure applied by national regimes.
Edgar Ansel Mowrer was forced o leave Ger-
many when he wrote "Germany Puts the Clock
Back." M. W. Fodor has consistently retreated
into central Europe as the Fascist powers ad-
vanced. Only last fall Frank Smothers was asked
to leave Italy because of the "unfriendly" tone
of his dispatches. This week Richard Mowrer,
another. Michigan graduate, became the 18th
correspondent to be expelled, for writing "un-
favorably" of the Mussolini dictatorship. The
ministry of popular culture charged him with
sending. stories which contained "false informa-
tion and false interpretations."
In reply the Daily News declared no member
of its staff ever wittingly .sent out false informa-
tion and stressed that the Italian propaganda
authorities were unable to cite a single instance
where, Mowrer's dispatches were false. "The
course of events in Italy to date has borne out
the soundness of Mr. Mowrer's interpretations,"
Mowrer was upheld by Colonel Frank. Knox,
publisher of the Daily News. "The News main-
tains a correspondent in Rome solely for the
purpose of printing news, not for the purpose
of disseminating propaganda fVom the Italian
government," he declared. "So long as they will
permit us to be thus ,represented we will con-
tinue to provide representation there.. When this
is no longer possible we will go without represen-
In those words, Colonel Knox expresses a
journalistic philosophy which is to be whole-
heartedly commended; a philosophy which well-
represents the attitude cf the independent press
which. America wants. His Chicago Daily News
exemplifies that ;philosophy and because of it
has become a great newspaper.
It is interesting to note that on international
news the pressure which may be applied on
national issues does not exist; . there is consid-
erable unity of public opinion. Yet in the face of
malicious and supposedly objective reports such
as are. fuynished by the Hearst International
By JOSEPH GIES
The Scripps-Howard papers carry at their
masthead the slogan, "Give Light and the People
- Will Find Their Own. Way." The New York
Times has made famous the phrase, "All the
News That's Fit to Print." Most other papers
have similarly studded masts. It's a Glittering
Generality in every case, and seldom goes fur-
ther than the top of the editorial column. The
Chicago Tribune doesn't stop at a slogan. It
prints a whole program every morning. Samples
PLATFORM FOR CHICAGO
1. End the Parole Business.
2. Build Deathproof Highways.
3., Make Chicago the.First City in the World.
4.'Faster Suburban Service.
5, Up-to-Date . Local Transportation.
6., A Lake Front Airport.
7. A Motor Ferry to Michigan.
8. Cut Taxes in Half.
PLATFORM FOR AMERICA
1. End the Alliance of Crime and Politics.
2. Adopt an American Foreign Policy.
3, Give Aviation a Square Deal.
4. Free the Railroads from Red Tape.
5. Cut Taxes in Half.
6. Collect the International Debts.
An interesting group of proposals they are.
It will be seen that the matter of. taxes is one
especially close to Col. McCormick's heart; they
are included in both his programs, in the form
of a reduction byu50 per cent. Prize Glittering
Generalities are Numbers Three of the first plat-
form and Two, Three and Four of the second.
The America4 fay
The Gannett papers recently published a series
of. articles entitled "Oil, and 'the More Abundant
Life' . . . A Saga for Newspaper Readers." In
Editor & Publisher the series was advertised with
a two page spread annouicing that the articles
.were designed to demonstrate .what can be
accomplished by individual.enterprise under the
American system, in the satisfaction of human
needs." The word."American" is present in nearly
all the best examples of Glittering Generalities.
Again and again Hearst and other publishers
have exhorted conservative Democrats to place
Americanism before party affiliation, as Al Smith
did in 1936 ("I am an American before I am a
Democrat, a Republican or anything else.").
; Americanism is a decidedly fluid quality. The
paily Worker says Communism is Twentieth
Century Americanism, while Nazi and Fascist
groups preach anti-Semitism, anti-Catholicism,
dictatorship and contempt for democracy in
their publications under the pristine slogan of
Americanism. Many fascist papers even urge
fascism in order to save democracy; nearly all
of them assert that the only way "American in-
stitutions" can be preserved is. by dictatorship.
A certain well-known publisher, addressing a
group of students some time .ago, made the
following statement: "We believe in neither fas-
cism nor Communism, the twin evilsof Europe;
we subscribe to but one 'ism'-Americanism."
Many publishers sum up international politics
in nearly the same terms every day.
A Glittering Generality that sounded good.
until its application was looked into was the
insistence upon "the right to work" by the press
during the strikes of 1937. It turned out that
the only right t work in which most of the
press was interested was the right of non-union
workers to work during a strike. This became, in
actualpractice in many cases, the right to scab.
