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May 28, 1938 - Image 4

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The Michigan Daily, 1938-05-28

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Whitman ---The Poet Of American
Ideals Of Democracy And Free


One's-self I sing, a simple, separate person,
Yet utter the word Democratic, the word
Whitman's birthday falls on the day after
Memorial Day. The Civil War marked the end
of human slavery and guaranteed the perma-
nence of free democratic institutions in the Unit-
ed States, but the iconoclastic poetry of Whit-
man, with its passionate exaltation of the demo-
cratic ideal, its robust, indigenous Americanism,
is the first manifestation of the liberated native
literature which reached maturity in the twen-
tieth century.
Whitman was the first genuine force in the
creation of an American art. Parrington, Cal-
verton, Hicks and Lewisohn have criticized Whit-
man for some of the crudities in his verse, his
confused, often contradictory thinking and the
heterogenous materials he used. However they
are all agreed that the liberating influence he
injected into American literature, the dominant
position he played in clearing out the cultural
wilderness of post-Civil War America, his heart-
felt. humanitarianism and his sheer genius war-
rant placing his name at the head of the great
democratic tradition that has characterized the
main current of American thought. It was
Whitman who first advanced the conception of
literature "striking deeply into American society,
finding heroic themes in the affairs of daily
existence, repudiating the trifling arts and petty
polishing devices of the poets of polite society,
seeking inspiration in tremendous. sweep of the
American prairies and finding guidance in the
inherent good sense of the common people."
* * * *
A Product Of His Environmeut
The nineteenth century in America was one
in which the new forces and ideas that came in
the wake of the industrial revolution-mech-
anistic materialism, dynamic change, scientific
realism-were mingling with the romantic ideal-
isms imported to America in the eighteenth cen-
tury to form a peculiarly American philosophy
of individualism. It was only in such a milieu
that opportunity and destruction could march
forth hand in hand, that entrepreneurs could
be watering railroad stocks and consolidating
entire industries in offices in New York and Bos-
ton, all in the name of an individualism that had
been a vibrant, pulsing force when the pioneers
were pushing their way across a stubborn con-
tinent, and that still remained in the psychol-
ogical heritage of the people. In Whitman,
essentially a product of his environment, there
was a fusion of the early agrarian romanticism
which was apotheosized in the Jeffersonian ideals
rf smallness, individuality and freedom, and the
ever-growing faith that it was America's mani-
fest destiny to move forward with its expanding
frontiers and its booming factories to a na-
tionalistic paradise.
It was in Whitman, therefore, that the hu-
manitarian ideals of the Enlightenment reached
The editorials published in The Michigan
Daily are written by members of the Daily
staff and represent the views of the writers
It is important for. society to avoid the
neglect of adults, but positively dangerous
for it to thwart the ambition of youth to
reform the world. Only the schools which
act on this belief are educational institu-
tions in the best meaning of the term.
---Alexander G. Ruthven.

