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April 20, 1939 - Image 4

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The Michigan Daily, 1939-04-20

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TTtVflSflAY, APRTh 20, 1939

________________________________________ I a U


Propaganda In The Press
Some Of The Techniques Used To Make Newspaper
Readers Think The Puliisher's Way

You M
Aiy Sec Terry



3 '

: - F
Edited and managed by students of the University of
Michigan under the authority of the Board in Control of
Student Publications.
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e University year and Sumni r Session.
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use for republication of all news dispatches credited to
it or not ┬░otherwise credited in this newspaper. All
rights of republication of all other matters herein also
Entered at the Post Office at Ann Arbor, Michigan, as
second class mail matter.
Subscriptions during regular school year by carrier,
$4.00;' by mail, $4.50.
National Advertising Service, Inc.
College Publishers Representative
Member, Associated Collegiate Press, 1938-39

Board of
Managing Editor .
Editorial Director,
City Editor ,
Associate Editor,
Associate Editor-.
Associate Editor
Associate Editor
Associate Editor - - .
Associate Editor. .
Book Editor .
Women's Editor.
Sports Editor.

Robert D. Mitchell
* . Albert P. May1o
Horace W. Gilmore
Robet I. Fitzhenry
. S. R. Kleiman
* . Robert Perlman
* . .Earl Gilman
. . William Elvin
Joseph Freedman
Joseph Gies
Dorothea Staebler
Bud Benlamin

Busness Department
Business Manager. . . , Philip W. Buchen
Credit Manager . . . . Leonard P. Siegelman
Advertising Manager . . . William L. Newnan
Women's Business Manager . . Helen Jean Dean
*Women's Service Manager . VarianA.Baxter
The editorials published in The Michigan
Daily are written by members of the Daily
staff and represent the views of the writer
'Baby' Dies
Coni ttee .. .
A HUNDRED and forty-seven years
ago ten amendments to the Consti-
tution went in force as a result of the strong
opposition in and out of Congress to the lack
of guarantees of civil rights in the Constitution
as it was originally ratified by members of Con-
stitutional convention. These guarantees consti-
tute the Bill of Rights which subsequently were
incorporated in paraphras in the state consti-
tutions, Michigan inclded.
Little attention has been paid to a bill now
in the process of working its way through the
legislative mill at Lansing which aims right
square at the very heart of the Bill of Rights.
This is the so-called "Baby Dies" Bill or Senate
Bill No. 50 introduced by Senator Baldwin.
This bill would set up a five man commission,
comprising the Attorney-General, the Secretary
of State, Superintendent of Public Instruction, a
member of the Department of Labor and Indus-
try and the Commissioner of stat police.
Such a commission would be advised by a
citizen's committee appointed by the Govyernor,
and would have power to examine "books, papers,
records, or documents of any natur whatsoever"
on the sworn complaint of any individual charg-
ing another individual or organization with "sedi-
tious or subversive'activity." Not only does the
Commission have this power, but it is obliged
by law to investigate the activities of the indi-
vidual or organization named in the warrant.
The bill creates no new crime as the Civil
Rights Federation release analyzing the bill
points out, and treasonable and subversive acts
which are now crimes under Michigan's law can
be investigated by the several existing law en-
forcing agencies or by means of a grand jury. It
attaches no penalties to any decisions of "sedi-
tious" or "subversive" activity.
The purpose of the bill is, in the light of history
of the parent body, the Dies Committee, viciously
obvious--to smear the reputation and character
of any individual or organization whose political
social or economic views are at all progressive.
Passage of the bill means that agents of the
commisson may search the home of any individ-
ual or meeting-place of any organization and
may examine any papers, correspondence, docu-
ments or literature which they find.
Thus the private affairs of any individual or
group may be made a matter of public record.
From the manner in which the press has handled
the filthy business of the Dies Committee, there
is little doubt that reputations of innocent per-
sons and organizations will be blackened, through
the merciless and widespread publicity given to
the actions of Dies committees everywhere.
It is an ironic, tragic fact intelligible only i
a day and age when the fascist anti-cultural
monster is on the march that such a bill should
be introduced in the legislature of a state of a
nation whose entire history has been one of
fighting against every kind of tyranny which
threatened its existence as a democracy, against
the tyranny of such a thing as Snate Bill No.
50. -Albert Mayio
The Experience