Many Glittering Generalities have been in-
dulged in by the press in defense of the freedom
of business to operate without government inter-
ference. The line usually runs something like
this: "Freedom is best preserved by the Ameri-
can system of individual enterpr~ise." Or, "Democ-
racy can be maintained only as long as the indi-
vidual rights of American citizens are safe-
guarded." What these. statements really amount
to is simply a defense of the economic status
quo, a thing which every economist and every
historian knows does not exist.
Alr. Bingay On Dictatorship
The Glittering Generality functions as a cloak
for some specific but often unsavory idea, cov-
ering it over with the immaculate aura of cher-
ished traditions and institutions. Malcolm W.
Bingay concluded a column on dictatorship and
the New Deal the other day with this master-
.Jefferson and Lincoln had faith in the
people; Mussolini, Hitler, Stalin, and the
high priests of the New Deal do not. They
are convinced the people should be governed,
The first thing a dictator does is to war
on the press, free speech and the Church.
In these three things are to be found the
attributes that make democracy possible;
the spiritual essence of liberty. It is not a
thing of forms and legalisms; it is a thing
of the soul.
Notice the alignment of the New Deal, the
object of attack, with known stereotype names
of bad character, juxtaposed against known
stereotype names of a virtuous character. The
second paragraph is more interesting, however;
in it the writer makes the grand gesture, the
appeal to the Bill of Rights and the Church. A
simple assertion of the value of civil liberties and
religion would be of absolutely no ulity to Mr.
Bingay; the spiritual essence of liberty would be
utterly useless, even though it might be a thing
of the soul, were it not marshalled into line on
the side of the opposition to the New Deal.
Foreign policy has always been a favorite
field for Glittering Generalities. Both advocates
of isolation and concerted action indulge fre-
quently. Most of the press is isolationist, and fre-
quently defends isolation with the slogan, "Keep
out of European entanglements," which many
editorial writers still insist Washington once
said, although he never did.
Generalities about European politics itself are
anything but glittering, as a rule. There 'is a
very widespread tendency in the press to inter-
pret events abroad in the terms Mr. Bingay
used last week when he offered as an analogy
a fight starting in a school-yard at recess with
such remarks as, "I can lick you," and "Knock
that chip offen my shoulder," etc. When it is all
over and the indignant principal asks, "What
started this row?" nobody knows. "That's about
the way things are in Europe today," Mr. Bingay
concludes. Countless editorials and cartoons af-
firm the same thing. Those Europeans-they've
always been at each other's throats and always
will be, and the best thing America can do is
stay over here and mind her own business. Is
this contention borne out by history, economics,
psychology.or any rational examination of fact?
Do European - countries fight wars more often
than the United States, or spend more money on
armaments? Do certain peoples have a natural
tendency to be quarrelsome? Of course not, but
it's a useful generality, the propagation of which
makes easier the task of sabotaging a foreign
poiicy the publishers do not approve.
The greatest Glittering Generality of them
all perhaps is Freedom of the Press. An essay
could easily be written on the volume this simple
phrase has attained in the American newspaper
business. Two outbreaks of it -in recent years
are, perhaps especially notable; the first in 1933
when ,the NRA codes were introduced, and the
second in the past two years when the News-
paper Guild has been organizing editorial work-
ers. On the former occasion John Boettiger, at
the time a Chicago Tribune correspondent (now
managing edit6r of the Seattle Post-Intelligen-
cer and President Roosevelt's son-in-law) inter-
viewed the President on the supposed threat to
the freedom of the press carried by the Blue
Eagle. "You tell Bertie (Col. McCormick) he is
seeing things under the bed," the President said.
Neither Col. McCormick nor his fellow-publishers
have stopped seeing them, however, and the
same cry is still raised at every opportunity.
-by David Lawrence -
WASHINGTON, April 24.-The
biggest issue before Congress at this
session-and one that grows larger
every day in its implications - is
whether Congress or the commissions
and boards here shall make the laws.
The specific example which is caus-
ing most perplexity is the almost un-
limited delegation of legislative pow-
er which Congress in 1935 bestowed
on the National Labor Relations
Board. This latter institution, being
composed of alert human beings, is
interpreting the law exactly as it was
written, namely with a conscious bi-
as in favor of compulsory unioniza-
tion in America. Congress now has
before it many actual instances of
what a board of three members will
do .with such a statute.'