a point of culmination, and the new industrial-
ism found a far-echoing poetic voice. He took
from Emerson the doctrine of the inner-light,
and like Emerson and Thoreau he became the
preacher of self-reliance, of the "beauty of in-
dependence, departure, actions that rely on
themselves." Parrington calls him the poet of
self-expression and spontaneity. He dedicated
himself without wavering to the "good old cause,
the great idea, the progress and freedom of the
rpce." In this respect Whitman was the embodi-
ment of a philosophy that was fast disappearing
in American life. This sensuous and sympathetic
passion for liberty, this faith in man and democ-
racy was the bequest of the French libertarians
of the eighteenth century, and in championing
that noble bequest, Whitman was following the
lead of Paine, Emerson, Thoreau, Godwin and
But while Whitman was singing the praises
of Rousseauistic philosophical anarchism, Gilded
Age America was fast betraying the tenets of
Jeffersonianism. This was the age of a ram-
pant, unbounded vitality in American life. Her-
bert Spencer's Social Statics, Darwinism, and
the Huxley iconoclasms were seized by theĀ°
apologists of the new industrialism as the phi-
losophical and biological bases for their actions.
This was the period of the robber barons, the
corrupt politicos, the builders of transcontinen-
tal railroads, the monopolists and trust-building
financiers. American life was without direction;
it was full of "grotesque and inharmonious ele-
ments," and the fact that Whitman, despite his
innate Jeffersonianism, recognized that condition
and reflected it in his later poetry accounts for
his significance in modern literature. He cried
aloud for the old individualism, but as Hicks and
Calverton have pertinently indicated, a convic-
tion was fast growing upon him that the indi-
vidual in a dynamic society could best fulfill
his destiny in alliance with his fellow men. From
an exalted belief in the anarchistic ideal he
developed a realistic belief in the concrete, polit-
ical expression of democracy.
* * * *
Democratic Action Spontaneous
Ludwig Lewisohn, in Expression In America,
a Freudian interpretation of literature, attrib-
utes Whitman's democratic passion to an ab-
normal channeling of erotic impulses. The per-
sonal element was, of course, an important fac-
tor in Whitman's poetry, yet despite Lewisohn's
thesis it was unquestionably second to the
environmental. Whitman felt himself to be a
part of the common people, and his love for
American democracy was a spontaneous emotion,
inextricably linked with his passion for common
people. America was reaching out, it was be-
coming a great world power, and although Whit-
man lamented over the passing of the old indi-
vidualism, he felt with his age that America "was
moving to an ever-widening freedom of men."
He saw the common man creating a "new and
better civilization on the North American con-
tinent." He was, as Lewis Mumford called him,
a product of the empiricism of the nineteenth
century, yet he transcended that age's charac-
teristic chauvinism in his belief that expansion
and wealth, although the necessary foundations
of a society, are not ends in themselves. He tol-
erated wealth and splendor because he regarded
them as evidences of a prosperity that would in
time be shared by all. In the future he saw
an America of "millions of comfortable city
homes and moderate-sized farms, healthy and
independent, single, separate ownership, fee
simple, life within them cheap but complete,
within the reach of all." But he recognized that
this greatness is meaningless unless it is defined
in terms of intellectual and spiritual qualities,
superimposed on a materialistic base.
And thou America,.
For the Scheme's culmination, for its
thought and its reality,
For these (not for thyself) thou hast arrived.
Touched Problem Of Democracy
Whitman's greatness today lies in the fact
that he touched the eternal problem of democ-
racy-"to be one, apart, independent, egoistic,
yet to feel with all, to act with all, to compre-
hend all." Individualism was the essence of his
philosophy, but he was the poet of the masses
of the people. He vaguely felt the inconsistency
of his stand, but so ardently did he believe in the

essential goodness and unity of both, that he
proposed as a remedy "for the evils of democ-
racy, more democracy." He was not aware, as
are his critics today, that the unlimited ex-
pression of the individual might conflict with
the progress of the cohered .mass, and he strove
mightily for the consummation of the ideal of a
government that would "advance the interests
of all, without restricting the desires of any."
The great lessons for contemporary America
in Whitman's writings are to retain faith in
democratic institutions and to place the guar-
dianship of that democracy in the hands of
the people. With that modern Americans can
agree. But to look at Whitman, and the Jef-
fersonian liberalism for which he essentially
stands, as a philosophical guide in this age is as
futile as the attempts of the southern agrarians
to hark back to the old South of ante-bellum
days. The attempt to find the seeds of class-
conflict in Whitman's poetry is equally futile. He
was in harmony with his age, and the funda-
mental aspect of that age was not systematic,
organic, or coherent. But Whitman at least laid
the basis for the later attempts in American
literature to find a coherence, a systematic pat-
tern in American life. He cut American letters
off from the stultifying and devitalizing influence
of England, and prepared the way for a native
culture. It is for this that Whitman is important

