TH MICHIG. ~AN DL A aa I.Y
TUESDAY, MARCH 29, 1938
THa E M .ra V2T.1 V G3 t L L3'1]V
THE MICHIGAN DAILY
What Of Technological Unemployment?
Long Term Planning Provides Answer
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Board of Editors
MANAGING EDITOR............JOSEPH S. MATTES
ASSOCIATE EDITOR ............. TUURE TENANDER
ASSOCIATE EDITOR ............IRVING SILVERMAN
ASSOCIATE EDITOR.........WILLIAM C. SPAIJLER
ASSOCIATE EDITOR............ROBERT P. WEEKS
WOMEN'S EDITOR................HELEN DOUGLAS
SPORTS EDITOR .................IRVIN LISAGOR
BUSINESS MANAGER .............ERNEST A. JONES
CREDIT MANAGER....................DON WILSHER
ADVERTISING MANAGER .... NORMAN B. STEINBERG
WOMEN'S BUSINESS MANAGER ........BETTY DAVY
WOMEN'S SERVICE MANAGER ..MARGARET FERRIES
NIGHT EDITOR: ALBERT MAYIO
It is important for society to avoid the
neglect of adults, but positively dangerous
for it to thwart the ambition of youth to
reform the world. Only the schools which
act on this belief are educational institu-
tions in the best meanintg of the term.
- Alexander G. Ruthven
The editorials published in The Michigan
Daily are written by members of the Daily
staff and represent the views of the writers
WHILE YOU'RE gulping down that cup
own tail around is predominating the
terrible war is, flit a second in your thoughts
to battle-torn China. Think of one-third of
China's universities blown to bits, think of hun-
dreds of Chinese students of your own age who
are not gulping down coffee, to whom Japanese
bombs are closing the way to education.
If this doesn't mean anything to you separated
by two oceans from war, try to think about the
Chinese government not accepting the courag-
eous offers of Chinese students at home and all
over the world for active service. Why? Be-
cause it is thinking ahead to the time when
reconstruction work will have to be done, be-
cause it is counting on its young men and women
to get their training now to lead in this rehabili-
tation of the future.
If you feel sympathetic, the opportunity pre-
sents itself to translate this sympathy into a
Hear Dr. T. Z. Koo tonight in Hill Auditorium.
Pay a quarter to help maintain a Chinese stu-
dent in a university in the interior of China.
Finish gulping down your coffee.'
By RICHARD HARMEL
Technological unemployment has appeared in
the steel industry. Efficient hot-strip mills have
thrown 85,000 workers on the streets. The dis-
charge of those so-called "85,000 victims of
progress" has revived the technocracy contro-
versy. What is going to be their fate?
Before discussing the lot of those technologi-
cally unemployed, it is necessary to analyze the
industry which has disowned them.
The steel industry is semi-monopolistic. Prices
for the current year have been determined by the
producers with United States and Republic
Steel dominating the conferences. The charge
for one ton of tin plate is still $117.70 despite the
fact that almost a million dollars have been saved
in unpaid wages since the introduction of the
hot-strip mill. Together with price control, the
steel producers control the supply. The order
has been given, today, to run at 30 per cent
capacity. Every producer has fallen 'into line
with the two great companies. Thus, it may be
concluded that competitionA-in the true sense
of the word-has been eliminated among the steel
The buyer of steel is the construction industry.
There is an elastic demand for steel, but there are
limiting factors. The construction industry is
dependent on the whims and quirks of public
confidence. Public confidence is inextricably
connected with business cycles.
Thus, the steel industry is semi-monopolistic,
devoid of competition, and dependent on a fairly
There is a crisis for the worker in the steel in-
dustry. Technological unemployment has swept
85,000 jobs away. Improved and far more effi-
cient machinery hum at a fraction of their ca-,
pacity. Men hum and twiddle their thumbs.
'Don't Worry,' Economists Say
The economist states that there is no cause
for worry. The worker does not know where
his next dollar is coming from. Economically
speaking, there is technological unemployment,
but it is not permanent. Increased profits and
steady dividends will be reinvested into other
production means. Both the employer and stock
holder will not use that income for the necessities
of life. Thus their purchases in other industries
will set up an increased demand. Those indus-
tries will need to expand. Their expansion will
result in the reabsorption of the 85.000.