Propaganda is what the other side tells
people; what your side says is information or
even education. As a matter of fact, it is difficult
to define propaganda except subjectively. In its
broadest sense it might be said to include any
use of symbols which convey an impression
whose inculcation will benefit a certain individ-
ual or group. A stirring march tune is military
propaganda, for example, in this sense. Goya's
paintings are nationalist and at the same time
pacifist propaganda. Without going into the art
vs. propaganda question, however, I should lik
to examine certain phases of political propaganda
technique in American journalism, and for the
purpose I should like to make the somewhat
tenebrous distinction of calling such matter
propaganda that creates an impression whose
inculcation is calculated to benefit a certain in-
dividual or group.
By way of introduction, let us list the most
important aspects of public opinion phenomena
in general. The following points are those that
should be particularly borne in mind:
a. Public opinion is composed of the activity of
individuals acting as members of a conscious
b. It involves the use of language symbols.
c. Generally it is directed toward some immedi-
ate rather than long-range object,
d. Public behavior conforms sufficiently to
established patterns of institutional and conven-
tional behavior to be readily admissible as an
adjunct to it.
Toward The Ballot Box
In a democratic political system propaganda
techniques are directed chiefly toward getting
results at the ballot box. Propanda, although car-,
ried on continuously, is brought to a climax at
election times. In recent years the volume of
propaganda, as well as its variety, has grown to
astounding proportions. In September and Octo-
ber of the 1936 campaign the Republican Nation-
al Committee mailed out no less than 170,000,000
pieces of literature from Chicago alone. The use
of radio for propaganda purposes made even'
greater strides than printed material, because of
the comparative newness of radio as a political
weapon. The G.O.P. made the most use of it,
quantitatively speaking; in some places it ran a
program as often as five or six nights a week.
Methods for determining the relative value of
various propaganda devices are beginning to ap-
pear, but the field is as yet a pioneer one. Several
lists of leading propaganda devices have been
made, one of the best by Propaganda Analysis,
Inc., a non-profit organization of. writers and
academic men who mail a weekly news-letter on
propaganda to subscribers. I have compiled the
following list of propaganda devices used chiefly
by the press:
1. The Bandwagon
2. Emphasis.
3. Name-Calling
4. Other Catch-phrases
5. Glittering Generalities
6. Testimonial
The Bandwagon, to take up the first, is an
old and well-known advertising device. In its
commercial form it is intended to convey the
impression that "everybody's doing it." In poli-
tical propaganda it has an added psychological
value: stress is placed upon the victory of the
party which the newspaper favors and the de-
feat of the opposition. It is not so much a matter
of convincing people that the product is popular
as it is of surrounding it with the aura of com-
petitive success.
The September Primaries
A good example is offered by the varying
treatmneit given the Democratic primaries in
Arkansas, Ohio and Idaho last August 10 by
Naziism its initial impetus toward complete
Aloofness was a traditional trait of the Ger-
man bourgeoisie. Because of their interest in the
intellectual, they divorced themselves as much
as possible from social life. "Culture for me,"
Mann states, "meant music, metaphysics, psy-
chology; meant a pessimistic ethic and individ-
ualistic idealism in the cultural field. From it I
contemptuously excluded everything political."
Although brought up in this atmosphere of
political aloofness, when Mann became old

enough to seek beneath the surface of thought
he realized that the "bourgeoisie had erred Q
thinking that a man of culture could remain
unpolitical . .
"The unhappy course of German history,
which has issued in the cultural catastrophe of
National Socialism, is in truth very much bound
up with the unpolitical cast of the bourgeois mind,
and with its anti-democratic habit of looking
down the nose from its intellectual and cultural
height at the sphere of political and social
This political passivity permitted the unre-
strained growth in Germany of a class which
considered the state the dominant force in the
field of human affairs to the exclusion of every-
thing else. The absence of political experience
and the contempt of democracy, Mann explains,
resulted in the enslavement of the citizen to
the state and to power politics.
In the America of today, with popular inter-
est in politics becoming increasingly apathetic
except for a brief flurry during campaign time,
the experience of Thomas Mann should be an
incentive to come down off our high-horses of
indifference. If we are to come close to our ideal
of democracy, we must not seek it in a futile,
diffident manner or be so blinded by our own
selfish aims that we forget all else. As Mann says,
the "political and social are parts of the human;
they belong to the totality of human problems