There are several illustrations
showing the contradictory attitude
which the board itself has found it
necessary to adopt in an effort to
carry out the mandate of the law it-
self, which, in effect, means nowa-
days that employers no longer have
the right to discuss directly with their
employes questions affecting the ec-
onomic relationships . of their busi-
ness. Employes, on the other hand,
the board intimates, may go so far
even as to use company time and
company property to carry on their
own outside activities, including so-
licitation of union members.
Opposite Sides Of Fence
The board has been on opposite
sides of the fence on this issue, which
is one reason why Congress is being
asked now to consider whether it
should not take back or at least limit
the power it once delegated. Here is
an example of the perplexity created
by the board's struggle to apply the
broad powers given it. On Dec. 1,
1937, the Board decided what is
known as the Botany Worsted Mills
Case, in which an employe was dis-
charged for violating a company rule
prohibiting outside activities during
working hours, including activities
connected with an outside organiza-
tion, namely a trade union. The board
suspected and found that this was
not the real reason for the dismissal
and wondered if the rule was in ex-
istence or was being applied, and
hence ordered the employe reinstated
But in the course of the opinion, the
Board said flatly that such a rule it-
self would be all right if enforced
against everybody who violated it
and not in a discriminatory way.
TheBoard's opinion on this point,
in exact text, was:
"We conclude, therefore, that the
respondent's (the company's) alleged
rule prohibiting outside activities
during working hours, although in
itself unobjectionable and within the
lawful power of the respondent to
adopt and enforce, was either non-
existent or a dead letter and was in-
voked and applied to peid (the em-
ploye) in a discrimnatory fashion. '
This ruling stood as a guide for
employers for about 17 months, until
March 18, 1939, when what is known
as the Midland Steel Products Con-
pany case was decided. In this, there
was a company rule forbidding solici-
tation of union members onhcom-
pany property. The text of that part
of the board's opinion ordering the
employee reinstated who had violat-
ed the rule is as follows:
Text Of Opinion
"We have grave doubts that the
solicitation of union members on an
employer's property by an employe
on his own time is subject to lawful
prohibition by an employer. It is un-
nessary, however, to consider such
an issue here. It is apparent from
the uncontroverted testimony of those
the August 20th conversation and
who took the witness stand that
cheek (the employe) did nothing
more than call an employe a scab ...
unquestionably the use of a deroga-
tory epithet of an employe can hard-
ly be characterized as solicitation."
Now in both cases there was a
company rule which was designed to
stop union activity within the plant,
one rule being a prohibition of union
.solicitation during company time and
the other being a rule against any
solicitation on the property itself. The
latter rule, of course, was designed
to avoid during lunch hours the very
friction and discord which occurred
in the Midland Steel Case.
When the board now says that it
has "grave doubts" whether a com-
pany can prohibit union activities on
its own property, it is saying in ef-
feet that it is prepared to reverse also
the opinion of December, 1937, in
which it granted the right to em-
ployers to adopt and enforce rules
against union solicitation on com-
This evolution becomes plausible
because some union leaders are con-
tending that they have a right tc
solicit membership, even on com-
pany time, when there is a lag in the
work or there is some other pause in
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
Publication in the Bulletin is constructive notice to all members of the University.
Copy received at the office of the Assistant to the President until 3;30 P.M.;
11:00 A.M. on Saturday.r
WEDNESDAY, APRIL 26, 1939B
VOL. XLIX. No, 146 i
Honors Convocation: The Sixteenth
Annual Honors Convocation of the
University of Michigan will be helda
Friday, April 28, at 11 o'clock, in Hill
Auditorium. Classes, with the excep-
tion of clinics, will be dismissed at
10:45. Those students in clinical
classes who are receiving honors at
the Convocation will be excused in or-
der to attend. The faculty, seniors,n
and graduate students are requestedL
to wear academic costume but there
will be no procession. Members ofC
the faculty are asked to enter by the
rear door of Hill Auditorium and pro-
ceed directly to the stage, where ar-t
rangements have been made for seat-
ing them. The public is invited.
Alexander G. Ruthien.
Retirement Incomes: A suggestionp
has been made that questions con-
cerning various phases of rttire-
ment incomes as they affect members
of the Faculties be submitted to thea
Business Office, with the understand-a
ing that the questions are to be an-
swered in the University Record. This
arrangement might serve to clear up
any misunderstandings or problems
on this subject. Will you please,
therefore, send to.me any such prob-
lems and I will try to answer them or
will refer them to the Carnegie Foun-
dation for the Advancement of
Teaching or The Teachers Insurance
and Annuity Association for solution.