Jfeemr zb Me
H-eywood Broun
The prohibition against "cruel and unusual
punishments" should certainly include in its
scope such sentences as may be inspired by some
judge's desire to see his name in the head-
It is well enough that judges should be human.
Indeed, it is better so, and among all classes of
blighted bipeds there are few
who do not enjoy being
mentioned in the newspapers
." 'x": when that mention is felici-
tous ii-
Indeed, there are even
those who would rather be
pilloried than secluded under
thunders of silence. There
was a man in our town who
went around displaying to
friends and chance acquaintances a mean dig
which had been printed about himself in a gossip
"Isn't that an outrage?" he would exclaim
each time he took the clipping out of a con-
venient pocket. Finally the exhibit became so
worn that he had to buy a back copy of the
offending newspaper to get a clean clipping of
the insult which had been bestowed upon him.
A Special Discipline
And so, while a certain leeway must be al-
lowed to publicity seekers, even though they be
upon the bench, the folk who wear the judicial
ermine should seek to discipline themselves to
avoid stunts, epigrams and funny sayings.
It is customary to rap for order and threaten
to clear the court whenever any answer to a
witness invokes applause. And so I think the
clerk should be empowered to nudge his chief
openly at appropriate occasions and say in aud-
ible turns, "No wisecracks, Your Honor. Get
down to cases."
One sure way in which a judge can find his
way into the limelight is to read a lecture about
sparing the rod. Within' a short interval two
minor magistrates, one in Massachusetts and
another in New York City, puffed themselves
into a whiff of fame by demanding that parents
take youthful defenders home and flog them
by order of the Court. I doubt ver.y much that
such compulsion toward extracurricular punish-
ment has any legal standing, whatsoever. Such
sentences certainly should not obtain in states
where whipping is not among the penalties which
may be prescribed under the code.
In each case the judge himself threatened to
impose a jail term if his recommendation were
not complied with. To me this seems like pub-
licity-seeking and decidedly an effort to get
around the clear provisions of the law by indi-
Magistrate Harris, in New York, said to a
mother, "It's either jail or a severe whipping.
You've got to prove to me Thursday night that
you gave your son a good thrashing or I'll send
him to jail. Get a paddle, bore a hole in it
and make welts on the boy. Do you think you
can do it?"
No Sanctions For Home Works
I think there should be public indignation
about such conduct on the part of a judicial of-
ficer who has sworn to uphold the law. Indeed,
there ought to be an official rebuke. Mrs. Mary
Bradley, the mother in question, was by no
means convinced of the guilt of her son. Her
son is 16 years old. It was up to the Magistrat
to bear in mind not only the relationship of
the defendant to the community but his rela-
tionship to his home environment.
He insisted on introducing a new element
which might be utterly destructive to the feeling
of an adolescent boy toward his mother.
Judges should not undertake to play God.
There are domains in human life where their
intrusion is utterly unwarranted. Nor is it a

healthful thing when men in power begin to talk
glibly about "raising welts" and "sound thrash-
000 foreign volunteers from each side, Govern-
ment and Insurgent, should be considered suf-
ficient to warrant granting of belligerent rights
to both."
In other words, only Russia stands up against
the gigantic fraud being perpetrated against the
Spanish Republic by Mussolini and Chamberlain
in the name of non-intervention: the incred-
ible suggestion that the Government send home
10,000 of its foreign volunteers, in return for
which Mussolini will withdraw, or pretend to
withdraw, 10,000 of the Italian legionnaires he
has shipped to Spain. To crown it all, this one-
sided deal will then be consummated by the
granting of belligerent rights to General Franco,
permitting him to conduct his rebellion on equal
diplomatic footing with the legally constituted
government against which it is directed.
But the worst part of the whole business of
non-intervention, to give it its standard mis-
nomer, is that it can be laid in great part to
the doorstep of the U.S. State Department, which
has adamantly refused to respond to the stirrings
of conscience of the nation over the continuation
of the embargo on Loyalist Spain. Senator Nye,
author of the Neutrality Act, has vainly striven
to have its unfair and disastrous treatment of
Spain remedied; Catholic and pro-fascist pres-
sure on Secretary Hull, as revealed by Drew
Pearson and Robert S. Allen in the "Washington
Merry-Go-Round" recently, has tied the hands
of the secretary of state and of the President
Our government's insistence upon what de-
fenders of the embargo call "strict neutrality"

E ..