several newspapers. The results of the elections
were victories for the New Deal candidates for
the Senate in Ohio (Senator Bulkley) and Ark-
ansas (Senator Caraway) and a defeat for the
New Deal candidate (Senator Pope) in Idaho.
All three had been given President Roosevelt's
personal endorsement. In addition, the reaction-
ary Governor Davey of Ohio was defeated by the
CIO-supported candidate, Sawyer. The other
races, for seats in the House of Representatives,
were of relatively little significance.
The Chicago Daily Times, anti-New Deal,
headlined the story:
Pope's Defeat
In Idaho Blow
To New Deal
The New York Post, pro-New Deal, bannered?'
The Chicago Tribune, most actively reaction-
ary paper in the country, said:
Defeat Of Idaho
Yes-Man Stuns
Roosevelt Aids
The Daily Worker, twice as pro-New Deal as
Ickes, Hopkins and Roosevelt together, three-
The Washington Daily News, Scripps-Howard
and treading the tenuous line of avowed support
of Roosevelt and subtle attack on the New Deal,
New Deal Is 1 Down
In Its Senate Purge
Note the use of catch-phrases, for which news-
paper headlines are the perfect medium: Yes-
Man, Purge; Name-Calling: 'Tear-Gas' Davey;
competition-words: Jolts, Stuns, Rejects. In every
case there is clearly an attempt to distort the
realities of the events described in order to make
it appear -that one side or the other had the
better of it. This implication, or its reverse, is
contained in every "slanted" headline, story or
editorial on American politics appearing in the
American press. That, however, is the effect;
the devi-e itself is a combination of the Band-
wagon and what is known as Card-Stacking, or
Emphasis. These two devices very commonly ap-
pear together.
Adventures In Riga
A variation of victory-for-our-side is its re-
verse, trouble-for-their-side, carrying the impli-
cation of "stay off the Bandwagon." This is ordi-
narily a mild distortion, by means of emphasis,
of factual reporting. Sometimes it is more than
a mild one. The Chicago Tribune, for example,
still retains a correspondent at Riga, Latvia, a
notorious source of unreliable and unfavorable
news about Soviet Russia. It is the only American
newspaper which does, and the only one which
consistently distorts Soviet news. Last June the
Tribune correspondent, Donald Day, wired a story
from "the Riga lie-factory" as correspondents
call it, describing a revolt of workers in the Josef
Stalin automobile factory at Moscow, brutally
.suppressed by the government with hundreds o
workers killed and wounded and 3,000 arrested.
According to the New Republic, few editors both-
ered to have their Moscow correspondents check
the story; one who did received the cabled reply
Anti-New Deal papers frequently play up dis-
sension within Administration ranks, often using
special writers and columnists to give "inside
stories" on such dissension. Similarly, anti-fas-
cist papers play up reported internal difficultieis
in Germany and Italy, often with a very flimsy
factual basis.
I ii