The worker is faced with a problem now. He
may be able to find another job if he is perse-
vering in his attempts. However, there is a period
of temporary unemployment in which he has no
income. In what way will he be able to support
his family, even himself? The alarming fact that
the average family had an income below the sub-
sistence level in 1937 gives him food for thought.
Helplessly, he dreams of the diversion of those
profits and dividends to his pocket. Under such
conditions his consuming ability would increase.
Such idle and fantastic dreams are useless in the
present situation, in which production means
are forever being increased, and in which there
is no corresponding rise in consumption means.
The immediate question is what of those 85,-
000 technologically unemployed? What is going
to happen to them?
Their outlook is black.
It is certain that the steel industry will not
take them back. Hot-strip mills are far more
economical and far more useful. Trust in the
prophecy of the economist will disclose a rosy
horizon. However, that reabsorption into other
industries will not be immediate. The reinvest-
ment necessary for the expansion of other in-
dustries will take time.
OPPortuuity Is Goie
Steel no longer offers employment. The boom-
ing steel towns will have to decrease in popula-1
tion. Opportunity no longer is in steel. Those
85,000 will be forced to move from their homes;
be forced to change their type of work. Ninety
nine per cent of them will be unwilling to depart
from their homes. They will still have faith in
the ability of the industry to use them. They will
be bound by ties of old friendships. They will
dislike leaving their own homes. They will feel
that their impoverished state would not justify
the expense of moving. As Adam Smith stated
in his "Wealth of Nations," "Of all kinds of
baggage, man is the most difficult to move."
There have been attempts to discover the
results of technological unemployment. Isador
Lubin, famed economist, and his asspciates, con-
ducted a survey of 754 men who had been dis-
placed by machines. Of these, 344 had never
found steady work, and were unemployed at the
time of the investigation. Of these, 261 had
worked for only two months. 65 had worked
more than nine months. However, 410 found
steady work, and were working at the time of the
survey. Of these, 49 found work in less than a
month; 259 in two months; 51 in three months;
18 in four months; and four in eight months.
In regard to salaries, 48 per cent, or 196, received
less pay than before; 27 per cent received as
much pay; and 19 per cent drew more pay. Other
surveys of the same nature resulted in similar
Some Have No Chance
It can be assumed that approximately the
same figures will hold true for those "85,000
victims of progress." Therefore, 2/5, or 34,000
workers, will not gain steady employment inside
of a year. Perhaps their employment will 4l
seasonal in nature, and it is impossible to predict
how they will earn their living. Of one thing,
we may be sure: the relief burden of the state
and federal government will not be greatly
Thus, it is relatively easy to perceive that those
unemployed steel workers are facing dark days.
term planning as offered by Paul H. Doglas of
the University of Chicago. Yet, they afford the
The favorite solution of the economists is the
creation of competent forecasting organizations.
Such bodies would be able to foresee the trends,
and determine the probable industry in which
technological unemployment would strike. They
would even be able to determine the degree to
which it might be expected.
Most iaealistic of the solutions is the attempt
to have the industries and employers plan and
schedule their technological changes. With care-
ful planning, technological improvements would
not cause such an abrupt upheaval in the ranks
of labor. Every man, cognizant of his impending
discharge, would have more time to seek a posi-
Most political of the contemplated reforms
would be the creation of public employment of-
fices. If done by the government, the party in
power would reap thousands of votes. The people
would appreciate such an honest attempt to aid
them. Such offices would be the great clearing
houses of our day. They would be able to cen-
tralize the demand for, and the supply of labor.
Vocational Training Also
Most practical of the solutions is the systematic
development of vocational training. It is not
widespread today. Under national or state con-
trol, it could be made available to all. It should
not prepare a juvenile' for one vocation alone, but
for alternate ones. It should seek out adults,
displaced by machines, and train them anew for
other industries. Perhaps it is not too late to in-
stitute a system of vocation training in order to
aid the 85,000. At any rate, vocational training
should cover the country efficiently.