Herbert G. Watkins.~
First Mortgage Loans: The Univer-
sity has a limited amount of funds
to loan on modern well-located Ann
Arbor residential property. Interesta
at current rates. F.H.A. terms avail-I
able. Apply Investment Office, Roome
100; South Wing, University Hall.
Summer Work: The Bureau of Ap-s
pointments and Occupational Infor-t
mation has received calls for the fol-o
1. Head of the Mariner Unit ofC
Michigan Girl Scout Camp. 16 girlsI
between 15-18 to supervise. Re-
quirements: at least 21, experience in
canoeing, boating, lifesaving and iff
possible sailing. Salary: $90. .
2. Cook for Michigan Girl Scout I
Camp. Salary: $110.
Literary Seniors: The Cap andb
Gown Committee has officially chos-
en Moe's Sport Shop and advises fit-
ting at once. No deposit required.
Freshmen, College of Literature,
Science and the Arts. In order to giveC
freshmen adequate opportunity to
discuss their sophomore elections with
their counselors, appointments may
now be made at the Office of. the
AcademicmCounselors, 108 Masonf
Hall, telephone, Extension, 613. Youh
will be notified by post card when toF
ararnge for, your appointment.
Freshmen will find it to their de-a
cided advantage to secure official ap- 1
proval of their sophomore electionst
now, since opportunities for consul-
tation in the fall will b of necessity
Arthur Van Duren.c
W. Webb McCall, publisher of theI
Isabella County Times-News, will give
the eighth lecture in the Journalism
Supplementary Lecture Series at 3t
o'clock today in Room B, Haven Hall,
speaking on "The Business Side ofs
the Weekly Newspaper." The publicf
American Chemical Society Lecture.
Prof. M. S. Kharasch, of the Univer-
sity of Chicago, will speak on "The
Present Day Status of the Struc-
tural Theory of Organic Chemistry,"
in Room 303, Chemistry Building,
Thursday, April 27, at 4:15 p.m.
Mayo Lecture: The annual William
J. Mayo Lecture will be delivered by
Dr. Harold I. Lillie, in the Hospital
Amphitheatre, University Hospital,
on Friday afternoon, April 28th, at
1:30 o'clock. Doctor Lillie will speak
on the "Correlation of the Special
Practice of Otolaryngology with the
General Practice of Medicine."
All Junior and Senior classes will
be dismissed to permit students to
attend this lecture. The Staff and
Internes of University Hospital are
cordially invited to be present.
Seminar for Chemical and Metal-
lurgical Engineers: Mr. A. W. Her-
benar will be the speaker at the
Seminar for graduate students in
Chemical and Metallurgical En-
gineering today at 4-o'clock in Room
3201 E. Eng. Bldg. His subject is
"The Thermo-dynamics of Binary
Seminar in Physical Chemistry will
meet in Room 122 Chemistry Bldg.
at 4:15 p.m. .today.
Baroja, contemporary Spanish novel-
st. This lecture in Spanish) will
be open free of charge to all those in-
Hiawatha Club: There will be a
egular business meeting of the Hi-
awatha Club this evening at 7:30 in
Room 305 of the Michigan Union.
The chief order of business involves
lection of officers.
Graduate Luncheon today at 12
noon in the Russian Tea Room of the
Dr. Hans Gerth, of the Sociology
department, a former resident of
Germany will discuss "Science in
All graduate students are cordially
Swimming, University Women:
There will be recreational swimming
for University women at the Union
Pool today from 4 to 5 p.n.
The Intermediate Dancing Class
will meet tonight from 7 to 8 o'clock
and will have its extra class on Tues-
day, May 9.
The Swing and Sway Session will
have its second meeting tonight from
8 to 9:30 o'clock.
The Political Science Round Table
will meet Thursday, April 27, at 7:30
p.m. in the East Conference Room of
the Rackham Building. Subject:
'Scope and Methods of Political Sci-
Institute of the Aeronautical Sci-
ees: All members of the Institute
are informed of a meeting to be held
Thursday, April 27, at which time an
election of officers will take place.
This meeting will be held in Natural
Science Auditorium at 7:15 p.m., in-
stead of' the Amphitheatre of the
Rackham Building at 7:30 p.m., as
originally scheduled. Movies will be
hown, and the inspection trip to the
Curtiss-Wright Corporation, Buffao,
N.Y, will be discussed.
Camp Filibert Roth: All students in
forestry who expect to attend Camp
F'ilibert Roth this summer please
meet in Room 2039 Natural Science
Building, Thursday, April 27, at 4:10
p.m. Important information will
be given out about camp.