GARGOYLE - two-bits worth of
crude calumny - appears this
morning with another make-up orgy
by its wayward editor, Max Hodge,
and more mash by that prolific hack,
Stan (anything-for-a-story) Swin-
ton. Swinton, at Hodge's fiendish in-
stigation no doubt, really wins a tur-
key with his preposterous vignettes
of Burton (By-line) Benjamin and
Irvin (Life of the Party) Lisagor,
both of whom gave him a gracious
initiation into the virile task of re-
porting sports. Prior to his sports
assignment, Swinton had done noth-
ing beyond writing University bulle-
tins for The Daily. He was chiefly
distinguished for his amateur imita-
tion of a newspaperman he once saw
in a cheap movie at the Wuerth, a
chain-smoking, neurotic individual.
Swinton disclaims full authorship of
the two pieces about Benjamin and
Lisagor, allegiing that Hodge made
several significant changes. But the
little innuendoes can be only Swin-
ton's. And to think that his maligned
subjects only recently warned him
of the cardinal mustnots of sports
writing and explained to him with
patient detail the difference between
third base and a goal post.
As for the remark Mrs. Swin-
ton was purported to have made
about Lisagor's "cute black hair,"
the truth of the matter is that
the kind and gentle lady said,
"My, but he certainly is a. philo-
sophical soul." Actually, she was
misled by his pressing need for a
haircut at the time.
As for Hodge, this is what an im-
pression he made when somehow his
name was okayed by Sphinx, junior
honorary society. The clan piled into
Fletcher Hall, brandishing the usual
clubs and beer bottles, and collared
a furry-eyed lad in the hall. "Where's
Max Hodge?" demanded big Elmer
Gedeon. "Why, I'm Hodge," was the
meek reply. "Listen, punk," stormed
Gedeon, lifting a bottle as though pre-
pared to bend it over his head, "We're
in no mood for jokes." The lad in-
sisted upon his identity. "Does any-
one here know Hodge?" someone
shouted, and nary a voice was heard.
Sphinx was embarrassed, but they
finally believed the bewildered lad
after he had produced identification
cards and pictures, and proceeded to
apply the usual ministrations.
Hodge wasn't again heard from un-

--_ ._

til he was named editor of the Gar-
goyle. Now he is so ashamed of some
of the copy appearing therein that
he obscures it with makeup that
would give Hearst the horrors.
Candor, compels us to admit there's
a clever piece on Daily candidates for
the managing editorship, a few mild-
ly amusing cartoons, some good pic-
tures and one or two excellent ads.
But, Hodge again displayed his edi-
torial knack for spotting turkeys by
letting Roy Heath pick the Kentucky
Derby winner.
SPEAKING of Kentucky Derbies, we
are reminded of an incident that
occurred in the Law School recently.
It seems the professor was on the
verge of assigning,a date for the next
bluebook and had suggested a day
in May when from the rear of the
room came the loud objection, "But,
sir, that will interfere with my at-
tendance at the 65th running of the
Kentucky Derby."
It was Col. Fred Buesser, the per-
ennial visitor to Churchill Downs on
Derby day, the lad who went with
your breakfast a couple of years ago
as Bonth Williams, conductor of the
breezy chatter column, "Beneath It
All." Fred acquired the name of
"Bonth Williams" through a case of
mistaken identity. While bending el-
bows at a Chicago bar several years
back, following a track meet, someone
sidled up and inquired if he were Bill
Bonthron, the runner. So pleased was
Fred at being mistaken for an ath-
lete, he reversed the name and came
up with a catchy pseudonym which
gained more than a modicum of fame
on the campus.
Incidentally, the examination date
was not changed, so either Col. Matt
Winn or the law school will have to
operate without the Bonth come
Derby day.
PEOPLE dream about the thing that
happened to Bill Newton, but
few ever achieve it in reality. Bill was
a student here last semester, relieving
the monotony by covering the Inter-
national Center for the Daily. Then
came the news that a relative had
died and left a wad of dough for Bill,
on the condition that he must spend
it "foolishly." When last heard from,
he was in Honolulu, tossing dollar bills
off a surfboard.