Most controversial of all the solutions is un-
employment insurance. The average worker is
unable to meet the premiums exacted by the
insurance companies. This is the greatest ar-
gument against it. If adopted and made reason-
ably inexpensive, it would help to tide the worker
over between jobs.
Most generous of the companies in dealing with
technological unemployment was Hart, Schaff-
ner and Marx. They utilized the dismissal wage,
and paid men forced out of the industry by the
three-ply cutter, a total of $500. However, a
dismissal wage is not a solution. It is a gesture,
and, as some have derisively said, "An attempt to
salve their conscience." However, there is little
humanity in business. A dismissal wage is the
recognition of a company that the technological-
ly unemployed worker will not step from one job
right into another.
Technological unemployment is present in
the steel industry, and others too. For those
technologically unemployed today, there is little
hope for the immediate future. Statistics reveal
gloomy prospects. However, technological unem-
ployment can be combatted by long term plan-
ning. Various solutions for the problem have
been suggested. Among these, the best are a
systematic vocational training program, public
employment offices, forecasting organizations,
and unemployment insurance. The success of
the battle against technological unemployment
rests on the action of the nation in regard to
accepting and instituting these solutions.
By KIMON FRIAR
When Martha Graham suddenly appeared for
her first number, lifted her body and her arms,
and turned the tragic mask of her face to the
audience, all space on stage and in the theatre
immediately became vibrant to meet the body of
her action. Her entrance announced imperiously
and with surety a great personality and a great
dancer. It summed up the clarity of her in- !
tensity, never lost in the intricate maneuvers
of her dancing. This passionate conviction
gave sincerity and meaning to any movement
she made, even though the surface meaning
might seem unapparent. Her face was often
tense with some expectation, and her lips half
parted to receive some unrevealed meaning, or
to move slightly toward some indication of joy
orsorrow. When her body was most violent in
expression, she allowed her face only the slightest
shift in emphasis, and this concentrated facial
restraint made it imperative that she speak
her meaning with the entire force of her body.
In her first number, Imperial Gesture, she
showed the tragic reach for aristocracy of spirit
broken and vulgarized to imperialism. With
small, cracked bows, with occasional rises to a
caped and nlitaristic command, she dissected
the pathos of such vulgarization. Her group
then followed in Celebration, an alert dynamics
of enjoyment, the second part of which was a
study in archaic and primitive posture. In this
dance, and in subsequent ones, this group showed,
itself to be the best of its kind in America'
and worthy of its instructress. In Frontier Miss
Graham depicted, in a complexity of naivete
and sophistication, the pioneer women, tender,
suddenly bold, awed by her horizons as she
reaches to gather them in.
Deep Song is surely her greatest dance. The
suffering of Spanish and all women was given
in unrelieved tension, in awkward almost gro-
tesque postures of grief, highly stylized yet un-
bearably real. It was a crucifixion of suffering
made noble by a perfect artistry, although at
times the brutal grief almost broke the mold.
Dances After Catastrophe, in two parts, Steps in
the Street and Tragic Holiday, showed the devas-
tation, homelessness and exile of the unemployed,
and their final coercion into the hypocrisy of a
dictatorial holiday. The first part was tense
with ominous shuffling in the silences of night,
It Seems To Me
By HEYWOOD BROUN
The text is f m the Second Book
of Kings, the fifth chapter and the
tenth verse. It reads, "Go and wash
in Jordan seven times, and thy flesh
shall come again to thee, and thou
shall be clean."
The words are those of the prophet un
Elisha, and they were sent to iaa- sa
man, captain of the host of the King fil
of Syria. The Bible says, "He was St
also a mighty man in valor, but he in
was a leper."r the
Naaman's wife had a little serving tak
maid who had been brought away ta
captive out of the land of Israel. In
those days Israel was sore oppressed
and feeble in the face of the great
power and military force of Syria. con
Still it was the little captive maid ce
who said, "Would God my Lord werem
with the prophet that is in Samaria, m fic
for he would recover him of his lep- 30.
rosy." And Naaman, the mighty,
"came with his horses and his chariot G
and stood at the door of the house of den
Disunion In Vienna sho
And this Bible story came vividly che
into my mind when I read that Hitler pro
had come to Vienna with his storm app
troopers and made a speech in the pli
public square. Like the other cap-
tam of the host he would have been
wiser if he had stood humbly at the S
door of the prophet. He should have tur
sought out Sigmund Freud, the heal- ing
Ldents, or in the case of sororities
the Office of Dean of Women, 01
e Monday before. the event is to
ke place; permission for the event
nnot be granted.