Economics Club: Professor M. W.
Waterman will speak on "The Work
of the .Securities and Exchange
Commission" on Thursday, April 27,
at 7:45 p.m. in the Amphitheatre of
the Rackham Building.
Phi Beta Kappa. Annual Initiation
for members elected this year will be
held in the Michigan League Chapel
on Thursday, April 27 at 4:15 p.m.
Professor Herbert A. Kenyon will
address the initiates. All new mem-
bers are expected to be present at
Phi Beta Kappa. The Annual Initia-
tion Banquet of the Alpha Chapter
of Michigan will be held at the Mich-
igan League on Saturday, April 29 at
6:45 p.m. Price one dollar.Profes-
sor Robert S. Lynd of Columbia
University will speak on "Scholar-
ship in Time of Crisis." Alli pembers
of Phi Beta Kappa are urged to at-
tend. Especially' are members of
other Chapters invited. Reservations
should be made at the Secretary's
office at the Observatory by Friday
evening, April 28.
Hazel Marie Losh, Secretary Phi
The Beta Chapter of Iota Alpha will
hold its regular monthly meeting on
Thursday evening, April 27 at 8 p.m.
in the West Lecture Room on the
mezzanine of the Horace H. Rackham
The speaker of the evening will be
Dr. E. C. Case, Director of the Mu-
seum of Paleontology, whose address
will deal with the excavation of the
dinosaur, which took place last sam-
mer in Montana.
An interesting evening is promised
and every member is urged to be
Graduate Coffee Hour: Thursday
afternoon, April 27, from 4 to 6 p.m.
in the Rackham Building. There
will be dancing in the Assembly Hall,
and coffee and tea will be served in
the West, Conference Room. All
graduate students are cordially in-
Omega Upslion, National Profes-
sional Speech and Dramatic Sorority,
invites all women interested in radio
to come for auditions at Morris Hall,
7:15 on Thursday evening.
Michigan Dames: The Book Group
will meet in the Rackham Building
Thursday evening at 8 o'clock.
The Annual Frenh Play: The Cercle
Francais will present "Ces.Dames
By Sec Terry
PROF. Dwight L. Dumond was discussing in a
history lecture yesterday the prevalence of
tax dodgers in the prosperous.twenties,, and to
illustrate the comparable efficiency of the inter-
nal revenue department in England he told this
incident. On his recent visit to the British Isles,
he arrived in London on Friday night. Next day
he received a notice to appear before revenue
officials Monday morning, at which time :he
was assessed the tax on income he was not to
receive until four weeks later.
* *' *
Following the presentation at the opening
session of the Spring Parley Friday of the con-
servative viewpoint of the forties, a cynical stu-
dent in the rear of the room wrote up a question,
which, in effect, asked: "Are you speaking of
the 1840's?" No reaction to the impertinence
was forthcoming in the forum that followed.
* .* *
Ah, The ood Life
In. Rostand's classic play, "Cyrano de Berger-
ac," the author defines the good life thus:
"To sing, to dream:, to laugh, to loaf, to be
alone and free, and to have eyes that look
squarely and a voice that rings true; to wear
one's hat backwards if he chooses, and to
fight a duel or write a sonnet for a yes or no!
To labor for that heart's-desired journey'to
the moon without a thought of fortune or
glory . . . Then, if even to some small ex-
cently as being "too Gallic," but such philosophy
of a rugged, unregimented individual was more
probably too galling.
THE Associated Press soptted the "beauty-plus-
brains" angle in Marcia Connell's attain-
ment of Phi Kappa Phi, and sent her photo to
its subscribers.'Which is why Mount Clemens'
peaceful citizenry awoke one day last week to,
discover Marcia ,was a bigamist. The Daily
Leader, hitherto unassailable sentinel of .that
village, had crossed its captions, and in the
opposite corner of the page was a picture of
another lady, somewhat frayed by her unhappy
experience, with the caption, "Big Ten Beauty
THIS is a scoop. Kjibou, the slate grey squirrel
that inhabits Tappan oak, has yielded to the
allure of Spring and a dainty brown beauty that
loiters about the 'Ec building. This secret affair
of the heart was uncovered when Kjibou's moody
behavior the past few days invited an investiga-
tion. A bashful, sort, Kjibou has been meeting his
light o' love behind the broken down Ec Build-
ing,, which observers agree show a definite lack
of technique, for even the moon isnt visible there.
Characteristically reticent, Kjibou last night