Listen, Little Girl
By Munro Leaf. Stokes, New York.1
From a juvenile tale of a flower-t
smelling bull to a manual for the
metropolis-minded weaker sex is quite
a step for any author, but Munroa
Leaf seems to have the situation welli
in hand.
Best known as the. author of "Fer-
dinand the Bull," soon to become a
Walt Disney cartoon, Mr. Leaf now
dons the uniform of the battalion of
literary success-mongers captained by
friendly Dale Carnegie.
Munro Leaf's second effort, Listenl
Little Girl, is addressed to all the
young women who plan to leave theirt
home towns for the gold-plated atmo-
sphere (sic) of New York City. Taking
cognizance of the fact that nothing
can deter ambitious girls from theC
Big City, Mr. Leaf tells them howh to
make the best of it, no matter whatc
their ultimate destinations.
His efficient, 'breezily-written hand-
book classifies girls as Beautiful,
Brainy and Nice and declares that:
Beautiful girls can model, act,
dance, sing or check hats in nightA
clubs, usher in motion picture palaces,
or act as office receptionists. Compe-
tition is terrific and these positions
do not last long. Age is an importantf
factor. Models are paid five dollars ana
hour, but only 15 make the top wage
of $150 a week. Actresses, who do not
work regularly, draw a minimum of
$40 a week. Pre-recession chorines 1
earned less than $600 for an average
of 18 weeks each year.. A "glorified"
showgirl may make$75 a week and,C
occasionally, hear the call of Holly-h
wood or the proposal of some Okla- v
homa oil overlord.a
Brainy girls belong in advertising,
publicity, journalism, department
stores and publishing. Leading fe-
male advertising executives make asE
much as $20,000 annually and seven
magazine editors earn more than0
$15,000, but beginners get only $250
a week with little chance of promo-c
tion. There are 2,000 college grad- t
uates in New York today, all yearning
for the 20 jobs held by women news-
paper reporters.a
Nice girls become social workers,d
teachers, stenographers, airline host- h
esses, .waitresses andusaleswomen.
Most of these jobs are underpaid andd
emphasize physical labor. Those withs
pedagogical leanings are remindedC
that 4,000 qualified women are on h
New York City's waiting list.
Foreign Policy
In so far as they embarrass thet
State Department, the public speechesa
delivered by members of the Admin-b
istration condemning or criticizingp
either the regime or the policies ofn
other Governments justify the re-P
bt'.e implied in the Baltimore speech
of the Under-Secretary of State. In
times as critical as these, when therea
is every reason for Governments toa
keep cool and weigh their utterancesp
carefully, individual opinions should
not be given the weight of official
statements. Mr. Welles is quite right
when he intimates that the State a
Department is the responsible agencya
for dealing with foreign affairs. It
was never so necessary that the Ad-a
ministration should speak with oneb
voice and coordinate its foreign policyt
to the end that, when it does speak,
there shall be no doubt that it ex-
presses the attitude this Governmentc
considers best to further the cause ofc

peace and the interests of the Ameri-
can people.C
It is true, as Mr. Welles makes oc-e
casion to remark. that the domesticI
policies of other countries are "ass
much a matter of their own deter-t
mination as are our domestic policiesf
a matter for our decision." Officially
as well as unofficially, we are too
much given to moral attitudes, prot
and con, that are never translated,
into policy. The trouble is that it is
becoming more and more difficult to
differentiate between the domestic
and the foreign policies of totalitar-
ian regimes. That is the real cause
of the "confusion" Mr. Welles men-{
tions between what is "an attack on
our institutions and the purely in-
ternal policy of a foreign Govern-
The Nuremberg Laws, for instance,
may be domestic legislation as far as
Germany is concerned, but they have
all the effects of a foreign policy in
the public indiignation and the prac-
tical problem they create in other
countries. The same may be said of
the persecution of the Catholic and
Protestant Churches and their pain-
unwanted citizens on other nations
ful repercussions in' world-wide or-
ganizations. A nation that forces
unwanted citizens on other nations
makes them a foreign affair. And
what about autarchy-is it a foreign
or a domestic policy? What aboutl
the problem of national minorities?
Germany's whole contention, in the

Pubilication in the Bulletin Isconstructive notice to all members of th.
universtty. Copy received at the office of the Assistant to the President
until 3:30; 11:00 a.m. on Saturday.