Students, College of Engineering:
The final day for removal of in-
mpletes will be Saturday, April 9
titions for extension of this time
ist beon file in the Secretary's Of-
e on or before Wednesday, March
A. H. Lovell, Secretary.
Graduate School: All graduate stu-
nts who expect to complete the re-
rements for a master's degree al
close of the present semester
ould call at the office of the Grad-
te School, 1006 Angell Hall, to
eck their records and to secure the
per blank to be used in making
plication for the diploma. This ap-
cation should be filed this week.
C. S. Yoakum, Dean.
tudents of the College of Litera-
e, Science and the Arts: A meet-
will be held on Wednesday, March
a4:5pm. in 255 W. Engineer-
DAILY OFFICIAL BULLETIN
Publication in the Bulletin is constructive:notice to all members of toe
University. Copy received at the office of the Assistant to the President
until 3:30; 11:00 a.m. on Saturday.
TUESDAY, MARCH 29, 1938 the general public is invited without
VOL. XLVIII. No. 129 admission charge. For obvious rea-
Social Chairmen are reminded that sons small children will not be ad-
less party requests with all neces- mitted; and the public is requested
ry accompanying documents are 1to be seated on time.
.ed with the Office of the Dean of
er ,u '*.LD p.m. in zooY.r
Freud is now an old man of more ing Bldg. for students in th
than 80, and I think he will be num- of Literature, Science, and
bered among the great of Israel and and others interested in ful
of the world. Today he is a captive in engineering. There willx
of the Nazis, and the soldiers of this formal discussion of thep
new Syria have invaded his home to with Dean H. C. Anderson of
scatter and ransack his papers. lege of Engineering as chain
The healer lies within the mailed
fist of the conqueror. It is as if death Biological Station: Applic
were condemning life. And yet Sig- admission for the coming
mund Freud has within his hands the session should be in my offi
power to perform again the miracle April 15 when all application
which came to Naaman. reviewed. An announcement
"Then went lie down; and dipped ing courses offered can be ob
himself seven times in Jordan, ac- the Office of the Summer S
cording to the saying of the man of from the Director. App
God: and his flesh came again like should be made on forms w
unto the flesh of a little child, and be secured at Room 11191
he was clean." from 4 to 6 p.m. daily, or
In the beginning Naaman, captain 3089 Nat. Sci. from 8 to
of the host, was loathe to accept the j George R. LaRue, Director.
advice of Elisha. It seemed an over-
simple thing to the Syrian comman- Students of the College o
der, and he cried out, "Are not Abana. ture, Science, and the Arts:
and Parpai, rivers of Damascus, bet- ing will be held on Thursda
ter than all the waters of Israel?" In- 31, at 4:15 p.m. in the U
deed, "He turned and went away in High School Auditorium for
rage." But finally he did come to of the College of Literature
Jordan River and was made clean. and the Arts and others inte
* <*l*futurework in the profe.
be an in-
d the Col-
ns will be
The Waters Of The Jordan
Exhibition, College of Architecture:
Examples of engraving, typography,
printing in black-and-white and
color, details in the manufactvring
of a book, and details in the design
and make-up of a magazine. Shown
~through the courtesy of The Lakeside
Press, R. R. Donnelley & Sons Com-
pany, Chicago. Ground floor cases,
Architectural Building. Open daily
9 to 5, through April 7. The public
is cordially invited.
The meeting will be addressed by
Dean J. B. Edmonson of the School
DeWLA V.1 .dA . Wnnf .h ULIV'l
Fascism is a grotesque philosophy of Education. The next talk in this
It is the mechanism of a mentality vocational series will be given by Miss
which has become maladjusted. Any- Marian Durell of the School of Nurs-
one who has lost his own soul feels ing on Tuesday, April 5.
that he must gain the whole world.
