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December 16, 1936 - Image 6

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Publication:
The Michigan Daily, 1936-12-16

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THE MICHIGAN DAILY WEDNESDAY. DEC. 16, 1936

.... ....... . .........

Stason Doubts

I I

Security Act's
Power In Court
Says Two Of Three Parts
Unconstitutional; But
Endorses Principles
The Federal Social Security Act
was termed unconstitutional in two
of its three main divisions yesterday
by Prof. E. Blythe Stason of the Law
School in an address before 150
members of the Lions and Kiwanis
clubs in the Union.
Professor Stason said that if the
U. S. Supreme Court follows the
same line of reasoning that it did
when it declared the railroad pen-
sion act unconstitutional, it will also
confirm the unconstitutionality of
the New Deal's "keystone" act.
He endorsed the underlying prin-
ciples of the act while declaring
its two main features, the sections
providing for unemployment insur-
ance and old age annuities "unques-
tionably unconstitutional." He said
that enactment and legal enforce-
ment ofusome constitutional law to
carry out the principles of the act
is inevitable.
Gives Three Reasons
Professor Stason gave three reasons
why the act failed to meet the re-
quirements of the Constitution. The
first, he said, is that the instrument
used for collecting funds on which
the old age annuities are to be car-
ried is a levy and not a tax. He
stated that this is the answer to the
supporters of the act who claim that
the Constitution gives the govern-
ment the power to "levy taxes for ...
the general welfare."
The second objection raised by Pro-
fessor Stason was that the privilege
-and duty of raising levies of this sort
lies expressly with the several states
themselves rather than with the fed-
eral government. This, he said, is
provided in the tenth amendment.
Cites Due Process Clause
Operation of the Social Security
law, the third legal objection, consti-
tutes deprivation of property without
due process of law, Professor Stason
said. It expresses itself in the exac-
tion of the three per cent levy on
employers for the benefit of em-
ployees.
"I can't see how it is possible for
the United States Supreme Court to
uphold this law," he said.
Professor Stason' stated that the
courts will be called upon to define,
by legal decisions, the meaning of
"wages," "employer" and ."employe."
he cited numerous borderline cases in
which the meaning of these terms
could not possibly be clear except by
judicial interpretation.
First Part Valid
Professor Stason said that the first
part of the act, which provides for
grants-in-aid to states for allevia-
tion of human misery, aid to crippled
children and other relief measures,
was "undoubtedly valid."
"This noble experiment has a rocky
road ahead of it," he said. "All of us
must try to comply with its measures.
Even if the present law is declared
unconstitutional, the hands of the
clck are moving forward inevitably
and we must adjust ourselves to leg-
islation of this sort."
Five Of Faculty
To Visit Capitol
For Conference
American Student Health
Association Plays Host
To National Conference

Five members of the University
faculty will attend the second Na-
tional Conference on College Hygiene
which will be held from Dec. 28 to
Dec. 31, at the Wardman Park Hotel,
Washington, D.C. The conference
will be under the sponsorship of the
American Student Health Associa-
tion, the President's Committee of
Fifty on College Hygiene and the Na-
tional Health Council.
Those who will attend the meeting
from Ann Arbor are: Dr. Margaret
Bell, one of the acting directors of
the Health Service; Dr. Theophile
Raphael, chairman of the mental hy-
giene committee; Dr. Nelson M.
Smith of the Health Service; Dr.
John Sundwall and Dr. Earl Klein-
chmidt, both of the Division of Hy-
gien~e and public health.
Under the supervision of Dr. Bell
an exhibit dealing with the Division
of Hygiene and Public Health, the
courses, teaching and publication of
health pamphlets has been made for
display at the conference.
The conference has been called to
bring information up to date relating
to the findings and recommendations
of the first conference held in 1931 at
Syracuse University, Syracuse, N.Y.
TO REMAIN OPEN
The post office station in Nickels
Arcade will remain open until 6 p.m.
Saturday to take care of the Christ-
mas rush, Mrs., Horatio J. Abbott,