(Continued from Page 2). k
tive of the character and scope of the
activities included.
: Certificate of Eligibility. At the be-t
ginning of each semester and summer
session every student shall be con-
clusively presumed to be ineligible for
any public activity uhtil his eligibility
is affirmatively established (a) byn
obtaining from the Chairman of the
Committee on Student Affairs, in the c
Office of the Dean of Students, a writ-
ten Certificate of El'igibility. Partici-
pation before the opening of the first 1
semester must be approved as at any
other time.
Before permitting any students to
participate in a public activity (see
definition of Participation above)
the chairman or manager of such p
activity shall (a) require each appli-1
cant to present a certificate of eligibil-
ity, (b) sign his initials on the back
of such certificate and (c) file with
the Chairman of the Committee on
Student Affairs the names of all thosea
who have presented certificates ofT
eligibility and a signed statement to
exclude all others from participation.
Certificates of Eligibility for the
first semester shall be effective until
March 1.
Probation and Warning. Studentso
on probation or the warned list are
forbidden to participate in any public s
Eligibility, First Year. No freshman '
in his first semester of residence may
be granted a Certificate of Eligibility.A
A freshman, during his second se-1
mester of residence, may be granted as
Certificate of Eligibility provided he
has complete 15 hours or more of work
with (1) at least one mark of A or Ba
and with no mark of less than C, or
(2) at least 22 times as many honor9
points as hours and with no mark ofJ
E.. (A--4 "points, B-3, C--2, D-l., v
Any student in his first ,semester
of residence holding rank above that
of freshman may be granted a Certifi-
cate of Eligibility if he was admitted l
to the University in good standing. e
Eligibility, General. In order to re- P
ceive a Certificate of Eligibility a stu- i
dent must have earned at least 12 r
hours of academic credit in the pre- y
ceding semester, or six hours of aca-
demic credit in the preceding summer
session, with an average of at least
C, and have at least a C average for
his entire academic career. d
Unreported grades and grades of c
X and I are to be interpreted as E un-
til removed in accordance with w
University regulations.A
Students otherwise eligible, who in a
the preceding semester or summer
ession received less than a C aver-
age, but with no grade of E, or grade p
interpreted as E in the precedingP
paragraph, may appeal to the Com-
mittee on-Student Affairs for special
Special Students. Special students w
are prohibited from participating inr
any public activity except by specialn
permission of the Committee on Stu-
dent Affairs.
Extramural Activities. Students who 2
are ineligible to participate in public c
activities within the University are
prohibited from taking part in others
activities of a similar nature, except
by special permission of the Commit-s
tee on Student Affairs.-
Physical Disability. Students ex-
cused from gymnasium work on ac-
count of physical incapacity are for-
bidden to take part in any public
activity, except by special permissiont
of the Committee on Student Affairs.s
In order to obtain such permission, af
student may in any case be required

to present a written recommendation
from the University Health Service.
General. Whenever in the opinion oft
the Committee on Student Affairs, or
in the opinion of the Dean of the
school or college in which the student
is enrolled, participation in a public
activity may be detrimental to his
college work, the committee may de-
cline to grant a student the privilege
of participation in such activity.
Special Permission. The special per-
mission to participate in public activi-
ties in exception of Rules V, VI, VII,
VIII will be granted by the Commit-
tee on Student Affairs only upon the
positive recommendationtof the Dean
of the School or College to which the
student belongs.
Student Loans. Applications for
loans for the summer session or the
year 1938-39 should be made at once
in the Office of the Dean of Students
M Gomberg. Scholarship and Paul
F. Bagley Scholarship in Chemistry.
These scholarships of $200 each are
open to juniors and seniors majoring
in chemistry. Preference will be given
to those needing financial assistance.
Application blanks may be obtained
in Room 212 Chemistry Building and