Iy Seems To Me

(Continued from Page 2)
Course: April 20, 25, 26, 27 and 28 at
Intramural Pool, 7 to 9 p.m. given by
William C. Lucey, Field Representa-
tive of National Red Cross.
Economics 124 will not meet Fri-
day morning. William Haber
Prospective Applicants for the Com-
bined Curricula: The final date for
the filing of applications for admis-
sion to the various combined cur-
ricula for September, 1939, is April
20. Application forms may be filled
out in Room 1210 Angell Hall. Medi-
cal students should please note that
application for admission to the
Medical School is not application for
admission to the Combined Curricu-
lum. A separate application should
be made out for the consideration of
the Committee on Combined Cur-
Graduation Recital. Marian Karch,
harpist, Monroe, Mich., will give a re-
cital in partial fulfillment of the re-
quirements for the degree of Bachelor
of Music, Thursday evening, April 20,
at 8:15 o'clock, in the School of Mu-
sic Auditorium. The public is invit-
ed to attend.
Exhibition of Drawings and Models
by Jack Williams, architect and in-
dustrial designer of Detroit; will be
shown in the ground floor corridor
cases through April 22. Open daily
from 9 to 5 p.m. The public is in-
Martin Loud Lectures: Dr. Ralph
W. Sockman, minister of Christ
Church, New York City, well-known
author and prominent public speak-
┬░r, will deliver the Martin Loud Lec-
tures at the First Methodist Church
on Tuesday, Wednesday, and Thurs-
day evenings of this week at 7:30
p.m. The series is entitled "The
American Way," and the individual
lectures are entitled: "Present Prob-
lems" today and "New Horizons" on
Thursday. No admission charge.
Lecture: Dr. Ralph W. Soekman,
Minister, Christ Church, New York
City, will lecture on "Is There an
American Way to Peace?" on Thurs-
day, April 20, at 4:15 p.m. in the
Michigan Union Ballroom under the
auspices of the Student Religious As-
University Lecture: Dr. Paul R.
Cannon, Professor of Pathology at
the University of Chicago, will lec-
ture on "Some Aspects of Respira-
tory Infection" on Tuesday, April 25,
at 4:15 p.m. in the Rackham Audito-
rium. The public is cordially invited
to attend.
Biological Chemistry Lecture: Dr.
Genevieve Stearns, Research Asso-
ciate Professor of Pediatrics in the
School of Medicine, University of
Iowa, will speak to the students of
biological chemistry and others in-
terested on some phases of mineral
metabolism on Monday, April 24, at
4 p.m. in the East Lecture Room
(mezzanine floor) of the Horace H.
Rackham School of Graduate Stu-
Events Today
The Psychological Journal Club
will meet tonight at 8 p.m. in
the East Conference Room of the
Rackham Building. "Recent Con-

will be discussed by Barbara Sher-
burne, James Klee, William Gilbert,
Charlotte Shohan; summary and
critique by Professor John F. Shep-
The English Journal Club will hold
its regular meeting this evening at 8
o'clock in the West Conference Room
of the Rackham Building. Mr. Gio-
vani Giovannini will speak on the
subject of "Tragedy." All who are
interested are invited to attend.
Zoology Seminar: Mr. T. P. Haines
will report on "Variation of Skulls
of some Snakes of the Family Colu-
bridae and its probable Significance"
tonight at 7:30 p.m. in the Amphi-
theatre of the Rackham Building.
University Girls' Glee Club: No re-
hearsal . tonight because . of Choral
Union rehearsal. The next meeting
will be Wednesday, April 26, at 7:15
in the League. All members please
be present at that time.
Athena: Regular meeting in the
Alpha-Nu room at 7:30. Bring your
dues and money for your pins.
Zeta Phi Eta: The regular meeting
of Lambda chapter will be held to-
night at 7:15 in the Portia room. All
actives and pledges must be present,
and bring the by-laws and song
sheets. The arrangements will be
completed for the Interpretation




The Season Complete
Apparently, once the tide of drama starts in
Ann Arbor, we have nothing short of an inunda-
tion. The early part of this month saw "Trial
by Jury," "Two Gentlemen of Verona," and Mac-
Neice's "Out of the Picture" here.
Now, this Friday and Saturday night the
Junior Class of the University High School will
present Wallace Bacon's Hopwood Prize Win-
ner, "The Bean and the Cod." It is one of three
plays that won the award for Mr. Bacon ini
1936; all of them have been given productions at
one theatre or another. "The Bean and the Cod"
will hold forth at the High School Auditorium.
Then, next Monday night, April 24th, the
Deutscher Verein will take over the stage at the
Lydia Mendelssohn Theatre with Ludwig Fulda's
"Die Gegenkandidaten." It is a modern comedy,
dealing with a man and wife, the former becom.
ing a candidate for the rightist party, while his
wife becomes the liberal candidate ,for the same
office. Fulda describes vividly the machinations
of political parties and offers as his solution the
dictum, politics and happiness do not mix. Fulda
satirizes everything in his comedy: women's suf-
frage, politics, marital life, and everything else
that comes within the ken of his play.
The following night, April 25th, the instruc-
tional production of three one-act plays will be
given in 4203 Angell Hall, at 8:30 p.m. They are
all original plays written by ,members of the
creative English classes. They will be directed
by Frederic Crandall of the Speech Department.
The Cercle Francais will present the modern
French comedy, "Ces Dames aux Chapeaux
Verts," the following Friday, April 28th at 8:15
at the Lydia Mendelssohn Theatre. Originally
written as a novel by Mme. Acremant. it ha hen