Glass Bricks, Concrete Seen
B) McConkey In New Formula

Pliable Material Can Stand
Great Strain And Shock;
Process Is Expensive
By ROBERT MITCHELL
Increased variety in the uses and
importance of safety glass may be
created as the result of a new pli-
able glass which is now being de-
veloped, Prof. George McConkey, of
the College of Architecture, said yes-
terday.
"Safety glass," Professor McConkey
stated, "while a fairly recent inven-
tion, has by now become so definitely
established in many fields that it is
thought of as practically a separate
industry by itself. But its use is lim-
ited in some industries, such as build-
ing, because while non-breakable, it
is still relatively brittle and unable
to wtihstand weights from certain
positions. Now a new form of glass,
pliable glass, is just being developed
Age Insurance
Growing Item,
Haber Claims
Federal And State Grants
Support Present System
Of Direct Pensions
(Continued from Page 1)
ers themselves, in fact become one
of the reasons why employers main-
tain definite age limits in employ-
ment. Also large scale, high speed
industry, urban as contrasted to rural
methods of making a iving, have re-
duced the opportunity for profitable
activity of older workers."
"The social security act seeks pri-
marily to provide for this problem by
making it possible for all workers to
participate in what is, in effect, an
old age pension insurance program.
But since an insurance program at
best takes a long time to develop, the
act provides temporarily for straight
grant pensions for all aged persons.
Encourages State Action
"It accomplishes that, not by giv-
ing direct grants to individuals who
reach a certain age, but by encourag-
ing the states to do so. The fed-
eral government subsidizes each state
up to $15 a month for every worker
who receives the state's aid.
"Thus, in Michigan 30,500 aged
persons over 70 are receiving an aver-
age of $16.50 a month. If it were
not for the federal subsidy to Mich-
igan-a subsidy which doubles the
state's appropriation-only 15,000
persons could receive thisvaid, or the
same number could receive only $8.25
per month.
"Since the federal government,
however, will subsidize up to $15 per
month per person, it would be pos-
sible to grant each as much as $30
instead of the present $16.50. The
State's appropriation, therefore, is
the limiting factor.
41 States Now
Forty-one states are already par-
ticipating in these old age assistance
grants of the federal social security
program, Professor Haber asserted,
and 1,100,000 aged persons are re-
ceiving such benefits. In a short
time, he pointed out, it is estimated
all of the states will be participating
and when they take full advantage of
the act, Professor Haber said, which
makes possible at least $30 per month
to each person, the total annual cost
of this form of aid will be $1,000,000,-
000, borne equally by federal and
state governments.
"It should be emphasized," Profes-
sor Haber pointed out, "that the
state makes the decisions as to whe-
ther it wishes such pensions, and for
what amount. In Michigan, as in
other states, pensions are granted
on the basis of an investigation to
determine the individual's needs.

Liberalizing Results
"The Social Security Act already
has resulted in inducing some states
to adopt pension laws and in inducing
all states to liberalize their policies,
increasing monetary grants to all
aged workers. The Michigan law
probably will be revised to include
workers from 65 years of age, in-
stead of the present 70-year limit,
among its beneficiaries and the total
State appropriation increased to $4,-
500,000 a year, thus making possible
more adequate grants than the pres-
ent $18.50.
"The federal government's share
of the funds for this purpose come
from the general revenues of the
United States. No special assess-
ments are levied for old age assist-
ance grants or, as they are sometimes
called, old age pensions."

which may be able to fit the same
uses as safety glass and replace it be-
cause of its ability to meet building
demands.
To Be More Useful M
"'It will be no more useful forf
things such as windshields and regu-
lar automobile windows, but it may,
find its future importance in store
windows and glass bricks, which have
to support heavy construction loads."
Pliable glass, while much like
safety glass in its functions, differs1
from it in its manufacture. Safety
glass is laminated, consisting of a
sheet of cellulose material between
two sheets of regular glass. This
celluloid gives an adhesive quality to
the whole plate that makes it non-k
breakable, even though it may be
shattered. The process for its man-
ufacture was first discovered in 19041
by a French scientist who had been
keeping a bottle with a cellulose ni-1
trate solution inside. This evapo-
rated onto the sides of the bottle, and
when the bottle fell one day, the
cellulose kept it from breaking.
Is Cooled
Pliable glass, according to a story
authorized by glass manufacturers,
is made by lowering plate glass into
electric furnaces. When it is mol-
ten, it is removed and cooled by spe-
cial air blasts. This gives the outer
surfaces an exceedingly hard skin
and tightly compresses the interior
parts of the glass. If it is broken, it
does not form large, sharp pieces, but
small granules. It cannot be cut or
trimmed, and must be made in the
finished size.
"This glass," Professor McConkey
said, "is very resilient and can with-
stand shocks from a heavy iron ball
or can be bent into acute angular
shapes, always returning to its or-
iginal flat surface. Thus it can be
used for some safety purposes but
more important, it may have a wide
use in construction needs if its de-
velopment increases. For instance,
in store fronts it will find a good use,
because construction movements
above the windows often tend to dis-
tort them, and this must be reckoned
with in planning store fronts at pres-
ent. Pliable glass could withstand
this strain, and ultimately save in
insurance and damage costs. Glass
bricks are another place where it
may be developed. Here, too, it
would be called upon to undergo
strain in handling and in construc-
tion movements that would make it
important."
May Be Used As Concrete
Perhaps, Professor McConkey add-
ed, the use of pliable glass may in-
crease even farther, and some day it
may after much technical advance-
ment, find a field as a concrete. A
concrete with glass as a base could
resist moisture and overcome one of
the greatest present flaws in con-
crete.
Pliable glass, still being developed,
is as yet too expensive and too little-
organized to have much commercial
value at present. It has been worked
with quite a bit in Europe, where
great interest is being shown in it,
but it is also manufactured in the
United States, especially at Toledo,
where a building was recently erect-
ed with its walls made entirely of
glass brick
Occupation Bureau
Is( I do Place 1300
(Continued from Page 1)