be distributed from a desk outside the
Mechanical Engineering office in the
West Engineering Building. Hours:
Saturday, 9:00 to 12:00, Tuesday and
Wednesday, 9:100 to 12:00 and 1:00
to 3:00.
Academic Notices
English 128. This class will not
meet today. Earl L. Griggs.
Geology 12, make-up field trip to
Sibley Quarry, Wednesday, June 1,
at 1 o'clock. No other make-up will
be given for this trip.
Geology 11 make-up field trips:
(1) Rocks, Friday, June 3, 4 p.m
(2) Saline, Tuesday, May 31, 1 p.m.
(3) Dexter, Wednesday, June 1, 1
(4) Ann Arbor, Thursday, June 1,
1 p.m.
(5) Lima, Friday, June 3, 1 p.m.
Candidates for Master's Degree In
Psychology: The comprehensive ex-
amination will be given Saturday,
May 28, 2-5, in 3126 Natural Science.
Exhibition, College of Architecture:
Stuent work from member schools
of the Association of Collegiate
Schools of Architecture is being
shown in the third floor exhibition
room. Open daily, 9 to 5, except
Sunday, until May 31. The public
s cordially invited.
Exhibition, College of Architecture:
An exhibition of articles in silver,
gold, enamel and semi-precious
tones, for ecclesiastical and general
use, designed and executed by Arthur
Nevill Kirk, is shown in the pier clases
at either side of the Library entrance,
econd floor corridor. Open daily
9:00 to 5:00, except Sunday, until
June 1.. The public is cordially 'in-
The flopwood Lecture will be de-
ivered in the ballroom of the Wom-
en's League at 4:00 o'clock Wednes-
Jay afternoon, June 1, by Mr. Walter
Prichard Eaton. Immediately follow-
ng the lecture announcement will be
nade of the Hopwood Awards for this
Events Today
Biological Chemistry Seminar, to-
lay, 10:00 a.m., Room 313 West Medi-
al Building.
"The Deamination of Amino Acids
with Special Reference. to Glutamic
Acid" will be discussed. All interested
ire invited.
Sphinx will hold its annual alumni
picnic-social today. Meet in front
of the Alpha Delt house at 2:30 p.m.
Please bring own drinking glasses.
All Freshman: Don't target the pic-
nic this Saturday at the Island. Meet
n the Library steps at 2 p.m. There
will be baseball games,, races, and
refreshments for everyone. Come and
meet your classmates.
The Outdoor Club will go on a Bike
Hlike today, meeting at Lane Hall at
p.m. All students interested are
:ordially invited.
Last two performances of "Liliom"
starring Tonio Selwart, presented by
the 1938 Dramatic Season at Mendel-
ssohn Theatr. Maetinee at 3:15. Eve-
ning at 8:30. A few tickets still avail-
able at the box office. Phone'6300.
Coming Events "
German Table for Faculty Mem-
bers: The regular luncheon meeting
scheduled for May 30 will be post-
poned until further notice because of
Memorial Day.
The Christian Student Prayer

Group will hold its last meeting of
this semester at 5 p.m. Sunday, May
29, in the Michigan League. The
room will be announced on the bulle-
tin board.
Riding Test: Any woman student
wishing to take this test ,is asked to
sign at Barbour Gymnasium, office
15. The test will be given at the
following hours: Monday and Wed-
nesday, 2:30 p.m.
Tuesday and Thursday 3:20 p.m.
until June 2nd. Students will meet
at Barbour Gymnasium at the time
signed for.
Ann Arbor Friends will hold their
regular meeting for worship Sunday
at 5 p.m. at the Michigan League,
followed by a discussion of "The
Spiritual Message of the Society of
Friends" with Esther Dunham as
leader. All who are interested are
Disciples Guild (Church of Christ)
10:45 a.m., Morning Worship. Ser-
mon by H. L. Pickerill.
7:00 p.m., Open house for membrs
of the Guild and their friends at
the Guild House, 438 Maynard St.

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Board of Editors


Managing Editor
Editorial Director
City Editor .
Associate Editor
Associate Editor
Associate Editor .
Associate Editor

. Robert D. Mitchell
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. . . . . Saul R. Kleiman
... Robert Perlman
. . . . . . William Elvin


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