Little men hag-ridden by their n- Naval Flight Training: Dr. Jack-
hibitions strike out with cruelty and son, Medical Officer of Grosse Ile,
with violence to soothe the ache will be at the University Health Ser-
which lies within them. It is neither i vice on March 28th and 29th to give
far-fetched nor facetious to theorize physical examinations to students
that perhaps a paperhanger is the , interested in aviation cadet flight
very one who would be bidden by his training.
unconscious to paste the swastika
across the map of Europe. Sorority Presidents. The names and
Surely Hitler's anti-Semitism rises eligibility slips of the new athletic
from some inward uneasiness. A managers,.should be turned into Of-
series of symptoms have been trans- fice 15, Barbour Gymnasium by Fri-
lated into a career. Der Fuehrer is! day, April 1.
literally the sick man of tha RPi h
r University Lecture: Dr. Knut Lund-
mark, Director of the Observatory of
the University, Lund, Sweden, will
give an illustrated lecture with lan-
tern slides on "Distance Indicators
r andethe Scale of the External Uni-
verse" on Thursday, March 31, at 8
p.m. in Natural Science Auditorium
under the auspices of the Depart-
ment of Astronomy. The public is
University Lecture: Gunnar As-
plund, Professor of Architecture at
the Stockholm Institute of Technol-
ogy, will give an illustrated lecture,
with slides, on "Swedish Architecture
Since 1920; Its Problems and Trends"
on Friday, April 1, at 4:15 p.m. in
Natural Science Auditorium under
the auspices of the College of Archi-
tecture. The public is cordially in-
University Lecture: Professor Va-
clav Hlavaty of the Karl University,
Prague, will lecture on Friday, April
1, at 4:15 p.m., in Room 3011 Angell
Hall on the subject, "New algorithms
in differential geometry of projective
Chemistry Lecture, Dr. E. Rabino-
witch, of University College, London,
formerly of Gottingen, will present a
lecture on "Kinetics of SQme Photo-
chemical Reactions and the Photo-
chemistry of Chlorophyll," under the
auspices of the U. of M. Section of
the American Chemical Society, on
Friday, April 1, at 4:15 p.m., in Room
303 Chemistry Building.
University Lecture: Dr. Oskar Mor-
genstern, Professor of Economics, at
the University of Vienna, will lecture
on "Social Science in Europe" on
Monday, April 4, in Natural Science
Auditorium at 4:15 p.m., under the
auspices of the Department of Ec-
onomics. The public is cordially in-
University Lecture: Dr. Robert
Freiherr von Heine-Geldern, of the
University of Vienna, will give an il-
lustrated lecture on "The Pre-Budd-
histic Art of China and Indo-China
and its Influence in the Pacific," on
Tuesday, April 5, in Natural Science
Auditorium at 4:15 p.m., under the
auspices of the Division of Fine Arts.
The public is cordially invited.
University Broadcast, 3-3:30 p.m.
The Romance Club will meet today
at 4:10 in Room R.L. The program
will be the following.
Prof. Anthony Jobin: Romain Rol-
land, Individualiste et Voyant.
Prof. Charles Knudson: Recent
publications on the French language.
Chinese Students Club: A tea will
be given in honor of Dr. T. Z. Koo
today at 4:30 p.m. in Lane Hall. All
members are requested to be present.
The Chemical and Metallurgical
Engineering Seminar will meet today
at 4 o'clock in Room 3201 E. En-
gineering Bldg. Mr. Donald F. Bouch-
er will be the speaker on the subject
"The Absorption of Paint Driers by
Pi Tau Pi Sigma: Delta chapter will
meet today at 7:30 p.m., in Room 301
of the Eng. Bldg. Annex to hear Lt.-
Christian Science Organization:
8:15 p.m. League Chapel. Students,
alumni and faculty are invited to at-
tend the services.
Women's Fencing Club: Regular
fencing meeting at 4:15 today in
Barbour Gymnasium followed by im-
portant business meeting at 5:00 at
selected. All members strongly
Student Senate: The regular Tues-
day meeting of the Senate will be
held this week in the League, be-
ginning at 7:30 p.m.