Baird Carillon
To Broadcast
Bells Jan. 22
(Continued from Page 1)
tentatively, Dr. Henderson said, inI
Hill auditorium, probably featuring
the Glue Club and Varsity Band,
along with the music of the Carillon,
which, it is hoped, can be synchron-'
ized with sound apparatus in the Au-
ditorium. It is planned to have the
broadcast from 10 to 10:30 p.m.,
sponsored by an advertiser, who will
have one minute at the start and one
minute at the finish, he said.
Aside from the cost of sending no-
tification of the program to all Uni-
versity alumni, approximately $850,
no part of the great expense of the
broadcast will be borne by the Uni-
versity, Dr. Henderson emphasized.
The broadcast, according to Dr.'
Henderson, will necessitate running a
special transmission line to the high
power station of the National Broad-
casting Company in Chicago. This
line, he said, must be of type "A," dis-
tinctly different from the type "C"

Prof. Aiton'To Talk
To Dentat Students
Prof. Arthur Aiton of the history
department will speak before the stu-
dents of the dental school- at 4:15
p.m. today in the dental amphi-
theatre in the second of a series of 1
lectures outside the field of dentistryf
for dental students. His subject willt
be "Spain."
Prof. Russel Bunting of the School
of Dentistry said yesterday that these
lectures are being offered to dental
students to give them an understand-
ing of subjects outside the dental
field.
line used by the University Broad-
casting service.
The committee meeting today will
consist of faculty members, Detroit
advertising men and officials of the
National Broadcasting Company. It
will convene at noon in the Union.
Faculty members include Dr. Hen-
derson, Dr. Sink, Professor Moore,
Prof. Waldo M. Abbot, director of
the University Broadcasting Service;
T. Hawley Tapping, general secretary
of the Alumni Association; and John
C. Christensen, controller and assis-
tant secretary of the University.

Education School
To Sponsor Camp
Announcement was made yester-
day at the monthly meeting of the
faculty of the School of Education
that the school will sponsor during
the summer of 1937 a camp for chil-
dren with funds made available by
the, W. K. Kellogg Foundation of
Battle Creek.
At the same meeting it was re-

vealed by a show of hands that sever-
al members of the faculty would at-
tend the annual convention of the
Education Society to be held during
the last week of February in New
Orleans. Among those planning to
go, according to Dr. Calvin O. Davis,
secretary of the education school, are
Dean James B. Edmonson, Prof. Clif-
ford Woody, Prof. Arthur B. Moehl-
man, Prof. Stuart A. Courtis, Prof.
Harlan C. Koch, Prof. Raleigh
Schorling, Prof. George E. Myers and
Dr. Davis, all of the education school.

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Dec. 18

Leave the Michigan Union 12:30, Friday,

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MICHIGAN UNION

John R. Holmes

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crease of 30 over the preceding year.
Placements in the same period in-
creased from 743 to 927.
In 1936 the bureau received 1,558
calls from educational institutions,
as compared with 1,355 in the pre-
vious year, and 897 seniors and grad-
uates were placed in teachers posi-
tions during the year, an increase of
101.
Students and graduates will find
that the number of jobs available to
them has increased in number and
variety, Dr. Purdom announced.

Don t waste any -ime when it comes to saving. The
Daily ads offer you a "special" every day because
our advertisers are kept busy constantly digging up
new values.

11

JEWE LRY

Old Man Opportunity is a persistent fellow! And
when he starts breaking down the door, you can't
very well ignore him. And Opportunity is break-
ing down your door. If you doubt that, glance over
a few of the ads in the Daily.

I

Burr, Pc

1. ii

Begin the Life of '40
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TODAY - 231 ANGELL HALL - 3 to 5 p.m.
Vote the State Street Ticket

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