William O. Douglas was sworn in
yesterday as a Justice of the United
States Supreme Court at the age of1
40, and he was the youngest man to
attain that high honor since a 32-1
year-old stripling named Joseph
Story made the
grade. And that
very young man
from Massachu-
settes receivedl
his appointment1
in 1812, the 'year
the British
burned the Cap-
I was talking
with a Connecti-
cut friend of mine who studied under.
Douglas when he was Stanley Pro-
fessor of Law at Yale.
"He was somewhat on the dry side,"
said the even younger barrister, "but
we considered him a good teacher.
Still, if we had thought about it at
all I think that almost all of us would
have agreed that he was an able fel-
low who wasn't going anywhere in
particular. He had no front."
That quality "front" has been vast-
ly exaggerated in our native inspira-
tional literature. Hundreds of thous-
ands of mortals pay money to learn
how to make friends and have some
effect on people. It doesn't make
much difference. Perhaps it can be
learned from a book, although I
doubt i.
There is much in tradition which
seems to show that it is something
which may come overnight to a man
in middle age through some sort of
Every schoolboy knows that Grant
was a failure until his orbit hap-
the Dep't. of Physical Education and
offerings by Play Production. The
combination is very apropos, for the
Lydia Mendelssohn opened, moment-
ously, with a dance recital, which
was shortly followed by the presenta-
tion of "Beggar on Horseback" by
Play Production. More definite news
concerning the program will be avail-
able shortly.
This will be followed by the un-
expected, nonetheless pleasurable vis-
it of one of the first ladies of the
theatre, Ethel Barrymore. Miss Bar-
ryl-ore will be seen in Mazda de la
Roche's adaptation of her own novel,
"Whiteoaks," in a one-night stand at
the Michigan Theatre May 10th. In
it Miss Barrymore nlavs a 100-year

pened to coincide with that of the
Civil War, and research, as eloquently
projected by Bob Sherwood's play
"Abe Lincoln in Illiinois," shows thatt
the Emancipator was a slow starter
who only came to greatness when
he was called upon to go a distance.t
Nor is there any evidence in
foreign lands, as well, that the race
is always to the glib or that the col-
lege senior who is voted "the mostl
likely to succeed" is actually an odds-
I trust that no one will think I am
indicating an 'enthusiasm for Adolf
Hitler if I make the grudging admis-l
sion that he is, beyond denial, an in-
fluential person in the world today.
And yet there is abundant evidence
that he was a fifth-rate water-color
painter, and that in his youth even
his friends fled, saying "Hsere comes
that tiresome little paperhangerwho1
hopes to be an artist."7
It is still my notion that Hitler as
a public orator is a ham devoted to
many of the cheapest tricks of dem-
agogery. As in the case of "Abie's
Irish Rose," I feel extremely confi-
dent that he will not run forever. But
I cannot contest the fact that at the
moment he plays to standing room in
Berlin and most of the cities of Cen-
tral Europe. The man who could not
command the attention of two or
three futurists, long-haired fellow in
a Munich cafe, can now, through the
power of his regime, hold a hundred
thousand spellbound. And he never
took a lesson in his life, and possibly
is not even acquainted with the name
of Dale Carnegie.
Perhaps it is all a matter of luck.
Although I will not be around to col-.
lect my wager, I am quite willing to
bet that Franklin D. Roosevelt is cer-
tam to be rated by historians of the
future as one of the greatest Ameri-
can Presidents. He was a wholly col-'
orlessdcandidate when he ran for Vice
president as the tail of Governor
Cox's lanquid ticket in 1920.
In the biographies I see that Mr.
Justice Douglas was once a newsboy
and that may help to perpetuate a
native theory which, in my opinion,
is without much substance. It is my
impression that very few newsboys
ever go on to greatness. Probably I
have forgotten a few, but the only
good reporter I ever met whQ had
once delivered papers was Paul Y.
Newspaper office boys are quite a
different story. Hollywood seems to
hb ehiflu mihnari by rq ivr .-..ar... -. o



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