The room for the meetina will
THE OLD CASE of the dog chasing his
own tail around is predominating in
present day naval policies more and more, but
with much deadlier consequences. And just as in
the case of Hawthorne's Ethan Brand who sought
the Unpardonable Sin in the breasts of others
only to locate it finally in himself, Washington,
London and Tokyo are pointing the finger of
accusation at each other as they prepare to take
themselves for a ride on the escalator clause.
Notes are now being drafted in Washington
and London in which the United States and
Great Britain will formally accuse Japan of
exceeding the 1936 naval treaty limits. It seems
that Japan has committed the sin of increasing
her navy without telling the world about it; it is
bad enough to increase your navy publicly, they
say, but it is not '.cricket" to do it privately.
London and Washington evidently sent out little
- pink cards every time a new ship is christened.
Spokesmen for the two "wronged" countries
are still waiting, however, before they give the
signal for the first ride on the endless escalator.
They are still holding off, they announce in
injured tones, on the possibility that Japan might
yet disclose her building program and show that
she is abiding by the treaty limits. The righteous
voices resound in spite of the fact that Congress
has just acted favorably on a new billion-dollar
building program while Parliament is toying with
Japan still remains silent. However, Foreign
Minister Koki Hirota did make a public- state-
ment. When asked by someone about the
ttt'Cl ~ ~ al lull 1u iue neicn .
And, as the case history stands, he
can never find peace through any4
sort of conquest. Alexander wept. t
Hitler should know that the goal1
which he is seeking lies buried some-
where in the secret springs of his ownt
mind. Not all his guns or troops or1
tanks will ever suffice to lead him to,
The Bible says that Naaman was
valorous and mighty, but he found
hlis personal salvation only when he
stood humbly at the door of Elisha.
And Hitler, too, must seek the voicel
of the prophet and wash away his:
hate and fears and prejudices in the
life-giving waters of the Jordan.
The Senate meeting tonight will be
held in the League, its third home.;
Having already visited the Union ind
Haven Hall, perhaps the Senators will
settle on a permanent roosting-place.
At least, its on the docket.
The official agenda contains three
motions for discussion this evening.
The first is under Irving Silverman's
name and asks that proxy votes be,
limited to definitely specified issues.
The proxy question has troubled the
Senate since its first meeting, and
proxies were permitted in the Rules
only by a narrow 16 to 14 vote. It,
remains to be seen whether the nec-
essary two-thirds amending vote can
be secured for the proposed change.
President Tuure Tenander, leader
of the liberal majority, has put down
two motions in his name. The first'
calls for approval of the Child Labor
amendment; the second, for opposi-
tion to the Vinson Naval Expansion
bill. These measures represent an ef-
First Mortgage Loans: The Univer-
sity has a limited amount of funds
to loan on modern well-located Ann
Arbor residential property. Interest
at current rates. Apply Investment
Office, Room 100, South Wing,
A cademic Notices
E.E. 7a, Building Illumination will
have its instruction in making sur-
veys of lighting according to the fol-
lowing schedule. All tests to be in
Room 445 West Engineering Build-
ing, at head of north stairway. All
sessions begin at 2 p.m. and may ex-
tend to 5 p.m.
Tuesday, March 29: Airey, Batch-
elder, Diddams, Frank, Gewalt, Lee,
Wednesday, March 30: Brelsford, 1
Harroun, Hart, Hammond, Kirkpat-
rick, Krumm, Goff Smith, Souter,
Friday, April 1: Bronson, Dery,
Harris, Kressbach, MacKenzie, Men-
delson, Steere, Wendell.
Saturday, April 2: Anderson, Blon,
Carnegie, Clark, Coogan, Dulebohn,
Eash, Gordon, MacLeod, Morhous,.
L. C. Smith.
Members of the class who have not
yet expressed preference for dates
will please report with the smaller I
sections of the class, if possible not
on Saturday, April 2.
H. H. Higbee
Chemistry 132 will not meet on
either Tuesday or Thursday of this
University Symphony Orchestra
Concert: The University Symphony
Orchestra, Thor Johnson, conductor,
with Joseph Brinkman, pianist, asf
soloist, will give a concert under the